Naton Festival of the Turkish Nationality
Naton is a temple fair where the Tu people in Sanchuan area of Minhe County, Qinghai Province perform Nuo Dance (the first dance) and Nuo Opera (the mask dance) in order to dispel diseases and calamities, dispel evil spirits, pray for blessings and reward gods for wishes.
Every year from July 12 to September 15 of the lunar calendar, the celebration ceremonies of Erlang God and other gods in Sanchuan and its surrounding areas, with the Turks as the main body and a small number of Tibetans and Han people as the objects of worship, are called "Naton" Festival by the Turks and "July Meeting" by the Tibetans and Han people. During the festival ceremonies, the Turkish people perform such folds as "Hand Dance", "Crop Qi", "Five Generals", "Three Generals", "Guanwang", "Five Officials" and "Killing Tiger General". The Tibetans and Han people sacrifice to the gods to realize the communication between the common customs and the sacred and achieve the purpose of rewarding the gods and praying for blessings. The "Naton" Festival has formed the organizational form of "one temple, one meeting" or "two temples, one meeting" and the rotation system of water drainage. The "Naton" rhythm adjusts the rural people's life rhythm and maintains the local social order.
Distribution of Tu Nationality
Tu nationality is one of the minorities in Northwest China. In the fourth national census of 1990, the Turkish population was 192,568. They live in Qinghai, Gansu, Yunnan and Guizhou. Huzhu Tujia Autonomous County in Qinghai Province is the largest Tujia inhabited area. Mainly distributed in Jiading, 50, Dongshan, Donggou, Danma, Hongyazigou, Songduo, Chengguan, Taizi, Wufeng, Donghe and other townships. The Tu people in Minhe County of Qinghai Province are mainly distributed in Zhongchuan, Guanting, Xiakou, Qianhe, Gangou, Xingnai, Chuankou, Manping and other towns, with Zhongchuan and Xiakou being the most common. The Tu nationality in Datong County, Qinghai Province, mainly distributes in Xunrang, Treasury, Duolin, Xishan, Qinglin, Chengguan, Qingshan, Xigou and Dongxia. County is located in the north of Huangshui and south of Qilian Mountain. The Tu nationality in Tianzhu County, Gansu Province, mainly distributes in Tiantian, Zhucha, Ancient City, Shimen and other townships. The Tu people in Jishishan are distributed in Dahejia and other places, while the Tu people in Zhuoni are mainly distributed in Kangdo area. The Tu nationality in Tongren County, Qinghai Province, is distributed in the middle reaches of Longwu River in the villages of Duhu, Wutun, Guomari, Gasa (Sha) day, Tuo (Tuo) Jia and so on. The Tu nationality in Ledu County, Qinghai Province, mainly distributes in the Dalaigong area north of Huangshui. The Tu people in Menyuan County are mainly distributed in Ketu area on the North Bank of Datong River in the eastern part of the county boundary.
In addition to the above areas, Yunnan Province and Guizhou Province each have more than 2,000 Tu people; in Qinghai Province, Ulan, Guide, Xining, Ping'an, Huangzhong and Huangyuan; in Gansu Province, Linxia, Yongjing, Sunan, Wuwei, Yongdeng and other counties and cities scattered a small number of Tu people.
Huzhu Tu Autonomous County of Qinghai Province is located in the northeastern part of Qinghai Province, on the North Bank of Huangshui, south foot of Shandong Qilian, with mountains and rivers alternating in the territory. The terrain is high in the north and low in the south. There are high mountain areas with an altitude of 4242 meters, and high mountain areas with an altitude of 2200-2500 meters. In the Tu nationality area of Minhe County, Qinghai Province, on the North Bank of the Yellow River and south of Minhe County, the terrain is high in the north and low in the south, with an elevation of 1720-1200 meters. It is mainly divided into three parts: Shangchuan, Zhongchuan and Xichuan, which are collectively called Sanchuan area. The north of Sanchuan is mostly a shallow mountainous area with rolling hills and ravines, while the area along rivers and rivers has flat land, arable land and mild climate. The Tu nationality area of Datong County, Qinghai Province, is located in the north of Huangshui and the south of Qilian Mountains. It is surrounded by Chongshan Mountains with dense rivers.
The Naton Festival is the most important cultural and entertainment event for the Turkish people. It is also a good time for them to visit relatives and friends, exchange production and life experiences, learn and disseminate new ideas and knowledge. For young men and women who are beginning to love, Nathan has become a godsend for them to find intimate friends.
The annual Naton is a group activity with various village communities as the main body. It can be held separately by one village and jointly by two villages until the fifteenth day of September of the lunar calendar, from east to west, and finally back to the central area. The most common thing is that the two villages are united. One village acts as the "master", while the other village serves as a guest. The two villages are lined up with men, carrying colorful flags, beating gongs and drums, and shouting "Great Happy!" Meeting on the wheat field outside the main village is the most enthusiastic and exciting moment: dozens of big drums are rolling loudly, accompanied by a steady and powerful drum sound, the masters flash and jump, against the backdrop of the rugged shout, showing a strong and beautiful posture. As soon as the team arrived at the barley yard, it opened the curtain for Naton. Hand dancing started first, a large dance with forty or fifty people. The elders and children are arranged in order. The elders in long gowns and fans are at the front of the dance. They are often the organizers of Naton and the heirs of Naton's dance. Despite the fact that they are over the age of flower armor, silver beard hung their chest, they can dance, but they are still so calm and strong. Young people with colorful flags and wicker children followed in turn, waving their bodies, moving left and right, and dancing around the field. Dance movements are not too complicated, but the neat dance steps, harmonic jumps, accompanied by rhythmic drums and gongs, appear very beautiful. At the same time, the host kept toasting the participants with the sea bowl to help them enjoy the dance. People were intoxicated with the dance, and the high tide of festivity and joy surpassed the wave. Naturally, the lively Naton is also a good time to visit relatives and friends. Early in the morning you can see men, women, old and young, dressed up in a new way, horses and chariots marching on the country road.
On the wheat fields outside the villages, colorful flags are displayed, gongs and drums are loud, and people are full of voices, presenting a happy scene after a bumper harvest.
Legend of Origin
There are many magical legends about the origin of Naton's Day. Legend has it that once there was a highly skilled Turkish carpenter, the emperor also called him to build the palace. Three years later, a magnificent palace was built with unprecedented magnificence. But the evil emperor ordered the carpenter to be killed in order to enjoy his success alone. Carpenters fled to their homes overnight to organize rebellions by villagers who had already been ill-treated by the Royal family. The emperor sent his army to suppress it. When the witty carpenter had a good idea, he immediately let the villagers beat gongs and drums, carried the prepared flag and waved dyed weapons toward the village temple. The emperor's army was puzzled, and the villagers told him, "We are celebrating this year's harvest, and we are jumping to Nathan to thank God for his gift." So the army withdrew. Since then, to commemorate the witty carpenter, the annual Naton has been handed down, and gradually solemn, as a grand festival to celebrate the harvest.
The Tu Naton Festival has a long history and has a long history. All along, there are living people participating in it. As a traditional folk cultural phenomenon, it is a living form and original ecology. It is a bright pearl in the treasure house of Chinese traditional culture.
Nalton Festival has a distinct feature. It is a folk activity of Nuo people. It connects villages with folk beliefs. It has a long history. Each activity lasts for a long time and takes part in a wide range of activities. Naton Festival has strict organization and procedures, its activities are closely combined with rural management and production timing, and it has obvious social adjustment function. During the festival, the activities are colorful and rich in national and local characteristics. Especially Nuo Opera and Nuo Dance, which preserves the Shaman culture of the northern ethnic group, absorbs the worship of Erlang God and Guan Gong and other Han cultures, not only expresses the cultural individuality of the Tus, but also reflects the national harmony phenomenon of multicultural symbiosis, mutual influence and blending. It has rich cultural and artistic connotations, such as music, dance, eulogy, costume and etiquette. Rites and so on are rich in characteristics.
Naton is the most solemn and enthusiastic Festival and cultural recreational activities of the Turkish people in the people and regions. It is also a good time for people to visit relatives and friends, discuss their children's marriage, mediate disputes, exchange production and life experiences, learn and disseminate new ideas and knowledge. For young men and women who are in the early stages of love, Nathan is a good opportunity for them to find intimate friends.
Nadun Festival is also a "living document" for people to understand the history of the Tu nationality. It vividly describes the development process of the history of the Tu nationality, and shows its historical process from nomadic life to agricultural production. It is of great significance to the study of the history, religion, culture and art of the Tu nationality, production and life, Folklore and customs of the Tu nationality. The Nuo Opera art of Min and Nadun in Sanchuan truly retains the specific form of Tu people's ancient life, and reproduces the Tu people's life situation in its original form. It is a living form of culture. This material plays an important role in the study of Nuo culture. As a unique local culture in Qinghai, Naton Festival has very high national and folk cultural characteristics, and also reflects the relationship between Tu culture and Chinese culture.
The State attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, the folklore was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.