March 3 of Buyi Nationality
Buyi "March 3" is a traditional festival held by Buyi people on the third day of March in the lunar calendar. It mainly takes the form of offering sacrifices to the gods of the society and sweeping the tombs of their ancestors. It lasts for 30 days. The Buyi people's "March 3" contains religious culture, thanksgiving culture and Fengxiang culture. Every family makes colorful flowers and rice to worship the gods and ancestors of the society. They thank nature, ancestors and society by "sweeping tombs and hanging green", which embodies the spirit of national unity and friendship.
The core cultural values of Buyi people on March 3 are sacrifice and gratitude. This folklore is a concentrated and full reflection of the traditional life of the Buyi people, from which we can find the cultural prototype of the Buyi people's values, cultural patterns, social relationship structure, aesthetic taste and so on.
On November 11, 2014, March 3, approved by the State Council, was included in the fourth batch of national representative projects of intangible cultural heritage.
On May 18, 2010, the State Council announced the list of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage list recommended projects (new entries). The Buyi people declared by Zhenfeng County of Guizhou Province on March 3rd were selected and included in the folk custom items.
Sacrifice to the gods of the community: "March 3" is a day for the Buyi people to worship gods and pray for blessings. On March 3rd, men from all families went up to the mountains to worship mountain gods. Organizers (sacrifices) are mostly Bumo (that is, Mogong, the inheritor of Mohist culture). At the beginning of the activity, cattle or pigs were slaughtered. At that time, each household would take more than a dozen pieces of money paper prepared beforehand and five or six pieces of money paper stained with cattle's blood. After preparation, they would hang them in the field or on the ground. This shows that this field has been under the jurisdiction of people, the wild ghosts dare not invade, and the pests and diseases dare not invade. To ensure a bumper grain harvest. People lit incense and candles, offerings were placed on the stone tables (not without flowers and rice). Zhai Lao stood on the front steps of the temple and shouted, "The commencement of the sacrifice!" The villagers under the stage face the Social God in a staircase, with dignified look, solemn atmosphere and silent mountains and forests. Under the leadership of Zhai Lao, the villagers kneel down three times and kowtow their heads. Zhai Lao prays for the blessings of mountain gods, reads out the spiritual warnings and village rules and regulations, and solicits your opinions. After the unification of objections, everyone kneels down in front of the temple and promises not to abide by the village rules, otherwise they will be punished by the mountain gods. On March 3, sacrifices were offered to mountain gods, water gods and village gods.
Sacrifice to national heroes: There are national heroes in the legend of sacrifice, and ancient heroes such as Wang Baoxian, He Lianzhi and others.
Sweeping villages: Mogong organizes teams to sweep the demons and evil spirits from every farmer's house, and sweep the demons and evil spirits from the stockade to ensure the safety of one party.
"Silkworm sacrifice": Legend has it that in ancient times, a farmer fried grain flowers to feed silkworm in spring sowing to avoid pests on young mu, and consequently kept the seedlings.
Planting trees and hanging green (sweeping graves): Every household, the male master carries a pocket and sickle, a hoe on his back, and the female master carries a sacrifice to lead the child. She spares no effort to finish all her ancestral graves within one month and plant trees on the grave hill to commemorate them. There are also cases of clan collectives hanging green in ancestral cemeteries.
Home slaughter of pigs and chickens. Married girls should take sacrificial items back to their mother's home to participate in hanging green.
Ta Qing: Ta Qing custom is very old, basically accompanied by hanging Qing Qing to sweep tombs. People go to the mountains for spring trips. Children pick tender maple leaves to make balls and throw them. Women pick several tender maple leaves to put them on the top of the bun, and put the branches of maple trees around the house. Of course, it is not only about love, but also about games and entertainment. People who are constrained to work can now gallop across the countryside and the mountains. So, girls hang swings on trees, boys fly kites and water guns in the open.
Pair songs: The custom of couplet songs is also very old, which is basically formed with hanging Qing Taqing. Gather people to drink and communicate with each other. Folk songs sung by young men and women are the theme of Buyi's "March 3" activities. Song-to-song is the most important activity after the end of worship. Take singing as the medium to carry out social activities, make friends and seek spouses by singing.
Traditional sports: In addition to singing folk songs, there are traditional activities such as hunting, throwing chaff bags, playing lucky baskets (Kirin dance), getting pulp (similar to gyroscopes), bullfighting, cock fighting, horse racing, horse poles (similar to stilts), fighting bamboo water guns, playing Buyi chess, swing and flying kites.
Traditional rural economic and trade exchanges: during the Buyi "March 3" festival, with the increasing number of participants, there appeared vendors serving the activities. They came in a flood of goods, ranging from furniture, small to various daily necessities, as well as unique jewelry, food and goods of all nationalities. Then it developed into a grand event of material exchange and commodity trade with national characteristics, which promoted the economic and trade development of the Buyi region.
Due to the different living areas of Buyi people, the traditional festival of March 3 has different laws. On the day of the festival, the whole village of Buyi nationality gathered together for a dinner. After dinner, the respected village elders announced the "village rules and folk conventions".
Previously, they also inscribed the contents of the village rules and conventions on stone tablets for everyone to abide by. In the evening, every household will also eat five-color glutinous rice. Cloth around Anlong
Yizu people go through March 3, mainly to sweep villages and offer sacrifices to mountain gods. Legend has it that March 3rd is the birthday of the King of Heaven and God. On the festival day, only one person from each household is left at home to participate in the sacrificial activities. The rest of the household will go out to hide in the mountains. At this time, no outsiders are allowed to enter the stockade.
After March 3 in Guiyang, young men and women went to the mountains to sing songs. According to the local legend, the gods in the sky would give a golden voice to anyone who heard the beautiful song, and the pests would not dare to come out harmful crops when they heard the golden voice. Therefore, the local also known as'March 3'for'Gexian Festival'.
Maoshan Tree has a deep affection
Legend has it that a young man named Shanlang fell in love with a Bouyei girl Shumei long ago. The devil wolf caught the tree sister, and the fir Lang saved the tree sister painstakingly. They became relatives, but the devil wolf became tens of millions of locusts to eat crops. Shumei had the golden voice that the nine-day lotus song fairy had exchanged for. She sang from this dam to that dam according to the instructions of the song fairy. She continued singing for 27 days without rest until she reached the place of Dewo. All the locusts floated out of the clouds with their song for nine days. They fed the golden cat to the lotus song fairy and kept the crops. However, the tree sister died of illness in early March of the next year because of overwork. Sugiro also died sadly and excessively. They were buried on a mound, and soon two fir trees grew up there. People said that they were the incarnation of the younger sister of the fir tree. They called the two fir trees Mao fir trees and the small mound also called Mao fir trees. Every year, on the third day of March, people gathered Mao fir trees to commemorate the younger sister and the younger sister. On the other hand, they sang songs and travelers found couples.
The Custom of March 3rd of Buyi Nationality
The Ayong School Etiquette of Bouyei Ancestors in The Bouyei Song of Sacrifice (Ancient Song of Mohism Culture) is the origin of sacrificing parents (Wei Yongqin, Buyi Work Newsletter, World Knowledge Publishing House, P. 187); the classical folk literature of the Buyi people, The Bag Lotus Spot, also talks about the seller of the Bag Lotus Spot to bury his parents (the book).
The famous Buyi rapper and singer Wang Ma Aitian often sings this kind of content; Buyi opera also has the script of selling oneself to bury one's parents. If we infer the origin of "March 3rd" according to Buyi's sacrificial legends, the folklore has a history of thousands of years.
Relating to the Folk Customs of Hang Qing
The origin of "March 3" in Wangmo County and Luodian County along the Bank of Hongshui River is related to the folk custom of "hanging green on graves". Buyi people or clan groups go to ancestral cemeteries to hang green, kill pigs and kill sheep. On the festival day, people go to the mountains for spring outings. Children pick tender maple leaves to make balls, throw them into balls or dress them in maple leaf coats. Women pick several tender maple leaves and insert them on top of the buns. They also collect branches of maple trees and take them to their homes and insert them into the walls around the houses. In addition, the family dyed glutinous rice into a variety of colors, making flowers glutinous rice to eat. Young people go to the hillside to blow leaves and sing folk songs. If you meet a contented opponent, you will be invited to Buyi Village in the evening and sing songs all night long. On farewell, the host family gave the children their banana leaves wrapped with sticky rice and chicken leg as a holiday gift.
It's related to flowering rice.
The "March 3rd" in central Wangmo County is related to the flowering of rice. There were only three colors of flower rice at that time. Black was used to thank father, yellow was used to thank mother, and purple was used to thank matchmaker. With the deepening of people's emotions, flower rice became colorful rice. Another legend is that long ago, a Buyi woman returned to her mother's home to visit her parents, but because her family was poor and had nothing to take with her, she decided to make flowers and rice and bring them back to honor her parents. As a result, she won everyone's respect. The third is that a woman comes to her lover's grave to express her sorrow with rice. People are moved by the woman's action. They realize that even if they miss their lover, everyone should be more filial to their parents and thankful to their parents, so there is a folk custom like "March 3rd".
Relating to the Folk Custom of "Sacrificing Ground Silkworms"
The origin of "March 3" in Guiyang City is related to the folk custom of "sacrificing silkworms to the ground". Legend has it that in ancient times, a farmer used many methods to sacrifice his young Mu to avoid pests. Later, when he was sowing in spring, he fried cereal flowers to feed silkworms, and consequently kept the seedlings. Since then, in order to protect crops and strive for a bumper harvest, the Buyi people in this area, on the third day of March every year, fried Baoguhua as a sacrificial offering, went to the nearby hillside in groups to sacrifice the "gods of heaven and earth silkworms" and prayed for God's protection, so that the silkworms would not bite the seedlings in the fields, so that the five cereals could be fengdeng. At the end of the sacrifice, people sang folk songs along the edge of the field and scattered the Baogu flowers into the field.
Relating to "Sacrificing National Heroes"
The origin of "March 3" is related to "sacrificing national heroes". Legend has it that Buji, the ancestor of the Buyi people, punished Leigong, eliminated the flood, planted rice, and finally died of fatigue in the horizon. In order to commemorate him, people chose to kill pigs and sheep in the wild on the third day of March of the lunar calendar to sacrifice him, and set up tents and singing podiums to praise him with maple trees representing auspiciousness. Buyi is an Aboriginal people living in the basin of the Panjiang River. Most of them live in Dazi, have good water sources and fertile land. According to the records of Guizhou Folklore Collection An Longjuan, in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, a foreign tribe intended to occupy the forty-eighth village of Longguang (including Tianba Village). At that time, the Han generals Cenpeng and Mawu stationed in Guangxi fought against the enemy together with the Buyi people. Fortunately, it was on the third day of March in the lunar calendar. The two heroes were buried on the mound between Nana and Zimianzhai in Tianba village, erecting monuments and building ancestral temples for them, and marking the first snake farm day after the 3rd day of the 3rd lunar month as a commemorative day. The Buyi people have offered the two heroes as Zhaishen, holding a solemn sacrificial ceremony every year for three days, but the sacrificial activities have not been the main concern of everyone, and it is far and near famous to go to Tianba to "chase Mao fir trees" to sing songs, that is, it has evolved into a traditional music folk festival of the Buyi people.
The sacrifice of Wang Baoxian, Wei Dynasty Yuan and other heroes has something to do with it.
The "March 3" in the area of Dongsa and Dangzhang in Anlong County has something to do with sacrificing the national heroes of Buyi nationality such as Wang Baoxian (also known as Xiangu), Wei Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty. Every year on March 3rd, Dongsha Village still carries out activities of sacrificing mountains and commemorating fairies. The monument to Wang Baoxian in Xiangutian is more and more tall and solemn in the dam where thousands of mu of rape flowers are sprinkled in the holes in the spring season. Villagers accompanying them said that in the 1980s, from the fifth to the eighth day of the twentieth century, tens of thousands of people of all nationalities, including Ceheng, Wangmo, Xingyi, Zhenfeng and even Anshun, Ziyun, would spontaneously gather from all sides to commemorate the heroes and hold various mourning activities in three days.
Relating to the "Shangsi Festival" in ancient times
History can also prove that "March 3" is related to the ancient "Shangsi Festival". It is a common festival of the Han, Buyi and other nationalities. However, in the process of inheritance and development, due to changes in values, some nationalities still maintain this folk custom, some have given up. In short, "March 3" has not disappeared. It has shifted from the Han nationality areas to the Buyi minority areas, living in the name of the forest. The Buyi people inherited and developed the "March 3" culture of the Chinese nation, where people can experience the ancient cultural connotation of the Buyi people.
National characteristics: Buyi people's "March 3" has the characteristics of Buyi culture and is a folk phenomenon inherited from generation to generation by their own people.
Buyi People's March 3rd Pair Song Activity
Social characteristics: Buyi people's "March 3rd" is the custom and custom formed and agreed by Buyi people in their common life. It has a broad mass character, such as the system of making village regulations and people's restrictions.
Collective characteristics: Buyi people's "March 3" is the result of collective creation, spread in folklore, relying on collective response, enrichment and development, and inherited from generation to generation by collective.
Stability characteristics: Buyi people abide by the "March 3" and become the standard to restrict their behavior; it has relative stability, and in the process of inheritance and development, it has formed a certain scale.
Variability characteristics: Buyi people's "March 3" changes in content and form due to various social, political and life factors. For example, economic and trade activities have become an important manifestation of "March 3".
Characteristic of cultural blending: Buyi people's "March 3" includes filial piety, gratitude, harmony, joy, wealth, auspiciousness, unity, love and other cultural connotations. The Buyi people think that no matter how old you are, no matter how many books you read, you must go home to sweep the graves on March 3rd; Buyi people have such folk customs as "getting up early on March 3rd and sitting late on June 6th". On this day, people get up earlier than that day, and cook flowers and rice to honor their ancestors and their beneficiaries; on March 3rd, it is the "National Unity" Festival, with all ethnic groups facing each other. It's a pleasure to be in touch with each other.
The Folk Value of "March 3" of Buyi Nationality:
Folk value: "March 3rd" reflects the most real life and cultural state of the Buyi people. By inheriting and developing the "March 3rd" of the Buyi people, the cultural state of the Buyi people can be truly restored.
Religious value: Buyi's primitive religion culture is an important component of "March 3", which reflects the evolution of Buyi's transition from natural religion to humanistic religion, and has important reference value for the study of the development of human religious culture.
Historical value: The "March 3rd" of the Buyi nationality is the product of the development of the Buyi nationality to a certain stage, which has a typical farming cultural color.
Literary value: "March 3rd" is one of the most important couplet festivals of the Buyi people. The folk literature of the Buyi people is mostly expressed in the form of songs, whether ancient songs or folk songs, or even nursery songs.
Linguistic Value: If Buyi Mohist literature and ancient songs are the basis of language, then Buyi folk songs shoulder the task of Buyi language in the process of modernization. Because the Buyi folk songs are easy to understand, and develop with the development of the times, enrich and develop the vocabulary and grammar of the Buyi language.
Sociological Value: The "March 3" of the Buyi nationality embodies the harmony between man and nature, man and man, man and society, nation and nation, and plays a positive role in the current reform, opening up and modernization. Bouyei people believe that trees are symbols of the soul, "March 3" afforestation can comfort ancestors, while greening their homes.
The Value of Spiritual Civilization Construction: It is a very effective way to promote socialist spiritual civilization construction in ethnic minority folk activities. We can not ignore that folk activities are an important position of rural spiritual civilization construction.
Economic Value: The ancient "March 3" combines the activities of modern civilization, such as economic activities, and "March 3" has become not only a cultural brand, but also an economic brand. On the basis of protecting "March 3rd" of Honomo, we can develop Buyi folklore tours and food related to "March 3rd", especially Buyi colorful rice.
With the deepening of rural economic development and the increase of peasants'going out to work, the cultural and folklore activities of the Buyi ethnic group are facing unprecedented challenges, and their endangered situation is aggravating. The reasons and conditions are as follows:
In order to make a living, we neglect folk activities. Villagers work far away to earn a living. It is easy to overlook the existence of folk culture festivals for a long time, but festivals or understated festivals are becoming more and more obvious.
There is less and less public understanding of folk culture, especially the lack of understanding, support and participation of civil servants and teachers. Although they are not the main body of cultural inheritance and development, their behavior has a great impact on cultural inheritance and development.
People indulge in their responsibilities in folk activities, mainly by not participating in folk activities and not assuming the responsibilities required by their national ethics.
Folk culture space tends to retreat from cities and towns to rural areas. More and more people spend "foreign" festivals in cities and towns. Many young people think that the "earth" of folk festivals can not enter the hall of elegance. Folklore activities have a trend from standardization to simplification, people are eager to convenience and lose the original cultural elements.
Protective measures taken
The "three of March" of Buyi Nationality is a condensation of the national spirit and national feelings of the Buyi Nationality. It carries the cultural blood and ideological essence of the Buyi people. It is an important spiritual link for maintaining the cohesion of the Buyi Nationality, national unity and social harmony, and is a valuable resource for the spiritual civilization construction in the Buyi Minority Area. Choosing "March 3" to vigorously promote Buyi culture and inherit national spirit has positive practical significance for promoting the construction of a harmonious society.
Wangmo County holds the "March 3rd Bouyei intangible cultural heritage exposition". The understanding of Bouyei culture in Wangmo County has changed. The following measures have been taken to inherit and protect the "March 3rd" of the Bouyei nationality: declare the "March 3rd" of the Bouyei nationality as the national intangible cultural heritage list.
Wangmo County People's Congress intends to report the bill of "Regulations on the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage" to the National People's Congress of Southwest Guizhou.
Establishing the "Research Center of Bouyei Culture in China" is a non-governmental science and technology NGO composed of folk culturists and scholars at home and abroad, focusing on the study of Bouyei culture and its sustainable development.
Protect the cultural space for the inheritance and development of Buyi folk cultural activities.
To carry out a general survey of Buyi folk culture, find out and rescue the existing resources of folk culture, and pay attention to the wisdom and strength of the people to annotate Buyi folk customs.
To scientifically formulate a holistic cultural protection plan. To effectively implement rescue and protection work, scientific protection planning is the key. Wangmo County has completed the planning outline of the Buyi Cultural and Ecological Reserve in Hongshui River, North and South Panjiang River, Guizhou Province.
Rescue Buyi folk cultural heritage. Folklore cultural archives are established through the "nine in one" approach, namely "notation, Buyi records, international phonetic symbols, Buyi Chinese literal translation, Chinese-to-Chinese translation, English, audio, video, pictures".
Pay attention to the value of folk customs and promote the construction of socialist spiritual civilization in folk activities.
On the basis of culture, we should do a good job in the construction of new countryside. Establish the concept of "capital-based and people-oriented community development", do a good job in the construction of community capital, and further inherit and develop national culture.
In 2010, "Buyi Cultural Heritage School" was established to carry out the education of Buyi intangible cultural heritage. Put "March 3" into the textbook and bring related activities into the campus.
In 2009, Wangmo County invested only 350,000 yuan, which made it a "March 3" Buyi intangible cultural heritage exposition praised by the outside world. At the same time, we can see that the mass-based cultural activities are conducive to the inheritance and development of Buyi culture.
The people's government of Wangmo County will allocate a budget of three yuan per capita from finance to support the inheritance and development of intangible cultural heritage. The total amount of money in a year is one million yuan, part of which is to do the inheritance and development of Buyi folk culture.
The contents of protection are divided into three aspects: protection of human beings, protection of works and protection of cultural manifestations.
Protect the "March 3" representative cultural inheritors, and grant certain allowances to the important inheritors or leaders of factions, so as to help them establish a stable inheritance system and platform.
Protecting the text of March 3 folklore culture, whether written or oral, will create active archives for it.
Protect the cultural space of Buyi folk activities in March, such as folk system, folk places and related natural objects.
Origin of festivals
According to ancient legends, the day of Shangsi Festival is the day when Fuxi and Nuwa mingle to create human beings. In some places, there is also the custom of offering sacrifices to Fuxi Nuwa on March 3. This shows that the origin of Shangsi Festival is related to people's sacrifice to gods and praying for children and heirs. Therefore, this day is also a day for young men and women to interact with each other, talk about love and play with others. From three emperors, five emperors and even Yutang, the custom of Shangsi in March was inherited from the ancient system. In the Zhou Dynasty, although the six rituals of marriage and marriage were strictly stipulated in the rituals, for the breeding of the population, the contents of the rituals of Shangsi Hui men and women were still stipulated, so as to conform to the season and season, so that men and women of the right age could have a family and a room, and promote the harmonious development of society. On this day, the court witches presided over the grand ceremony of Youyu. The emperor of Zhou led his concubines to sacrifice, fasting and bathing, and sacrificing ancestors. Because of the advocacy of the Son of Heaven and the rules of etiquette and law, it becomes a grand festival in March. Every year on this day, people dress up in newly sewn spring clothes, come out on invitations from the city, play and bathe in rivers, pick orchids in deep valleys, or have a banquet and have fun in the countryside. It is believed that this can eradicate bad luck. Unmarried young men and women are the main characters of the festival. They sing and dance, and they are free to find or date their lover. "Zhou Li, prefect official and matchmaker" said: "In the mid-spring month, men and women will be allowed to run, so it is also the time. Officials have given Valentine's Day March 3 a statutory status. So later on "March 3" not only had more than 40 people gathered in Lanting in Yonghe Nine Years (353) of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, such as Wang Xizhi, and wrote down the elegant events of "the first line of the world" and "Preface to Lanting" between drinking and drinking, but also had the ambiguous and fragrant scenes of "the new weather on March 3 and many beautiful people on the water side of Chang'an" in Du Fu's poem "Beautiful People's Travel". With Cui Hu's love of "peach blossoms on human faces are red against each other". From then on, "make men and women" became the most core, basic and important content of the "March 3" festival. Let young men and women meet at the water edge of the field, freely choose their loved ones, talk about love, conform to the natural season of climate and human physiological development, and also conducive to human production and reproduction of future generations. At the same time, "lover will get married", more conducive to the harmonious development of society and progress of civilization.
In Huoshan, Anhui Province, there is a "March Meeting" in Chongqing Zhongxian County and other places to celebrate the anti-enemy general Ba Manzi. It is a day when the masses parade around the city carrying Ba Manzi's idol, followed by the community fire team, playing Dragon lanterns, lion dancing, lighting up lights, setting off firecrackers and making a lively scene.
More than on March 3rd, they rush to song pools, set up singing studios and hold concerts. Young men and women sing, touch eggs, throw embroidery balls and talk about love. Legend has it that it is a festival to commemorate the song fairy Liu Sanjie of the Zhuang nationality, so it is also called the song fairy festival. More Zhuang people come to visit their tombs on March 3, usually steaming five-color glutinous rice on March 3.
More than festivals hold activities such as robbing fireworks, bullfighting, horse fighting, singing, stepping on halls, also known as "Fireworks Festival".
During the festival, pigs were killed to sacrifice the gods of society and mountain gods, and yellow glutinous rice was eaten. The villages did not communicate for three or four days. The Yao people take March 3rd as "Ganba Festival", which is a collective fishing and hunting festival. They distribute the wild animals and fish captured by their families and share the joy of harvesting. After that, they gather in the square, sing and dance, and celebrate the festival.
the She ethnic group
Take March 3rd as the birthday of millet. Every family eats black rice. Legend has it that Lei Wanxing, a hero of the She Nationality in the Tang Dynasty, led the revolutionary army to fight against the encirclement and suppression of the officers and troops, and boosted the army's strength by filling the hunger with the fruit of barley. He broke through the encirclement successfully on March 3rd and succeeded in a continuous battle. In order to commemorate this event, Shemin has to eat black rice and sing at a rally on March 3rd every year. Among the She people, March 3rd is an important festival that can be compared with the Spring Festival. On this day, families slaughter animals and sacrifice ancestors. Many people often choose this day for their wedding. Ukraine rice is eaten during the festival. When night falls, a bonfire party will be held to compete for songs. She people are good at singing songs. On this day, she singers from all over the province are often invited to perform on the stage. The scene is very warm. During the festival, we have to catch up with the dance hall, and dance torch dance, wood clapping Lingdao dance, bamboo pole dance, dragon lantern dance, lion dance and fish lantern dance. At the same time, there are many folk sports of She nationality, such as asking benches, drilling stone ladles, abdominal top sticks, drilling bars, driving wild boars and so on. "March 3rd" Festival is the epitome of the She people's humanistic history. It has distinct national characteristics and strong local flavor. It has irreplaceable important value in building new countryside and strengthening national unity. Because she people live in the less developed areas along the southeast coast in a large scattered way, with the process of modernization and the change of living environment of She people, the language, costume, singing and dancing of She people are gradually sinicized, and the traditional festival activities on March 3rd are also shrinking, which urgently needs to be strengthened.
March 3rd is called "Funianfu". It is a festival to wish "Shanlan" (Mountain Dry Valley) and to hunt for a bumper harvest. It is also a day for young men and women to communicate freely. People call it "Love Day". There is a beautiful legend about its origin.
"March 3" is a traditional festival of the Li people. People call it "Love Day", which is the same as the Miao festival in Hainan. Legend has it that during the flood period in ancient times, two brothers and sisters survived hiding in pumpkins. In order to start a family and start a business, they decided to look for other people separately and make an appointment to meet on March 3 of the next lunar year. As a result, in the past few years, the two men have failed. Seeing that she could not find anyone else, she painfully pricked her face with bamboo sticks and dyed it with plants, so that her brother could not recognize herself and marry, so that the race could continue. This is also the legend of the Li people's "March 3" Festival and the origin of the grain. In the eastern town of Dongfang, every year on March 3rd of the lunar calendar, young men and women of Li nationality from all over the country gather together to participate in the "March 3rd" grand meeting, singing, dancing and talking about love.
Tujia Valentine's Day falls on March 3rd. On March 3rd, Ah Ge and Ah Mei of Tujia nationality gathered together, matched by folk songs, and stepped on their feet to get married.
Other ethnic groups such as Shui, Miao, Mulao and Maonan have their own traditional festival customs of March 3.
"March 3, step on the beach" is a kind of folk custom in Shipu Town, Xiangshan. There are several opinions about its origin. One of them is related to productive labor: around the third day of March in the local lunar calendar, the ground temperature and water temperature began to rise, and the shallow sea snails scrambled to climb the beach to breed. Locals go to the beach to collect snails in this season, resulting in the "March 3, step on the beach" labor scene.
Every year on the third day of the third month of the third lunar month, the She people celebrate the "Wu Fan Festival". Every family cooks Wu Fan, and the whole family eats together, giving gifts to relatives and friends. At the same time, they gathered together to sing and dance to commemorate the festival. She people in Xiaocang Autonomous Township of Lianjiang County also celebrate Wufang Festival, which is a lively Tianshan Village. Ukraine rice is a wild plant called Wuzi tree on the hill used by the She people. It takes leaves to cook soup, and then soaks glutinous rice in the soup for hours, picks it up and steamed in a wooden steamer. This kind of black rice is blue, green, black and shiny, and tastes soft and delicious in the mouth. Owing to its anti-corrosion and spleen-opening effect, the rice was packed in Ramie bags and hung in a cool and ventilated place for several days. If you add lard cooked fried, more delicious. Therefore, there is the saying that "one family steamed ten fragrances".
The origin of Wumi is legendary. During the Tang Dynasty, Lei Wanxing, a hero of the She nationality, led the She Army to rebel against the government. She Army was besieged in the mountains by the court army, lost foreign aid and cut off grain and grass. She Army had to look for food in the mountains. When it was late autumn, most of the trees in the mountains were fruitless. There was only one wild plant called Wuji. Although the leaves were falling, there were bunches of sweet fruits like pearls hanging on the branches. Everyone picked one and brought it back to the camp. Lei Wanxing tasted it and felt sweet and delicious. So he ordered a large number of wild fruits to be collected to satisfy his hunger. The army and army had solved the problem and won the battle.
One year later, on March 3rd, Lei Wanxing suddenly remembered the sweet fruits he had eaten in the mountains and wanted to eat them again. But it was spring when the barley trees had just pulled out the green leaves. What about the sweet fruits? Villagers had to pick the leaves of barley and cook them with glutinous rice. As a result, the glutinous rice also showed the same blue-black color as barley fruit. The fragrance was very strong. Lei Wanxing ate it, his appetite increased greatly and he was very happy. She Jun was ordered to cook black rice every year on this day.
In order to commemorate the victory of Lei Wanxing's resistance officers and soldiers, on the third day of March of the lunar calendar every year, men and women go out to "step on the green" to collect foliage and cook rice at home, which has become a festival for the She people. "Wufan Festival" in addition to retaining the original customs, but also singing and dancing, more lively and extraordinary.
Egg Festival, a traditional Tu festival. The holidays are held on March 3, 8 and 18 of the lunar calendar, and vary from place to place. At that time, sacrifices will be held in the temples. Masters will be invited to recite sutras and dance for reward gods and gods, so as to save disaster and dispel disasters, and to ensure the prosperity of grain and flourish of both human and animal. The participants also carried many cooked eggs with them, one for self-feeding and the other for playing tricks on each other.
March 3 is a more common traditional festival of Buyi people, commonly known as "March 3". The origin and content of festivals are different from each other in different areas. Buyi people in Xinbao Township, Wudang District, Guiyang City, call "March 3rd" also "ground silkworm sacrifice", commonly known as "ground silkworm festival". Legend has it that there was a farmer in ancient times who found that many silkworms killed the seedlings every spring after sowing. After repeated observation, he believed that the earth silkworm was the "Tianma" put on the earth by the God of heaven. In order to avoid pests on young mu, he used many methods to sacrifice handles which were ineffective. Later, when he was sowing in spring, he fried cereal flowers to feed silkworms, and consequently kept the seedlings. The news soon reached the Buyi people far and near.
Since then, in order to protect crops and strive for a bumper harvest, the Buyi people in this area have offered sacrifices to the "gods of heaven and silkworms of the earth" in groups on the nearby hillsides every year on the third day of three junior high schools. They pray for the blessings of the gods of heaven and let the silkworms of the earth bite the seedlings of the fields and let the five cereals grow well. At the end of the sacrifice, people sang folk songs along the edge of the field and scattered the Baogu flowers into the field.
In the northern area of Bawanghe River, maple leaves were still small and could not be colored because of the low temperature, so March 13 was the "Maple Leaf Festival". On the festival day, people go to the mountains for a spring outing. Children pick tender maple leaves and throw them into balls. Women pick some tender maple leaves and put them in their buns. In addition, the family dyed the glutinous rice into various colors and cooked the floral glutinous rice to eat. Young people go to the hillside to blow leaves and sing folk songs. If you meet a contented opponent, you will be invited to Buyi Village in the evening and sing songs all night long. On farewell, the host's family distributed the singer with sticky rice wrapped in banana leaves and chicken leg as a holiday gift. The legend of Buyi people in Wangmu County, Guizhou Province is that the third day of March is "cold day", and eating dog meat can drive away the cold. There is a custom of having a dog treat this day. Some Buyi legends in Anlong County of Guizhou Province say that March 3 is the birthday of the "mountain god".
People used to sweep villages and sacrifice mountain gods in order to avoid releasing locusts to harm crops and ensure a good harvest of agriculture. On March 3rd, people go to the altar of village mountain to lay cock, knife head and other supplies. They also kill a dog and sprinkle blood on paper flags, paper horses and stockades on the stones at the entrance and exit of the main road. Then the old devil and other people carry paper flags sprinkled with dog blood. Paper horses sweep away demons and demons in every household. A bench should be set up at the entrance of each house, on which a "water bowl" filled with fresh water and a bowl filled with gravel grains should be placed. "Old Devil Gong" chants "Devil's Sutra" at the gate, beats several "Nongyang Hexagrams", scatters rubble and gravel into the house, sprinkles water bowls around, overturns benches in front of the gate, and buckles water bowls, meaning to wipe out the devil. Finally, put a paper flag with dog's blood on it, put a paper horse on it, and go to his house to clean it. Villagers have finished their rounds of sweeping, and the "old devil husband" mouth to the altar, will sweep the demons and ghosts concentrated before the gods, and then the whole village men in the altar in situ meals, known as "eat with the gods".
Dewo Town in this county called "March 3" as "Catching up with Mao Fir Trees" and "Mao Fir Tree Song Festival", which lasted for three days and brought together tens of thousands of people. March 3 of the Buyi people in the Badahe area of Luoping, Yunnan Province, is a festival for young men and women to sing in tune. On this day, men, women and children came to the riverside to listen to the young people singing folk songs and watch the children play bamboo rafts and water guns. Some families also make waxy rice for their children and distribute it to Bian and Zhai. Others use floret pockets to pack eggs and all kinds of food for teenagers who play and participate in competitions. Bouyei young men and women in Luoping Niu Street will hold grand activities of mountain tours, songs and friends during these three days.
Young people of all nationalities, who live for tens of miles around, will also come to the mountainside of Ma Bi to participate in and watch this traditional song-matching and tune-matching activity. Singers can show themselves on such occasions. With the talent of improvisation, they can sing with their rivals for three days, three nights or even longer. Many young men and women have established love relationships through these activities.
According to Dong legend, in ancient times, the original territory of Dong always used the time when the tung trees blossomed as the transplanting festival. But one year when Tongshu did not blossom, the result was that it missed the farming time, so it had to flee to Baojing. In order to learn the lessons of the past, people would blow Lusheng to sing, visit relatives and friends on the third day of March, and remind each other that the busy farming Dong people held more activities such as robbing fireworks, fighting bulls, fighting horses, song and stepping on halls than festivals, also known as "fireworks festival".
The Dong people's Festival lasts for five days on March 3rd. Every first day of the third month of the lunar calendar, families begin to prepare.
On the second day of junior high school, the girls invited each other to fish and catch shrimp by the river, and prepared a picnic with the boys on the slope.
In the early morning of the third day, the girls dressed carefully, put on delicate bamboo baskets, went to the vegetable garden to collect onions and garlic, and washed them with water by the spring. They lined up in a long line, stood on the waterfront path, shyly waved the basket, quietly looked up the hillside, waiting for the lover to ask for it. At this time, the hillside has already been full of people, inside the girl's family, to see which posterity has taken the basket. A group of young men wearing neat blue cloth to their skirts, one by one, walked up the waterfront path amid the well-meaning laughter of the people. At this time, the young men will ask for basketball in public, the recipient will welcome a "oh oh" exclamation, the young man and the girl can quietly agree to return the basketball time. The young man who can't get the basket will attract the mockery of the onlookers, and then sing on the hillside beside the stockade, continuing to search for intimate friends by singing until dawn. At noon, people gathered in the center of the village to sing and dance.
A grand masquerade ball will be held on the fourth day of March. On the afternoon of the fifth day, a farewell ceremony will be held for the guests from the neighbouring villages.
The Yao people take March 3rd as "Ganba Festival", which is a collective fishing and hunting festival. They distribute the wild animals and fish captured by their families and share the joy of harvesting. After that, they gather in the square, sing and dance, and celebrate the festival.
Legend has it that long ago, wild animals often visited and injured people and damaged crops in Yao villages. In order to protect their homeland, Pangu, the national hero of the village, led the warriors up the mountain to hunt and kill wild animals. Unfortunately, Pangu was killed on the spot by the antelope with its horn tops. That day was the third day of March in the lunar calendar. In order to remember the national hero Pangu, the Yao people positioned the third day of March every year in memory of Pangu. On March 3rd, also known as Ganba Festival, before March 3rd every year, Yao men came to Laolin one week earlier to hunt, kill wild animals, fish and shrimp in the river, and baked them to bring home. Women go up to the mountain to pick natural dyes such as indigo leaves. After boiling water, they dye glutinous rice in four colors: red, yellow, blue and purple for offering Pangu. Year after year, it has been handed down. In the past "March 3", the Yao people laid down their farm work and took a day off to pay tribute to Pangu, that is, women took a day off to do needlework, men read sutras, drink, entertainment, girls and young men met on the barren hills beside the village, to sing, to talk about love and to play in the woods.
In Jiangsu Province, there is a custom of visiting temple fairs on March 3rd. Every March 3rd, all kinds of vendors will set up their stalls in the street. It looks like a long dragon at a glance, which is also one of the most lively festivals of the year.