Mosukun of Oroqen Nationality
Mosukun of Oroqen nationality is Oroqen language, meaning "telling and singing stories". Most of the performances are performed by a single person without accompaniment of musical instruments, such as speaking, singing and rap.
On May 20, 2006, "Oroqen Mosukun" declared by Heilongjiang Province was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
Mosukun of Oroqen Nationality was a form of Quyi storytelling which was formed and prevailed in the Oroqen Nationality inhabited areas of Heilongjiang Xiaoxing'an Mountains and Xiaoxing'an Mountains, and was formed in the late Qing Dynasty.
"Mosukun" is a very rich art of rap, "which contains the meaning of sadly narrating or murmuring about one's own suffering, telling and singing more about the heroic story of'Morgan'and one's own life experience of suffering". "Mosukun" comes from life, and its production is closely related to religion. Shaman is not only a wizard who specializes in religious activities, but also a performing artist who can sing, dance and speak. Most of Shaman himself is the creator, disseminator and successor of literature. "Mosukun" is a combination of rap and singing performance form, the tune is not fixed, by the rapper to play freely.
Stories are long and short, long to tell for a few days to more than a dozen days, story characters are distinct. The language is vivid, the plot is tortuous and fascinating. The lyrics of "Hero Gepayao" reach 1900 lines, with more than 100,000 words. It vividly describes the story of Gepayao's struggle against the devil by means of metaphor, exaggeration, parallelism and metonymy. It is a rare grand epic in the treasure house of Chinese literature.
"Mosukun" tunes are mostly unstable and vary according to the different places of popularity. For example, the multi-purpose tunes circulated in Sunk , in Huma [Kuyale tune], and in Heihe belong to the "type tune". There are also situations where different tunes are used according to different programs, such as when performing "Aldan Butterfly", when performing "The Story of Twin Flying Birds", when performing "The Hunter and His Beloved Wife", which belongs to "stereotyped special tune". There are also cases in which various tunes are freely chosen or borrowed for performance.
Existing representative works of "Mosukun" rap style include: Hero Gepayao, Wadukan and Yadukan, Polkanemogen, Buttihamozigan, Legend of the Two Flying Birds, Legend of the Deer, Tales of Yarin Juehan and Errheintergen, Nourland and Aldan Rolling Butterfly. Among them, there are heroic stories, love stories representing loyalty, stories of suffering life, stories of struggle against reluctance to humiliate, and so on. Those tortuous plots, vivid characters, strong appeal, coupled with beautiful tunes and humorous vivid language art, so that the listener more sleep and forget to eat, such as drunk. Mosukun's literary and linguistic art has the characteristics of fluency, rhyme, refinement and simplicity, which are prominent in prose and verse.
Inheritance and protection
Mosukun's artistic inheritance has been handed down by word of mouth. Famous artists include Mohaiting, Li Shuihua, Wei Jinxiang, Chutewen, Mendelin and so on.
The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, the opera was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
Throughout the 20th century after its formation, Mosukun was an important means of entertainment and education for the Oroqen people, as well as a carrier of their national spirit and ideology. It is of great significance to understand and study the social, historical, economic, cultural and religious traditions of the northern fishing and hunting nationalities, including the Oroqen. However, today's Mosukun has been strongly impacted by modernization, and its survival is in crisis, which needs to be protected urgently.