Panwang Festival of Yao Nationality
Panwang Festival is an important festival to worship ancestors Pangu, Pangeng and Panhu. People at home and abroad attach great importance to this national sacrifice ceremony. Launched by the Pan family of Changning, Fuchuan, Zhongshan, Babu, Gongcheng, Jinxiu, Lianzhou, Liannan, Lianshan and Ruyuan in Hengyang, Nanchong in Sichuan, Kaili in Guizhou, Haikou in Hainan, Xishuangbanna in Yunnan, Taipei in Taiwan, Zhengzhou in Henan, Jianghua and Jiangyong in Yongzhou, Hunan, it is now available. It is the most grand festival for Panwang Festival in China. Every year, on October 16 of the lunar calendar, worshippers, men, women and children wear their own national festival costumes and gather to sing and dance together to celebrate the Panwang Festival. The songs they sing are music and God songs mainly composed of Panwang Ge (hereinafter will be introduced); the dances they dance are inspired by a group of drums about 80 centimeters long, usually for two or four people. As for Panwang Festival, Panwang Song and long inspiration, they all have a long history.
On May 20, 2006, the Panwang Festival of the Yao nationality declared by Hezhou City of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Shaoguan City of Guangdong Province was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists with the approval of the State Council.
Ancient customs of celebrating Panwang Festival in Yao nationality areas are described in Ganbao's Sou Shen Ji in Jin Dynasty, Liu Yuxi's Barbarian Zi Song in Tang Dynasty, Zhou Qufei's Answer to the Outer Ridges in Song Dynasty and other classics. Each group dances in succession, which is called Tayao. "Tread" is the "King of Jumping Disk" (the wish of the King of Return Disk).
Yao Panwang Festival, also known as Panwang Huanyuan, is a grand festival for the people of Yao to commemorate their ancestor, Panwang. It has a history of more than 1700 years. In the ancient solemn ceremony of public offering to Panwang, Yao people, men, women and children, all dressed in their own national festival costumes, had a brilliant smile on their faces. They sacrificed Panwang ancestors by singing, offering wine, dancing and offering incense, and traced back the history.
Why do Yao people sacrifice Panwang and sing Panwang songs and dance long drums in October of the lunar calendar every year? According to the folk legend "The King of Tuning Pan on October 16" still circulating in Jianghua Yao area of Hunan Province, it is said that in the ancient times, Yao people sailed across the sea by boat, met with strong winds and waves, and the boat floated in the sea for seven to forty-nine years. Heaven can't touch the shore, so the ship will be destroyed and people will die soon. At this time, some people in the bow prayed to the ancestor Panwang to bless the children and grandchildren safe, make a big wish. After making a wish, the wind was calm and the boat came ashore soon, and the Yao people were saved. This day is October 16th of the lunar calendar, which coincides with the birthday of Panwang. So the Yao people who went ashore cut down trees and dug them into wooden buns and steamed the glutinous rice into bamboo buns. Later, we sang and danced to celebrate the birth of the Yao people and Panwang's birthday. Since then, the Yao people have called this escape "Panwang Festival". According to the legendary story "The Origin of Long Drum Encouragement" spread in the Yao nationality area of Ningyuan County, it is said that after the death of King Pan, the officials oppressed and forced the Yao people to seize the Yao mountain soil. Yao Shang complained that the Tie (shape paper) could not reach the Jinluan Temple (emperor). Later, the wise Yao people thought of a way to hide their endowments in the long drum. They traveled across the state to play the long drum and perform folk skills. In this way, the Yao people had no difficulty in getting to the capital, went to the Golden Ruan Hall, opened the long drum, took out the gift stickers, and then told the accusation. Later, when the Panwang Festival was over, the Yao people danced and encouraged, sang the Panwang Song, and passed it down from generation to generation.
In order to make God happy, when offering sacrifices to Panwang, the Yao people always sing and dance Panwang Song, an ancient national epic song created collectively and passed down from generation to generation. Panwang is Panhu, or Dragon Dog. That is to say, the Yao nationality is a dog-totem nation; Panwang Song vividly reflects the original belief that the Yao people worship Panhu (dragon dog) as the ancestor of their own nation (totem belief combined with ghost belief and ancestor belief). Panwang Song is accompanied by the sacrifice of Panwang (or "Huanpan Wang") from generation to generation. "Wish") the ancient songs and historical songs which are produced and developed continuously by ritual activities. At first, it may be just some simple sacrificial songs. Later, in the process of spreading and developing (including cultural exchanges with other nationalities), witches and folk artists from different times and regions constantly add some new contents, some of which are beyond the secular and folk customs of their own religious beliefs. Things such as Peng Zuge, Shi Chong Fu Gui, Liang Shanbo, Night Dusk, etc. As a result, Panwang Song (also known as Panwang Song) has become increasingly complex in content and space. Religious sacrifices are mixed with secular customs, which is very rare in the ancient epic songs of other nationalities.
Yao nationality is a multi-ethnic group. There is no national unified festival. The time of Panwang Festival is different among Yao nationalities. It is usually held in the leisure time from the autumn harvest to the Spring Festival. There are two kinds of festivals, regular and irregular. In August 1984, representatives of Yao nationalities from all over the country gathered in Nanning, Guangxi. They unanimously agreed to develop Panwang Festival into Panwang Festival on the basis of the sacrificial festival of "Mian" clan, and agreed that "Panwang Festival" should be the unified festival of Yao nationality, and that the festival should be held on October 16 (Panwang Birthday) of the lunar calendar every year. That's ok.
On October 16, 1985, representatives of the Yao nationality and folk artists from all over the country gathered in Nanning, Guangxi, to celebrate the first grand national festival in the history of the Yao nationality, Panwang Festival, in the form of a party.
In December 1988, Fei Xiaotong, Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, visited Nanling area and put forward the idea of establishing an economic development zone in Nanling Yao area. At that time, the development zone covered Changning in Hengyang, Jianghua and Jiangyong in Hunan, Fuchuan, Gongcheng and Jinxiu in Guangxi, Lianshan and Liannan in Guangdong and other seven counties. It was listed in Nanling area, adding Lianzhou and Ruyuan in Guangdong, Hexian and Zhongshan in Guangxi.
In 1990, sponsored by the Guangxi Yao Society and hosted by Hexian (now Babu District) a joint meeting of Yao representatives in Nanling District, it was proposed that counties and cities take turns to sit in villages and hold Panwang Festival every two years. In November 1992, the first Panwang Festival of Nanling Yao Nationality was held by Hexian (now Babu District) in Ten Counties of Hunan, Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces.
In April 2002, at the 6th Nanling Yao Panwang Festival Preparatory Meeting held in Jiangyong County, Hunan Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Province, Ten Counties and Cities, the 7th Nanling Yao Panwang Festival was hosted by Fuchuan Yao Autonomous County.
In November 2004, the 7th Panwang Festival of Nanling Yao Nationality was held in Fuchuan Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi Province, Hunan, Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces, 10 counties (cities) and renamed "Nanling Yao Nationality Panwang Festival" as "China Nanling Yao Nationality Panwang Festival". At the closing ceremony, Lianzhou took over the meeting period and the symbols and formally became the host of the 8th Panwang Festival of Yao Nationality in Nanling, China, in 2006.
On November 11, 2011, representatives of some Yao compatriots from seven Yao townships in five counties and cities of Hengyang, Yongzhou and Chenzhou gathered in Tashan Yao townships of Changning City to celebrate Panwang Festival.
On November 18, 2013, Yao compatriots from seven Yao townships in Hengyang, Yongzhou and Chenzhou cities gathered in Ningyuan barren pond Yao townships to commemorate Yao ancestors with Yao songs and dance ceremonies, praying for smooth weather and good luck in five valleys.
From the main content of Panwang Ge, it generally includes the following six aspects:
For example, "Panwang Song" under the concentration of "Ancient Heaven and Earth", "Flood inundated heaven", "Thunder landing", "Hulu Song", "King of Gramings sent to the world" and other songs (chapters) are.
On Ancient Songs
In the episode of Panwang Song, the contents of "Panwang Birth", "Panwang Xianzhi", "Panwang Travel Song", "12-surname Yao People Travel to the World", "Crossing Mountain Roots", "Six-sided Ci", "Taoyuan Dong Song", "Qianjiatong Song" and "Lianzhou Song" all belong to this aspect.
Among them, it not only reflects the hunting life of Yao people, such as "setting off hounds" and "erecting horizontal guns", but also shows farming life, such as "Heavenly Drought" and "Growing Bamboo and Grass". It also describes handicraft labor, such as "Lu Ban Making Cars" and "Long Drum Out of the World Song" and so on.
Such as "Sunrise Morning", "Sunrise Mid", "Sunset Inclination", "Song Section", "Langlao", "Deep Night", "Big and Small Stars", "Moon Bright", "Darkness of Heaven and Earth", "Gong Meet", "Wanduanqu", "Yaliuqu", "Lotus Leaf Cup", "Night Dusk", "Liang Shanbo" and so on. The contents (or passages) and components of the love songs in Panwang Song are heavier. Although Panwang Ge is a sacrificial song, the worship of gods and reproduction in ancient times were complementary to each other for the continuation and prosperity of clans (tribes). Therefore, it is completely understandable.
The gods worshipped by the Yao nationality are only one aspect
Such as Pangu King, Pan King, Lei King, Rain King, Bamboo King, Tang King, Liu King, Warm King, Luban, Li Guang, Kitchen King and Weng Yejiaxian, etc. These gods are not only unique to Yao nationality, but also shared by Han and Yao nationalities. They strongly show that Yao, Han and other nationalities in the long history of development are the same origin and common ancestor, but also live in harmony and exchange.
Such as "Seeing Big Monsters" and "What Song" are all funny songs and riddles. Singing such amusing songs between intense and arduous work or the lingering love between men and women can adjust life and increase fun.
From the above summary, we can see that the Panwang Song inherited by Yao people for thousands of years has a wide range of contents, and its social functions are multifaceted: it is not only a solemn ritual song of national sacrifice, but also an epic song of Yao people's long history (mostly fragments); it is not only a labor song produced by eulogizing, but also a love song expressing the pleasure of men and women. It's funny funny songs and game songs. It can be said that Yao's songs are a collection or a collection of Yao's national knowledge, which fully reflects the prominent characteristics of its ancient epic songs. Naturally, there is no need to say that some of the dross of feudal superstition is also mixed in. Understanding these will be of some help to the Yao people in Hengyang, southern Hunan and southwestern Hunan when they have the opportunity to participate in or contact with Panwang Festival.
Yao Panwang Festival, also known as the King of Panwang's Wish and the King of Tiaopan, is a grand festival for the people of Yao to sacrifice their ancestor Panwang (Panhu). On October 16 of the lunar calendar, Yao people gather together to sing and dance in memory of Panwang, and gradually develop into Panwang Festival. Today's Panwang Festival has gradually developed into a gathering to celebrate the harvest. Young men and women take this opportunity to sing about love and find a good spouse.
There are many legends about Panwang Festival among Yao people. There are mainly three kinds:
Legend has it that in ancient times, the Yao people sailed across the sea by boat and met with strong winds and waves. After 49 days of drifting in the sea, they could not reach the shore. They watched the ship destroy and die. At this time, some people in the bow prayed to the ancestor Panwang to bless peace. After the vow, the wind was calm and the boat landed soon. The Yao people were saved. This day is October 16th of the lunar calendar, which coincides with the birthday of Panwang. Since then, the Yao people have designated this day as "Panwang Festival". All the Yao people, men, women and children, wear festival costumes and gather together to sing King's song and dance long inspiration to celebrate the rebirth of the Yao people and the birthday of Panwang. For thousands of years, this activity has been handed down from generation to generation by the Yao people, praying for peace, good weather and good harvest in the coming year.
Pan Hu said
In ancient times, when Gao Wang came to invade, Ping Wang appeared on the list to recruit virtuous people. Whoever could cut off the head of Gao Wang to offer it, he married the princess to him. This was heard by Panhu, the Dragon dog. Panhu took off the gold list and crossed the sea to Gao Wang. Panhu pretended to be polite and was favored by Gao Wang. One day, Panhu took advantage of Gao Wang's drunkenness, bit off Gao Wang's head and offered it to Ping Wang. He made a great contribution and married the three princesses. Later, Panhu wanted to become a man, so she asked the princess to put it in a steamer and steam it for seven days and seven nights, and the princess did so. Six days and six nights after steaming, the princess worried about steaming her husband. She secretly uncovered the lid and saw that the dish had turned into a human being. Because it was less than seven days and seven nights, there were still many hairs on her head and legs that did not fall off. Later, she wrapped her head and legs in cloth straps. After Panhu became a man, King Ping sent him to Huiji Mountain to be king, known as King Panhu.
After the marriage of Panwang and the three princesses, they gave birth to six men and six women, each of whom was given a surname by the king of Ping, which became the earliest twelve surnames of the Yao people. Although Panhu was king, he still lived a frugal life, teaching his children to hunt and work hard. Once, Panwang and his six sons went hunting in the mountains and chased a wounded goat. Unfortunately, they were injured by the horn of the goat. They fell down the cliff and died. Their bodies were hanging on a tree. Their sons and daughters cut down the tree to make drums and peeled off the skin of the goat to make long drums. They carried long drums, rapped and cried and sang in mourning for Pan Wang. Up to now, Yao compatriots still keep the habit of not eating dog meat, and offering sacrifices to the King of Panwang is also an important part of Panwang Festival.
In the ancient times when the heavens and the earth were flooded and desolate, there were two Baoshan mountains of the same height in the mountains, one mile apart, confronting each other. The one on the left is called Brossie Hill, which looks like a mighty man; the one on the right looks like a young woman with a skirt, named Mt. Milodor. Every year, the two mountains move one foot closer to each other. After 1995, they are close to 995 feet, and then close to 5 feet. The two mountains will be connected. One day, on October 16 of the lunar calendar, there was a sudden thunderstorm in the sky. The two mountains split two seams at the same time. Then, a tall man came out of the Brossie Mountains and a strong woman came out of the Milotta Mountains. The day was the birthday of a man and a woman. Later they became a happy couple. The man's name was Brossie. The woman's name was Milodor. They were the first parents of diligence and wisdom to create the world. After they created the world, they let their three daughters go out to make a living. The eldest daughter carried the plough and raked the plain to plough and rake the fields, becoming the Han nationality; the second daughter took a load of books to read and became the Zhuang nationality; the third daughter took a bucket of valleys and a brass gong given to her by Milotta and went to the mountains to open up wasteland for cultivation. From then on, the three daughters lived happily in the mountains and became the Yao nationality. Therefore, the Yao people have lived in high mountains and deep plains for generations, and cultivated wasteland. Copper gongs have become the heirloom of the Yao people.
As Milotta grew older and older, one day she called her three daughters back together and said to them, "October 16 is my birthday, and then you will come and give me"food supplement". She also told her three daughters in particular, "You don't have any rich gifts. You only need to brew a vat of rice wine and bring it to everyone to enjoy. On October 15, you bring a gong to the scene ahead of time. Since then, the Yao people have Panwang Festival, which begins on October 15 and ends on October 17.
Panwang Festival can be held in one household, in combination with other households or in groups of people of the same clan. But no matter what form it is held, it is necessary to kill animals and offer feasts for relatives and friends. Festivals are usually three days and two nights, and there are seven days and seven nights.
During the festival, the Yao people kill chickens and ducks. Men, women and children put on festival dresses and gather together.
Firstly, we offer sacrifices to King Pan, sing songs of King Pan, dance yellow clay drum and long drum, remember ancestors'merits and praise ancestors' brave spirit of struggle. Secondly, we should celebrate the harvest, reward Panwang and enjoy ourselves. At the same time, young men and women carry out the activities of song-to-song, seize the opportunity to choose the right person. In some places, flower sticks, fireworks and opera troupes are required to perform.
The Panwang Festival ceremony is held by four princesses of the regular division, who perform their respective duties. They are also the divisions of vocators, priests, appreciators and Wugu divisions, each with an assistant of 8 people. In addition, there are four singers, six boys and girls, a long drum artist and the Suona band participating in the Panwang Festival. Its inheritance mode is mainly inheritance from teachers and family.
Its ceremony is mainly divided into two parts. The first part is "inviting the saints, ranking, polishing, recruiting, vowing and thanking the saints". The Suona band accompanied the whole ceremony. The master danced Panwang Dance ("Bronze Bell Dance", "Army Collection Dance", "Pavilion Dance", "Sacrifice Dance", "Tortoise Catching Dance"), etc.). The second part is to invite the ancestors and gods of the Yao people to come.“ "Liuyue". The Yao language of Liuyue means play. This is the main part of Panwang Festival. We respectfully invite all ancestor gods of the Yao nationality to participate in various literary and artistic entertainment activities of Panwang Festival and sing the long historical poem Panwang Song, which expresses Yao mythology, history, politics, economy, culture, art and social life. Floating rituals usually take place one day and one night.
Panwang Festival has a fixed procedure, the first is to worship Panwang. During the festival, altars should be set up to hang the gods. The largest one in the center is the image of Panwang, and the left and right are the gods of Zhenwu, Gongcao, Tiangong and Dimu. The sacrifice began with three firearms and then firecrackers. In the sound of firecrackers, Laozhai people always worship pigs, glutinous rice, chicken, wine and other sacrifices in front of the gods. People face the gods, bow their heads and pray silently to express their admiration and remembrance.
After the sacrifice, the people sang and danced the King's song and dance. There are records in Yao Shu of Panwang Ge, which mainly narrate Panwang's life story with poems and seven-character sentence pattern. The poems are refined and the melody is elegant and rich. "Panwang Dance" is accompanied by drums and gongs. Its steps jump up, squat down, turn left and right. It is vigorous and powerful. It reproduces the simulated pictures of Yao ancestors'farming, hunting, marching and killing enemies, and sometimes accompanied by men and women.
The singing and dancing activities of Panwang Festival are mainly composed of King's song and long drum dance. Panwang Ge is an epic poem formed in the auditorium and a well-known collection of Yao poetry. The transcripts of Panwang Ge include 24, 32 and 36 routes, each of which has more than 3,000 lines, with a total of 10,000 lines. The transcripts cover entrepreneurship, migration, farming, hunting, love and marriage. It takes seven days and seven nights to sing a Panwang song. At that time, 1-3 pairs of unmarried young men and women dressed in costume will sing "Panwang Song" under the guidance of their teachers or singers. Teacher's assistant dances long inspiration according to the song, performing Panwang's pioneering story.
Its dances can be divided into "Panwang Dance", "Bing Jiang Dance", "Dao Dance" and "Sanyuan Dance", among which "Panwang Dance" is the most distinctive. With the sound of long drums, dancers sometimes tumble, sometimes rotate, sometimes jump. Most dance movements imitate labor, such as opening up wasteland, planting, afforestation, logging, hunting, etc. The movements are rough and graceful, and the rhythm is complex and changeable. The atmosphere of the whole scene was warm, giving people a rough and unrestrained feeling like a mountain. During the disc king dance, the statue of the disc king and banners such as "Guotai Min'an" and "Wandai Xinglong" were hung around the dance floor.
Panwang Dance, also known as Panwang Dance, usually dances on Panwang Festival. Sometimes, when a man and a woman get married, they also dance the disc King dance on auspicious days. Choosing the auspicious day to dance the disc King dance after marriage is to ask the disc king to bless the couple never to separate and grow old together. After marriage, the couple danced Panwang Dance, which was led by the newly married couple, standing in a circle with young men and women. The women took cymbals and the men took envelopes, facing the center of the circle, bent and stretched, and jumped back and forth. Every step, cymbals and hexagrams sound. The formation began to rotate counter-clockwise after a bounce towards the center of the circle. After another dance, the couple knelt down to worship their father-in-law, and the dance was over.
In addition to the King of Sacrifice, the King of Record and the King of Jumping Disk, some places also dance flower sticks, set off fireworks and sing love songs.
Panwang Festival, as a popular festival with a long history and wide distribution, is a great achievement of Yao traditional culture. It is a humanistic grand ceremony to strengthen national centripetal force and maintain national unity.
The Yao people worship Pan Wang or Pan Gu Wang as their ancestor. Panwang Festival originated from the sacrifice of ancestors. After long-term development and changes, Panwang Festival has evolved into a folk festival featuring Yizu, entertaining gods and entertaining people. Nowadays, Panwang Festival has changed and innovated in its form and content: on the one hand, in the past, the cumbersome religious ceremonies of Panwang Festival have been gradually reformed, and the waste has been restrained; on the other hand, the songs and dances that express the essence of Yao culture in Panwang Festival, such as praising the creation of its ancestors, migrating, cultivating mountains and hunting. Panwang Song and Changgu Encouragement, which represent the production and life of Panwang Song, have been inherited, developed and improved. Today's Panwang Festival not only develops into a gathering to celebrate the harvest and a chance for young men and women to find a good spouse, but also organizes material exchanges, commodity exhibitions and various sports and cultural performances, with unprecedented spectators gathering.
The State attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, the folklore was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.