Mongolian Sawurden, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Jingxian traditional dance, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
There is a long-standing saying of the Mongolian people in Xinjiang: "riding a jujube horse, thinking of their families". "Jujube Red Horse" refers to a steed galloping on the grassland, with cool and graceful posture and rhythmic shaking of the horse's head. "Sawurden" is an instrumental divertimento spread among the Mongolians in Xinjiang, also known as "Tuboxiuer divertimento", the dance is closely related to Tuboxiuer music, Sawurden has a vitality and deep artistic charm.
On June 7, 2008, Sawurden of Mongolian nationality was approved by the State Council to be included in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list, the heritage number: III-94.
Orion of the Name
There are many theories about the origin of the word Sawurden. One is to describe a kind of horse step. One is to say that when you play the Tobshore piano, your hands move back and forth. One is from the Turhut Mongolian "Sawuna", which means that the horse's head keeps moving up and down, "Deng" is the sound of "Deng Deng" when Tobshore plays. The two words are combined into one, that is, Sawurden. When Mongolian people see children playing, they often say "Sawur, Sawur play", and when they see children jumping happily, they often say "Sawurden, Sawurden jump", which means cute children's movements.
About Sawurden, there are many records in Weilat's epic Jianger and Mongolian Travels. For example, when Saint Jianger Khan held a grand banquet for eighty days and laid out a grand banquet for seventy days, there was a description of Mingyan, the host of the banquet: twelve songs of Jianger's native land / accompanied by twelve songs, singing loudly / dancing lightly, / pairs of pairs of pairs of sleeves rubbing shoulders, inserting waists and shaking shoulders. This description is exactly the action of "Sartoulden" dance. It coincides with the characteristics of "Sawurden" dance, such as supporting, flexible use of shoulders, free upper body movements and less footsteps.
In traditional and modern dance, the workers of Bazhou Culture and Art have developed Sawurden Dance, which combines modern dance forms with national characteristics, concentrated performance skills, rhythm and artistry of rhythmic gymnastics, aerobics and radio gymnastics. They not only embody the spirit of the times, but also can keep fit and strengthen the body. It has been popularized in Hejing County, Heshuo County and Bohu County of Bazhou, so that this unique ancient Mongolian folk art can be spread more widely and have greater influence.
Hejing County declared Sawurden: Sawurden Art Troupe was set up, which was approved by the State Council on June 7, 2008 and included in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list . In September, 2009, it was included in the second batch of autonomous region intangible cultural heritage list .
Bohu County holds Sawurden Hometown Culture and Art Festival, which publicizes and promotes Sawurden dance to the outside world every April. With the holding of the Cultural and Art Festival in Sawurden's hometown, Sawurden Dance in Bohu County has gone to the world. Many delegations from Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, Inner Mongolia and Mongolia have gone to Bohu to study.
Form of performance
"Sawurden" is a Mongolian dance form which mainly expresses horses and can play freely. As its main accompaniment instrument, "Topshore" is a plucked string instrument with beautiful shape, simple manufacture, graceful timbre and easy to carry among nomadic peoples. Sawurden dance is mainly embodied in the upper limbs, break-up dance, holding dance, singing dance and song-to-song dance. Sawurden dance can be divided into three categories: one is performance Sawurden, which expresses women's life, such as mirroring, eyebrow drawing, braiding, slow version Sawurden, and the other is imitating Sawurden, which imitates animals, such as eagles flying, goats, voles, horse's various horse steps and bird's movements; the other is to show love and to imitate various figures. Elephants. Third, self-entertainment and self-enjoyment, including performance of labor and daily life, such as milking, pounding, horse harnessing, tea offering, toast, sowing, harvesting; fast version of Sawurden.
Due to the influence of life, living environment and clothing habits, Sawurden's lower limb movements are relatively simple, and his main style is reflected in his upper limbs. The springing, pressing, pushing, pulling, kneading and winding of the hands, wrists, shoulders and arms, the forward and backward bending of the waist as the axis, the forward pushing of the shoulders, the back pushing of the elbows, the back pushing of the shoulders, the slow hand, sharp edges and corners, and the flexion and extension tremor of the knees with elasticity in each movement are the distinct characteristics of Sawurden.
Types of dance
Elydbridge Savuden: Elydbridge Savuden is the main action to learn the introduction of Savuden. The main action is to imitate the flying movements of all kinds of playing birds. By imitating the actions of the animals around them, the Mongolian people show their nature of loving nature.
Jiaohe Har Sawurden: Jiaohe refers to a walking horse's pace, and Hal refers to the color of the horse, which means black. The movement of this dance is evolved from the horse-walking movement. The hand movement is like holding the reins. The foot movement should be uniform and fast. The foot movement is the key.
Hulden Savuden: Hulden means "fast" and "agile". Hulden Savuden, as its name implies, is a brisk Savuden. The movements are very fast, the fluctuations of hands and feet are very fast and resilient, there is no fixed mode, but it needs a lot of space.
Tubkensavuden: Tubkensavuden means steady. This dance is characterized by wrist and shoulder movements. When dancing, the movements of hands and feet are slower, more serious and the steps of dancing are smaller.
Usun Naidoligan Sawurden: Usun Naidoligan means wave. The performers imitate the observed phenomena of life and nature while dancing Usun Nydorigan Sawurden. The main feature is that the dancing movements are relatively large.
Hanu village Sawurden: Hanu village means sleeve. This dance is like a willow floating, often using kneeling and bending movements, posture is very beautiful. This village of Hanu, Sawurden, is a labor dance in our life.
Udun Sawurden: Udun refers to the door of the yurt. So it is said that Sawurden was produced in Mongolian yurts.
Ugeri Moving Gusauden: Ugeri Moving Gusauden is the meaning of rope guide. When dancing this dance, hand movements alternate up and down like rope release sheaths, and footsteps are less. Compared with other Sauden dances, the rhythm is slower.
Duerdong Sawurden: Duerdong's original meaning is "silk scarf" and "thick scarf". This dance is usually a mixed dance of men and women. The dancers sing and dance. It's very lively and very happy.
Ulukt Kosawurden: Uluk refers to grayish brown. This dance is very distinctive because it carries a song and sob myth story.
There are only twelve kinds of tunes in a single song, which are compared and analyzed according to the way, content and posture. With the development of society, the same dance has evolved into different names. There are many different dance movements in the same name dance.
Sawurden divides into bare-handed dance, holding dance, singing dance and song-to-song dance.
Inheritance and protection
Sawurden has a strong artistic imagination and creativity. His dancing style is simple and graceful. There are many dancing movements, such as swinging shoulders, bending forward and backward, wrist movement, front and backward movement, etc. He imitates the posture of characters or animals vividly and shows the characteristics of humor. Sawurden has 12 kinds of movements and 12 kinds of music corresponding to them. The performance is accompanied by national musical instruments, of which Topshore is the Mongolian unique stringed stringed musical instrument. Sawurden, a Mongolian, expresses the life customs and spiritual features of the Mongolian people in a unique form, reflecting the living conditions of the Mongolian people living in harmony with nature and their ideal of pursuing a better and happy life.
With the rapid development of society, people's cultural life is becoming more and more abundant. The inheritance and development of Sawurden, a traditional dance form, is facing a serious crisis. It is urgent for relevant parties to take effective measures to actively protect it.
Nederman, female, won the inheritance of Sawurden dance in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in 2010.
Butai, female, won the representative inheritor of Sawurden dance in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in 2008. In 2018, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism announced the fifth batch of representative inheritors of national intangible cultural heritage, among which Butai elderly people were listed.
In May 2007, Sawurden Amateur Art Troupe was officially established, with Butai as its head.
On October 24, 2012, the launching ceremony of the awarding of a license and the gift of musical instruments to Alxa League Ethnic Primary and secondary schools was held at the Mongolian Experimental Primary School in Azuo Banner. Eight schools, such as Azuo Banner Mongolian experimental primary school, were named as the Sawurden heritage base.
In May 2013, Bohu County held the first Sawurden Hometown Culture and Art Festival with the theme of "Sawurden Art Hometown, Bosten Lake World Paradise". Tens of thousands of people joined in the Sawurden dance and a thousand people performed Tobshore to sprint to the Guinness Records of Shanghai World. Holding the Sawurden Hometown Culture and Art Festival is to promote Sawurden dance to the outside world.
In 2017, Hejing County held a symposium on the inheritance and development of non-material cultural heritage Sawurden folk art.
He Jing County
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Jingxian County held a symposium on the inheritance and development of non-material cultural heritage Sawurden folk art. Through various forms such as symposium, observation, and watching literary and artistic performances, we have a thorough understanding of the evolution and development of Hejingdonggui culture and Sawurden, which lays a theoretical foundation for the future creation of cultural excellence. Sawurden culture in Hejing County has a profound cultural background and historical background, and a good and extensive mass base.
Ho Shuo county
Heshuo County of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is located at the southern foot of Tianshan Mountain. It is a multi-ethnic county. Heshuo County has a deep cultural and artistic heritage. The main ethnic Mongolian people have retained a large number of ethnic folk arts with a long history, high cultural and scientific value. Among them, the Mongolian Sawurden Dance is one of them.
The cultural and artistic festival of Sawurden's hometown, held in Bohu County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, aims to increase excavation, sorting out, rescue and protection of the "Sawurden" dance, enrich the cultural life of the Mongolian people, enhance the connotation of Bohu folk culture and tourism, integrate culture and tourism organically, and create a brand of cultural tourism county.
On January 5, 2019, Sawurden was shown at the opening ceremony of the 11th Ice and Snow Festival held in Bohu County, Bayinguoling Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture.
In 2018, the cultural tourism festival was held in Barentai, Xinjiang, and Sawurden appeared at the opening ceremony.
In 2018, China's "Cultural and Natural Heritage Day" and the 6th Weekly Bazhou Event of Xinjiang's intangible cultural heritage opened in the Bazhou Museum, in which Sawurden was displayed.
Bazhou Song and Dance Troupe has created a series of Sawurden dances with strong Mongolian characteristics in Xinjiang. It has won many awards in the dance competitions of "Lotus Award" and "Genghis Khan Cup" in China.