Man Han tune
Han Han tune. Chinese translation means desert tone. A form of folk songs. Mainly popular in Mongolia and Han mixed Yikezhao League Zhungeer Banner, Dalat Banner and Baotou City Tumut Right Banner, Hohhot City Tumut Left Banner and other places.
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, under the care and attention of the Party and the government, the extensive tune has made great progress. In 1996, the Zhungeer Banner was named "The Town of Chinese Folk Art" (Man Han Diao) by the Ministry of Culture; in June 2007, the Zhungeer Banner Man Han Diao was identified as the first batch of district-level intangible cultural heritage by the people's government of the autonomous region.
On June 7, 2008, Man Han Tiao was listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
When referring to Zhungeer Banner of Ordos City, people often think of her rapid economic development and the rapidly changing urban landscape. However, people are deeply impressed by the banner, in addition to economic development and urban construction, there is also the unique national culture and art of the banner - the vast tune. Zhungeer Banner Manhan Tune Art has a long history. In 1996, Zhungeer Banner was named as the hometown of Chinese folk culture and art by the Ministry of Culture. In 2008, folk art was listed on the national intangible cultural heritage list. In 2011, the Zhungeer Banner was renamed the hometown of Chinese folk culture and art by the Ministry of Culture.
The word "Man Han" in Man Han Dialect is the transliteration of "Mang He" in Mongolian, meaning "sand dune", "sand beam" and "desert". Zhungeer Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, the birthplace of Manhan Tune, is an area with sand dunes, sand beams and deserts. It is natural, reasonable and appropriate for the Mongolian and Han people living here to name their songs with Manhan Tune. Zhungeer Banner is the hometown of Manhan Tune, which is the specialty of Zhungeer Banner. Hence, it was named the hometown of folk art by the Ministry of Culture.
As early as more than a hundred years ago, during the Jiaqing and Daoguang periods of the Qing Dynasty, the policy of "borrowing land to support the people" was implemented in the Mongolian Banner, which caused a large number of Han immigrants to flow into the quasi-banner, resulting in the situation of mixed Mongolian and Han living, farming and animal husbandry. The immigration of Han people not only opened up the development of agricultural economy, but also promoted the exchange and integration of culture and art between Mongolian and Han banners, especially the folk song art. Thus, the "vast tune" of quasi-banners came into being.
But there is another way of saying about the name of the place: at the end of the Qing Dynasty, the mixed Mongolian and Han living here in Junggar had become a climate, often playing and singing together. At first, the Mongolian people sang Mongolian folk songs and the Han people sang Shanxi and Shaanxi folk songs. Over a long period of time, some Mongolian short tunes were accepted by the Han people, and some Mongolian short tunes were compiled freely according to the improvisation method. It sounded fresh and was soon welcomed by the Mongolian people. Reward. So "Man Han Tune" is also called "Man Han Tune". To put it plainly, it uses Mongolian short tune to make skin, and Han singing method to make stuffing, which forms a whole.
The singing forms of Man Han tune are solo, chorus and duet, and the main form of expression is song. When men and women sing to each other, men and women sing with the same voice, and men sing with falsetto.
"Man Hang tone crisp sound, the more the Mongolian and Han brothers sing, the more provocative. The vast tune is the roots and willows, laughter singing out a hand in hand. The water of the Yellow River flows around the Zhungeer Banner into the minds of the Mongolian and Han people. As time goes on, the friendship between the Mongolian and Han people has lasted for thousands of generations. In the border areas of Shanxi, Shanxi and Mongolia, and the intersection areas of the Loess Plateau and the Ordos Plateau, there are endless lyrics of this kind, which have been sung for nearly 200 years, and also the voice of unity and friendship of the Mongolian and Han people.
Tracing back to the history of the formation of Man Han Diao, national unity is its distinct feature. The word "Man Han" in Man Han Dialect is the transliteration of "Mang He" in Mongolian, which means sand dunes, sand beams and deserts. Therefore, diffuse tune can also be called dune tune, sand beam tune and desert tune. Zhungeer Banner, the birthplace of Man Diao, is an area with sand dunes, sand beams and deserts.
In the history of Zhungeer Banner, Mongolian and Han people have been living together for a long time, both farming and animal husbandry. Mongolian and Han people help each other and live in harmony in the long-term labor and life. Over the years, from the way of life to the habits of life, they imitated each other and exchanged extensively in culture and art. Together, they created the unique art form of Man Han Tune, which has been circulated to the present day.
Manhan tune is a unique Ordos song which is based on Mongolian short-tune folk song and has the style of Han singing. Man-han tone is warm and bold, the melody is simple and novel, the language is simple and unadorned, coupled with neat syntax, lively rhythm, and the integration of Zhungeer local dialect, exuding a strong local flavor and mountain flavor, forming a unique artistic style, in Zhungeer Banner and surrounding Shanxi, Shaanxi and other places flourished for a long time.
Man Han Diao is based on the pentatonic scale, with its melodies fluctuating and unrestrained. This is not only greatly influenced by Mongolian folk songs, but also absorbs the melody characteristics of Han folk songs such as mountain climbing tune. Ordos Plateau has a vast territory, the people's personality is straightforward, frank, simple and enthusiastic, which also contains the melodic characteristics of Manhan tune. How big jumps are the melodies of Manhan tune? Seven or eight jumps are more common. Nine, ten or even eleven or two jumps are also seen from time to time.
Manhan tune is the "special product" of mass literature and art in Zhungeer Banner. It is a new folk song produced by the working people of Mongolia and Han in the communication of production and life. It has dozens of tunes and countless lyrics. Manhan tune is the combination of these two parts. It is based on the folk art of "Xintianyou", "Shan Song" and "Er-er-Tai" in Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, and is constantly learning from Mongolia. Ancient traditional songs and lyric filling and singing broke through the fixed form of Mongolian tunes. There appeared a multi-word, a special form of expression, singing form and musical instruments. Due to the long-term integration of Mongolian and Han people, they invited each other to gather, improvised Lyric singing, asking and answering questions, singing and singing together, usually in the form of men and women singing in pairs, with the traditional national instrumental music of four-hu, four-hu and one-hu. Accompanied by thick flute, three strings and dulcimer.
There are more than 80 Qu names, most of which still retain Mongolian qu-duo, such as "Guanglin Zhao", "Sentongma", "Han Qingdawa". Some are Han names, such as "cabbage flower", "Shuangshan Liang", "planting willow tree". Some are Mongolian-Chinese phonetic synthesis, such as "Heyanliang", "Hadaigou". Others retain Mongolian and Han titles, such as "Deshengxi" Mongolian name "Andertao". Laogai, "Lian Siqu Er" was named "Weilin Flower" and "Ouch yo yo" was named "Lord Lin" and so on.
There are four modes: feather mode, Palace mode, levy mode and quotient mode. These four modes are interrelated tones, which can be naturally transformed and used in singing.
The musical form is composed mostly of two or four phrases. Each phrase is mostly composed of 4 subsections and 8 beats. It is as regular as "crossing the door", so it is easy to learn and pass on, and easy to sing.
Vocal characteristics: men and women sing in real voice. Men are high-minded, strong, bright and mellow. Women are crisp, tender, sweet and cordial. Instrumental music emphasizes rough flute, commonly known as plum, plum has the ability to help the singer lift his spirits, so it is the "main bone" of all instrumental music.
The folk song of "Man Han Diao" embodies the characteristics of the traditional "short tune" songs of Ordos Mongolia, and combines the local dialect of Junggar, forming a unique style.
In the performance form of Man Han Tune, there is a way of expression called "wind stirring snow". The so-called "wind stirring snow" means that when singers sing Man Han Tune, Mongolian and Chinese appear simultaneously in a lyric. For example, Mao Riya Hukui (Mongolian, Chinese translated horse does not leave), take a whip (Chinese). Nuhuri Yirikui (Mongolian, Chinese translation for friends do not come), bring a sentence (Chinese).
On the basis of Mongolian sitting tune, the Man-Han tune singer combines the impromptu composing method of Han mountain-climbing tune with the singing method of Han folk song, thus breaking through the frame of Mongolian tune to a certain extent, turning it into a multi-word, multi-word song, enriching the content of the original short tune song, making the tune more relaxed and the rhythm more lively.
The melody is mainly composed of Ordos Mongolian short-tune folk songs, which absorbs the characteristics of mountain-climbing tune; the lyrics are mainly Chinese, but also absorb Mongolian vocabulary, so that the melodies of the two styles are intermingled, and the languages of the two nationalities are mixed. For example, "Wang Aizhao" and "Planting Willows" are all examples. Others include "Alatandai Day", "Broom Flower Day", "Chairman Mao Bring Happiness" and so on.
Zhungeer Banner is an exotic folk art which was cultivated and watered by the Mongolian and Han people. The development of Man Han Tune Art is closely related to people's production and life. Manhan tone is rich in content, reflecting not only productive labor and daily life, but also love and customs and etiquette. "If a horse can't turn around on the wall, when can he live in front of himself?" The song lyrics vividly express people's longing for a better life before the founding of New China.
After the founding of New China, with the development of economy and society and the continuous improvement of people's living standards, people expressed their love for new life and their yearning for the future with a wide range of tunes. "Green leek scrambled eggs, smiling to the intimate steaming rice. Small rivers, big rivers and bridges, small shops can also give family fatigue. Nowadays, the policy has been relaxed. Everywhere there is a lot of money and a lot of livelihoods.
"Thirty miles of Mingsha 20 miles of water, 50 miles of road to kiss you, half a month to you 15 times, to run brother into a ring leg." The lyrics in this long melody show that it was not convenient for young men and women to talk about love because of the influence of natural conditions in the past. "You love me, I love you, you call me when you miss me." Nowadays, with the rapid development of transportation and communication, the lyrics of love songs have also changed.
In Zhungeer Banner, almost everyone can sing Man Han tune. This hot land has cultivated many excellent rambling singers. In 1955, at the first National Folk Art, Music, Dance, Drama and View Performance Conference, Chungle Banner Man Ying Tune singer Ben Ligu won the first prize for his song Uling Flower. From then on, Man Hang Tune came on the stage. In 1964, Man Han tune singers Zhang Mei-rong and Qi Er-lu participated in the national amateur art performance in Beijing. This was the first time that Man Han tune was sung in Beijing. Zhang Mei-rong and others were cordially received by Party and state leaders. In the 1st and 2nd National Peasant Singers'Grand Prix held by the Ministry of Culture and the Chinese Musicians' Association, Yang Suozhu and Yang Maomao, the singers of Zhungeer Banner, won awards with strong strength. In 2000, Manhan Opera "Nalin Riverside" was awarded the "Five-One Project" award by the autonomous region, which was performed by many original Manhan tune singers.
Wang Qifulin, a 60-year-old Man-han tune singer, began to learn Man-han tune at the age of 10. In recent years, he has won numerous awards and ranked among the "Ten Kings of Original Ecology in China". He sang Manhan to the north and south of the Yangtze River and to CCTV. A report in the Music Weekly, "The King of Western Songs to Beijing Dazhao" said: "Anyone who has heard the singer Qi Fulin sing in a wide range of tunes will surely be shocked by his bright baritone and sharp treble. If the tenor in the usual sense can reach 8 degrees high, then Qifulin can be called a supertenor, because he can easily reach 11 degrees high. His long-lasting iron voice and plain and unadorned performing skills make us have to lament the tenacious vitality and extraordinary artistic charm of the original and native traditional folk songs. Qifulin was named the outstanding inheritor of Chinese folk culture by the Chinese Federation of Chinese Literature and Art, the Chinese Folk Artists Association and the Chinese Dancer Association. Now he is still active on the stage.
In order to protect and inherit the culture and art of Manhan Diao, and promote national culture, Zhungeer Banner has promulgated the management measures for the selection of cultural and artistic local talents, established the government subsidy for cultural and artistic local talents, and successively established the Manhan Diao Art Research Institute and the Working Group for the Promotion of Folk Culture Research. Zhungeer Banner has successfully held six Manhan Tune Art Festivals, which has contributed to the further inheritance, promotion, development and prosperity of Manhan Tune Art. At last year's 6th Manhan Melody Art Festival, Manhan Melody singers from three provinces performed together, especially Qi Fulin, the inheritor of Manhan Melody in Zhungeer Banner, and Wang Fengying, the singer, who sang Manhan Melody "The World's Yellow River", won a long and warm applause from the audience.
With the rapid development of economy and society, the vast tune of Zhungeer Banner will surely keep improving with the times and move towards new brilliance.