Miao Lusheng Production Techniques
Miao Lusheng production skills, Guizhou Leishan County, Yunnan Province Daguan County, local traditional skills, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Miao Lusheng production process is complex, generally using scraping, cutting, through, hammering, clamping, drilling and other related tools, through the selection of materials, baking materials, making reeds, making bamboo and wood components, reeds and timbre and other dozens of processes, took nearly 20 days to produce a Miao Lusheng.
On May 20, 2006, the Miao Lusheng production technology was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list, project number_-33.
Dong Dangan's Exploration of the History of Lusheng has been analyzed from the perspectives of stories, myths and ancient literatures. However, the author mostly speculates, but does not make a specific argument. In addition, the author also confuses Hulusheng, Sheng and Lusheng, ignoring the distinction between them. In Preliminary Exploration of the Origin of Lusheng and Preliminary Exploration of the Origin of Lusheng (Continuation), Qin Xu explained that Lusha was the predecessor of Lusheng in the Southern Song Dynasty and the difference between Lusha and Hulusheng through historical documents such as Nanzhaoyou History, Guihai Yuhengzhi Zhiqi and Lingwaidai Answer. Lusheng was one of the two musical instruments that existed in the minority nationalities in Southwest China at the same time in Song Dynasty. Lusheng only appeared in Ming Dynasty, and then formed this situation today.
Dai Jinquan's "Brief Analysis of the Origin of Miao Lusheng" studies the historical evolution of Miao's daily practices, Miao's customs, language and folk music. Lusheng originated from the pole flute and then evolved gradually.
"Brief History of Miao Nationality" records that the earliest musical instrument of Miao Nationality is Lusheng, and Lusheng tune is one of the earliest music of Miao Nationality. Through combing the above-mentioned research on the origin of Lusheng, the author believes that Lusheng should originate from the production and life of Miao people, evolving gradually from the pole flute, Lusha and so on, through thousands of years of development and evolution, according to different needs in people's actual use, and through the transformation of Lusheng craftsmen in different times. Developed. Lusheng has a rigorous structure and special material and process requirements. Lusheng is generally composed of Sheng tube, Sheng bucket, reed and resonance tube. The main materials of Miao Lusheng are copper (reed), bamboo (sound tube) and wood (air box). However, the shape and color of Miao Lusheng, its size and production technology, and the skill of Lusheng craftsmen vary from place to place. The color of Lusheng varies from material to material. The length and quantity of Sheng tubes vary from a dozen centimeters to 34 meters, and can now be increased to more than a dozen or even more by improvement. The range is wider.
The Lusheng made by Wang Jiefeng, the inheritor of Lusheng skills in Daguan County, Zhaotong City, mainly comes from bitter bamboo, white fir, birch bark, high-quality brass and lead, and innovates on the basis of inheriting the secret skills of ancestors. He changed the material of Lusheng into eight or ten sound tubes to make Lusheng more accurate in tone and more beautiful in shape than traditional Lusheng. He added a certain proportion of lead to the brass reed smelting at high temperature, which enhanced the elasticity and tenacity of the reed. The sound of Lusheng made by this method was more loud and pleasant. The star "Wang Lusheng" raised the voice of Miao villages at the border of Yunnan and Guizhou. 。
The traditional Miao Lusheng is a six-pipe Lusheng, which follows the traditional Chinese pentatonic scale. The pronunciation of bronze reed is determined by the artisan's unique ability to distinguish sound. The reed they make by hand can make the pitch of all the main rhythms of the rhythm absolutely the same. Each group of 5-7 rhythm ensembles also conforms to the principle of harmony acoustics.
Miao Lusheng is composed of blowing pipe, sound bucket, Sheng pipe and reed. These components are mainly made of Lusheng bamboo (also known as "bitter bamboo" in the Chinese dialect of Miao nationality area), Chinese fir cores without knots and processed steel sheets. The most common scales in the reed chamber are six pipes and six pipes, five pipes and six tones, etc. With the progress of the times and the improvement of Lusheng's production skills, the present Lusheng has been transformed by some Miao performers. Apart from the original five-pipe and six-pipe, since the early 1980s, there have been eight-pipe, twelve-pipe, sixteen-pipe and eighteen-pipe, which has greatly enriched the artistic expression of Lusheng instruments in performance .
Blow pipe: It is a short bamboo with a length of about 50 centimeters and a diameter of about 2 to 3 centimeters.
Sound Bucket: A long circular resonance box made of special wooden felJ is usually just enough for a person to hold his hands together or a little larger. One end is provided with an interface for intubation, the other end is connected with a short bamboo about 10 centimeters in length, which is the same as the diameter of the blowing pipe (Note: Long cylindrical sound bucket does not need this short bamboo), and the bottom is sealed with wax. There are six holes in the middle with two parallel rows of sockets.
Sheng pipe: six vertical bamboo pipes with different lengths inserted into the sound bucket, and a reed is set in the appropriate position near the sound bucket, and each drill has a sound hole. The length of the Sheng pipe is limited by the area, some are only more than ten centimeters long, some are as high as more than ten meters and can only be placed in a fixed position. The slightly pointed part of the Sheng pipe is also covered with a gourd for tremolo or decoration.
Reed: Reed is a key part of Lusheng. Reed was originally made of bamboo, but now it is made of copper.
Resonance tube: In order to open the bamboo joints to form two hollow bamboo tube, but also with the bottom of the bamboo tube made, are set at the slight end of the Sheng tube for sound reinforcement. Some of them are also equipped with a triangular resonator replaced by a thin bamboo film.
Inheritance and Protection
1. Music and dance culture: Lusheng, as a - 3~musical instrument, first endowed it with musical function, which resulted in the formation of a unique music and dance culture. According to early documents, Miao people have their own unique dance steps when playing Lusheng. For example, Lu Ciyun, a scholar in the Qing Dynasty, recorded in "Tongxi Fiber Records" that "holding Lusheng, Shengliu Guan, two feet long. Hand is flying, enough is carrying forward, gazing around the limbs, spiritual swing." In this document, the movements and forms of Lusheng dance are vividly described. This unique Lusheng dance has been handed down to today, the modern Miao people are still blowing Lusheng, while rolling, hanging and back of the road, skilled, agile movements, all people exclaim. Lusheng dance has become an important part of Chinese dance culture and a wonderful flower in Chinese dance garden.
2. Sacrifice culture: Lusheng is a tool of pronunciation in Miao's sacrificial activities. In all kinds of sacrificial activities, Lusheng can be seen to create a solemn and solemn atmosphere through Lusheng. In Miao sacrificial activities, Lusheng is not only a musical instrument, but also a magic instrument with psychic function. In the funeral ceremony, the memorial and respect for the deceased are expressed by playing Lusheng, and the greetings to relatives, friends and relatives are also expressed. Lusheng, as an instrument of communicating Yin and Yang, has a specific tune at each stage. Such as: playing "Dawn Song" at the beginning of the sacrifice; playing "Farewell Song" at the exit of the coffin, when the song sounds, relatives and friends will cry bitterly. Although the melody played is not complicated, the melancholy melody makes the funeral ceremony solemn. In addition to the general sacrificial activities, the Miao people also use Lusheng in ancestor worship activities, dancing under Lusheng, singing Miao songs, and expressing their thoughts and feelings in memory of their ancestors.
3. Marriage culture. Lusheng is not only a means of entertainment for Miao people, but also a link between men and women to convey their love. With the development of Lusheng, marriage culture is still developing. At present, it is more popular for Miao young men and women to hold a grand event through Lusheng. During the grand event, young men and women will dress up and go out. Several young men will come into the venue by turns to blow Lusheng. Young women will follow young men into the venue and circle around the city to dance happily with the rhythm of Lusheng. When the festival reaches its climax, the young men will play Lusheng to the young women they want to express their love. Likewise, if a young woman has a desire for a young man, she will hang her affection on his reed. After a long period of development, the tone of Lusheng is integrated with the language content expressed. When the fixed tune mode is played, people can understand its meaning, which leads to the formation of an interesting cultural phenomenon of the Miao people - Lusheng "language".
4. Performing culture: Lusheng, as a cultural form integrating songs, dances and music, has been developing for a long time. People hold slope meetings according to Lusheng dance music. Po Festival is a festival for Miao people to sacrifice ancestors, celebrate harvest or exchange feelings. Po Festival is held in villages and towns. For example, the Miao people do not go out without blowing Lusheng on the first day of the first lunar month. They can only go out after blowing Lusheng on the second day of the first lunar month. From the third day to the seventeenth lunar month, it is time for collective entertainment. Miao people's sloping festivals are generally concentrated between the third and seventeenth day of the first lunar month. According to the time when the sloping festivals are held, the local residents are named "Three Slopes" and "Seventeen Slopes" in turn. Up to now, it has been included in the first batch of intangible culture in China, attracting tens of millions of tourists every year. In recent years, the government has begun to pay attention to, protect and utilize the Lusheng culture. By using the Lusheng culture to hold national festivals, the government can enhance its popularity and promote the development of local tourism.
Current situation of inheritance
The development is relatively slow. Some cultural contents are affected by external factors and their functions are weakened. In view of this situation, we should strengthen the protection and inheritance of Lusheng culture, innovate ways of inheritance, and make Lusheng culture develop in the long run . Lusheng production skills have always been taught by the master himself, no written materials remain, and the skills are sophisticated, like Wang Jiefeng, who can skillfully produce Lusheng artists have become fewer and fewer, exquisite skills successive lack of people, facing the risk of loss of heritage, urgently awaiting rescue and protection.
Mo Yanxue, male, was born in November 1951. In June 2007, Mo Yanxue was selected as the representative successor of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects. Leishan County, Guizhou Province, declared the project: Miao Lusheng production skills.
Wang Jiefeng, male, was born in February 1960. In June 2007, Wang Jiefeng was selected as the representative successor of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects. Daguan County of Yunnan Province declared the project: Miao Lusheng production skills.
1. Improving policy guarantees: The Chinese government has included Lusheng culture in intangible cultural heritage and protected it. We also need to improve various policy guarantees, such as protecting the Miao Lusheng culture by administrative means, explaining to the local Miao people the importance of inheriting the Lusheng culture and improving their protection consciousness. Only by spreading the Lusheng culture among the Miao people can we promote long-term development.
2. Increase investment: Because of the relatively low level of economic development in Miao area, most young people go out to work in order to support their families, which leads to the phenomenon of talent gap in most areas, so they can not better inherit Lusheng culture. Therefore, the government should increase investment, set up local education, train inheritance talents of all ages, so that they can devote themselves to the study of Lusheng culture and innovate Lusheng venues and dance. In addition, through the help of school education, let the children in school receive Lusheng culture education from an early age, edified by it, so that they love Lusheng culture from the heart, and in the process of teaching, train students'ability of Lusheng choreography and dance, so that the development of Lusheng culture coexists with their growth.
3. Create brand effect: Miao area should create brand effect of Lusheng culture, do a good job of propaganda, let more people know Lusheng culture, understand Lusheng culture, study Lusheng culture. We should strive to build a national festival brand, disseminate Lusheng culture through literary and artistic works, and also use Lusheng as a tourist handicraft to attract more people to pay attention to Lusheng culture .
In November 2014, at the Miao New Year Festival of "Miaojiang Holy Land" in 2014, the non-hereditary successors team of Leishan County in Guizhou Province concentrated on 13 national intangible cultural heritages, including the Miao Lusheng production techniques.
In June 2017, the Miao Lusheng craftsmanship competition was held in Kara Square on the theme of "Danzhai Damei Heritage in Yunshang" intangible cultural heritage.
The mahogany Sheng, made by the inheritor Mo Yanxue, has been collected by Guizhou Federation of Literature and Art Circles as the top ten folk crafts.
In the cultural exchanges with foreign countries, the Miao Lusheng played an important role: the messenger of peace, the incarnation of unity, and the bridge of friendship. Miao Lusheng not only prevails in Guizhou, Guangxi, Yunnan, Sichuan, Hunan and other provinces and regions, but also has gone to Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries and regions, to the world.
In legend, Lusheng is the mother of Miao nationality; in war, Lusheng is the trumpet of Miao nationality's battle; Lusheng is the tool of Miao nationality's expression of emotion in festivals, harvest celebrations, weddings, funerals, love talks and greetings. From ancient songs, legends to daily life, Lusheng is left with the mark of Miao nationality.