Music of Lantian Puhua Water Club
Lantian Puhua Water Concert Music is a kind of folk blowing music which has been circulated in Puhua Town of Lantian County, Shaanxi Province for more than 1000 years and is specially used for Buddhist, charitable and sacrificial purposes. Water concert music originated from Sui Dynasty and flourished in Tang Dynasty. It is a kind of folk music with strong Tang Dynasty style, which was deduced after the court music of Tang Dynasty was spread to the folk and integrated with folk music. Historically, they played for Buddhist, charitable and sacrificial purposes. According to the content and form of performance, it can be divided into traveling music (in-progress performance) and sitting music (indoor chanting performance). Its music melody is euphemistic, elegant, delicate and pleasant.
On May 20, 2006, the Lantian Puhua Water Concert Music was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
Lantian County, located at the north foot of Qinling Mountains in the southeastern part of Guanzhong Plain, is the gateway to Jingchu Bashu in Nantong, Ancient Chang'an. This is a village in the north of Puhua Town, which is located in the shallow mountain area of Hengling. The villagers in the whole family range have the traditional custom of doing Buddhist and charitable deeds.
"Land and Water Congress" is commonly known as "Water Club". It is an ancient form of people taking water together. It is a superstitious sacrificial activity when people prayed for rain in the past drought. People call it "fetching water" or "praying for rain". This kind of percussion accompanied by water intake activities in past dynasties is called "water concert music". Because it is convenient for long-distance walking, also known as "Happy Music", water concert music is delicate and pleasant, people also call it "fine music". According to music history, Nansong Guanyuan Nai Deweng's "Capital Jisheng" cloud: fine music... It is composed of pipes and pipes (qin), piano and square sounds. In the tremendous water intake activities, water concert music plays a very important role, just as people often say, "water will not be happy, horse horn can not drive".
According to Yuefu Miscellaneous Records written by Duan An Festival in Tang Dynasty, Zhenyuan workshop of Tang Dynasty (785-805 A.D.) encountered a severe drought in Guanzhong-Dai period. Tang Dezong ordered a generation of people in Chang'an to pray for rain. At that time, both East and West cities organized teams to pray for rain and held music competitions. The winners were also rewarded by the Emperor. "Since then, the music of praying for rain competition has formed a custom in Guanzhong area. This custom has been spreading among the people. According to the veteran musician of Lantian Tianjiacun Music Club, Tianjiacun Music Club used to compete with several music clubs in Xi'an besides fetching water from Taizi Mountain in Zhouzhi County in drought every year. It seems that this custom has spread along the foothills of Zhongnan Mountain. Chang'an, Lantian, Zhou Zhi and other music clubs all have similar activities of Chao Miao Music Competition.
On the wall of Lantian Shuilu'an Hall, a famous cultural relic in Shaanxi Province, there are more than 3,700 clay sculptures of 500 Arhats crossing the sea. The instrumental music and arrangement of the rare birds and beasts floating in the torrential ocean are basically the same as that of Shuilui instrumental music and arrangement.
According to Lantian County Chronicle, Shuilu Temple was built in 581-591 AD during the Kaihuang period of Emperor Wendi of Sui Dynasty. In Tang and Ming dynasties, the temple was renovated. The sites of Qiushumiao Water Club Music Club and Jialing Music Club were only three or four miles away from Shuilu Temple and only one river away. According to the survey, in the past, the two music clubs used to play music chants in Sanguan Temple and Shuilu Temple besides fetching water. Their chants were the same as those of Shuilu Temple and Shangnong Shengnan.
According to Lantian's County Chronicle, "praying for water and drought" has been handed down in ancient times, but unfortunately there is no record of the age.
Based on the above data, it is inferred that the Lantian concert music originated from the land and Water Congress activities. It is probably a popular music that spread among the people in Sui and Tang Dynasties. It absorbs and integrates religious music and other music factors, belongs to a kind of temple fair music, is a typical water music.
There are Qingjiang Song, Xiaoqu, Sanzi, Baban, Gong Diao and Lao Nailing Tank.
Lantian Water Concert music shows high historical value and academic research value from the aspects of band instrument composition, music repertoire, notation, etc. Rescuing and inheriting this unique folk music form is of great value for enriching the cultural life of the masses, building a harmonious society and promoting social development.
After being seriously damaged in the 1960s and 1970s, Lantian Puhua Water Concert Music has been in a state of endangerment for many years. There are few music scores left, and a large number of musical instruments have been lost and damaged. The old artists have died one after another. It is urgent to rescue the inheritance work.
In 2004, the county government allocated 20,000 yuan, the county cultural and Sports Bureau raised 100,000 yuan from the society, and the Puhua town government raised 50,000 yuan for census, protection of Puhua water concert music, purchase of band clothing, addition of some musical instruments, etc. The Puhua water concert music club of the whole family Ling and Catalpa Temple was re-established. The county government plans to allocate 30,000 yuan per year for three consecutive years from 2005, which will be increased appropriately according to the financial growth, to rescue and protect the music of Puhua Water Club.
(1) In May and July 2004, the county government held two special meetings to study and discuss the implementation plan of the county cultural and Sports Bureau on census, rescue and protection of the Puhua Water Concert Music. In the name of the government, Puhua Water Concert Music was distributed to all townships and related departments and units in the county. It was clearly pointed out that Puhua Water Concert Music was the key task of the protection of Lantian folk traditional culture, and all efforts were required to rescue it. Rescue, protect and carry forward.
(2) In January 2005, when the county government, the county cultural and Sports Bureau and the Puhua town government formulated the main points of annual work, the protection of Puhua water concert music was regarded as one of the main tasks of the year.
(3) In March and August 2005, under the leadership of Qian Wenxuan, Deputy Secretary of the County Committee, Zhang Yanwen, Standing Committee of the County Committee and Standing Deputy County Governor, Yang Xiaohu, Standing Committee of the County Committee and Minister of Propaganda, Wei Guiye, Zhao Xia, Vice-County Governor, several special meetings were held to listen to the progress of rescue and protection of the Puhua Water Concert music by the County Bureau of Culture and Sports and Puhua Town Government, and to coordinate funds for rescue and protection. Conditions have been created.
(1) Establish a leading group of Puhua Water Concert Music Protection with expert guidance, headed by the director of the County Bureau of Culture and Sports, deputy director in charge and deputy head of Puhua Town.
(2) Establish a Puhua Water Concert Music Census Task Force (now established and working) with the deputy director in charge of the County Bureau of Culture and Sports as the group leader, the deputy director of Puhua Town as the group leader, and the director of the County Cultural Museum as the Deputy Group leader.
(3) Establish a Puhua Water Concert Music Training and Counseling Group with the Deputy Director of the County Bureau of Culture and Sports as the group leader, the Deputy Town Head of Puhua Town and the Director of the County Cultural Museum as the Deputy Group leader, the Director of Social Science and Culture Section of the Bureau of Culture and Sports, the Music Cadre of the Cultural Museum, the Cadre of Folk Art, the Station Head of Puhua Town, the Cultural Cadre, the Water Concert Society of Quanling Village and the Head of the Water Concert Society of Pushumiao Village as Make every effort to cultivate young enthusiasts.
(4) Incorporate the rescue and protection of Puhua Water Concert music into the annual work assessment of relevant cadres in bureaus, towns and villages, clarify their responsibilities and carry out accountability investigation.
(5) On the basis of vigorous publicity and popularization, we should develop the Puhua Water Concert Music and Culture Industry Project, invite investment and make the industry bigger and stronger.
(6) The governments of Lantian County and Puhua Town raise 30-50 thousand yuan each year for rescue and protection.
In order to protect the music of Puhua Water Club, a five-year protection plan is formulated. The plan is organized and implemented by the Party Committee and the government of Puhua Town. The Leading Group of the intangible cultural protection of Lantian County and the County Cultural and Sports Bureau are responsible for the management and supervision. The Leading Group of the intangible cultural heritage protection of Xi'an City and the Municipal Cultural Bureau are responsible for inspection and supervision.
The main points of the protection plan are as follows:
(1) Static protection:
1. To carry out further comprehensive, thorough and meticulous census work, thoroughly understand the historical evolution of the occurrence and development of Puhua Water Concert music, as well as the whole situation of music classes, musicians, musical instruments and the value of music transmission and protection.
2. To classify, sort out and archive the relevant data obtained from the census and keep them properly.
3. Under the guidance of relevant experts, we should carry out theoretical research, grasp the basic theory of Puhua Water Concert music and study various music systems, and compile and publish the research results.
(2) Dynamic protection:
1. Establishment of two kinds of wind and beating music, two water Club cultural and ecological protection villages, and clear protection policies for more than 60 musicians of the two music clubs, and formulation of relevant systems.
2. Develop Puhua Water Concert Music, and gradually establish a Puhua Water Concert Music and Art Troupe with 100 members each in the Ling Music Club and Qishu Temple Music Club.
3. Develop Universal Music Teaching and training in Puhua Town, Fujialing Village and Qishumiao Village, and constantly train new players to fundamentally solve the problem of water concert music inheritance under the new situation.
4. Establish amateur training vocational classes with Puhua Water Concert Music as the main content to improve the artistic grade of Puhua Water Concert Music from the aspects of talent, performance level and so on.
5. Establish a cultural development company with Puhua Water Concert Music, Literature and Art Performance as its main content, accelerate the development of Puhua Water Concert Music and Culture Industry, fully organize activities, combine peasant blowers with folk customs such as mass temple fairs and funeral customs, and widely open up the Puhua Water Concert Music Performance Market.
6. Establish an annual water concert music culture and Art Festival to review and promote the inheritance, development and promotion of water concert music.
Five-year protection plan
In 2006, Puhua Water Concert Music Folk Art Association was established, and Puhua Water Concert Music Amateur Training School was founded. Establish institutions, strengthen training and improve the popularity rate. Improve the basic work of static protection, which mainly focuses on the collation of census data.
From 2007 to 2008, professionals were organized to study Puhua Water Concert music and establish Puhua Water Concert Music Art Troupe. Prepare and establish Puhua Water Concert Music Development Company. Establish art troupes and development companies to strengthen the original ecological protection of Puhua Water Concert music.
From 2009 to 2010, experts were organized to conduct in-depth research on Puhua Water Concert music and various music systems, and held a Puhua Water Concert Music Seminar. We will vigorously popularize and develop the music of Puhua Water Club, create blue fields, go all over the country and strengthen international exchanges. Write and publish Volume 1 of Puhua Water Club Music. New steps have been taken in industrial development.
In implementing the five-year protection plan, we should focus on establishing five major protection mechanisms, striving to raise the protection awareness of cadres and the masses, and gradually improve the dynamic and sustainable development of the protection system. These five mechanisms are as follows:
(1) Leadership system construction mechanism with the main contents of "orientation" in cultural strategy, "orientation" in development blueprint, "fixing items" in work decision-making, "fixing people" in leading group, "fixing responsibilities" in cadres'duties and "quota" in capital investment.
(2) The existing talent team building mechanism of musicians, new musicians, experts and scholars is in step and mutually complementary.
(3) The original ecological protection of the original juice and the dynamic and sustained protection mechanism of continuously improving skills, developing innovation and coordinating development.
(4) Combining brand effect with daily blowing, in order to create a brand-driven general blowing mechanism.
(5) Combining the development of water concert music art with the development of water concert music industry, relying on the industrial entity and aiming at the development of water concert music, the operation mechanism of the art market.
(1) The style of water concert music is elegant and popular: further excavation, rescue, protection and inheritance of this folk ancient music will play an important role in enriching people's cultural life, building a harmonious society and promoting social development.
(2) Water concert music shows the long, broad and subtle tradition of Chinese music art. Its spread fills a gap in the history of Chinese music and adds a rare treasure to the treasure house of Chinese folk culture.
(3) Water concert music is an art form that combines folk music and Buddhist culture and art in China, and it is also of great significance to the study of Buddhist culture and art in China.
4) Tang music is the most brilliant part of ancient Chinese music, but because of its long history, many ancient scores of the Tang Dynasty can not be identified. For example, the Southern Song musician "Baishi Dao Ren" once wrote many songs with the popular characters of the Tang Dynasty, which are not known to people today. Yang Yinliu, the former director of the Chinese Music Research Institute who has studied "Baishi Dao Ren" for many years, discovered and recorded the basic records of "Baishi Dao Ren" in Xi'an. Consistent music score, through the trial singing of Xi'an folk artists who understand the score, translated the Tang music of "Baishi Dao Ren". The music score of Puhua Water Concert is the same as that of Baishi Taoist. Deng Yinhai, the music cadre of Lantian Culture Museum, under the guidance of relevant experts, has decoded the ancient music score of the Water Concert according to this method, and has translated more than ten pieces of music. Therefore, the discovery and protection of water concert music is not only of great significance in the study of music in Tang Dynasty, but also provides important evidence for rescuing, protecting and deciphering other endangered music in Tang Dynasty.
(5) Puhua Water Concert music is inherited from Tang music, which not only plays an important role in the development of Chinese music, but also has a great impact on the development of music in Japan, Korea and many other countries. The discovery and decoding of Puhua Water Concert music has attracted the attention of Japanese music circles. Therefore, rescuing and protecting the excellent national folk cultural heritage of Water Concert music is undoubtedly of significance for international cultural exchange.