Luonan Jing Blackboard

Home Culture 2019-05-15

Luonan Jing Blackboard

In 2011, Luonan Jingbanshu was approved by the State Council and listed in the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. As early as in the Daoguang period of the Qing Dynasty (around 1821), the Jing Banshu in Luonan was popular everywhere in Luonan, which belonged to the native Han folk song in Luonan area of Shaanxi Province. This form of folk art is mostly a means for blind artists to survive. Rap is mainly about praying for God, thanking the land and helping the peasant households to have fun. Its bibliography is mainly about traditional contents.

On May 23, 2011, Luonan Jingbanshu was approved by the State Council to be included in the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.

Historical origin

As early as in the Daoguang period of the Qing Dynasty (about 1821 A.D.), the blackboard writing of Luonan Jing was popular in Luonan. It belongs to a native folk song, and was once a means for blind artists to survive. Luonan Jingbanshu can play six kinds of musical instruments by one person. It combines playing, speaking, beating, knocking and singing together. One person has seven people. Its rhyme is magnificent, its pronunciation is clear, its rigidity and softness match each other, and it is simple and rugged. Talking and singing mainly relies on seeking God, thanking earth gods and helping peasant households to have fun. The bibliographic form is divided into large books, mid-chapter books, small Huishu books and small bookcaps with twenty or thirty sentences. The content of the bibliography is mostly based on the traditional bibliography of singing rhymes with seven-character lines. It has clear love and hate, praise and derogation. It is from astronomy to astronomy, from geography to character image, vivid life atmosphere, and is integrated into idioms, allegorical sayings and dialects. Local language, both the Northwest Qin people's forthright, but also the Central Plains style of euphemism. Because of the scarcity and simplicity of the stationary board bookshop, a table and chair can be sung in the fields and family yards, which is popular with the masses and has lasted for a hundred years. After liberation, the mass cultural workers in Luonan County devoted themselves to the excavation, collation and protection of Jingbanshu. Since the 1950s, the county cultural and propaganda departments have organized many training programs for folk artists, excavated and sorted out more than 300 bibliographies, such as Baogong Case, Shigong Case, Three Kingdoms Records, Yang Jiajiang, Twenty-four Filial Piety, Baxian Legend, and compiled new bibliographies reflecting real life, Lajingba, Maqianboshui and King of Bed-wetting. More than 50 works, such as "Urgent Temper", have trained a group of young male and female novices, put this art form on the stage, and participated in many provincial, prefectural and county literary and artistic performances, which made this ancient song shine brilliantly. Wu Quanxi, the stationmaster of Chengguan Culture Station, has been engaged in mass cultural work for more than 30 years. He has a special love for Jingbanshu in Luonan. He has visited many places such as Shangshidian, Miaotai, Lingkou, Sanyao, Shimen, Shipo, Yongfeng and Sihao, and visited many old artists. He knows the inheritance pedigree of Jingbanshu and keeps the recordings and records of three generations of old artists'live performances and performances. Such valuable information as images and photographs.

basic content

Luonan Jing blackboard writing can play six kinds of musical instruments, melting, knocking, beating, speaking and singing in one, one person can top seven people. Shopping is scarce, easy to do, field, family courtyard, a table and chair can be rapped. When rapping, a bamboo pole is erected on both sides of the table, then two ropes are used to tie the pole. The big gong and the small Gong are hanged on the upper rope, and the lower rope is close to the edge of the gong to prevent the Gong body from swinging. A small brass bracelet was placed on the table with a hemp rope ring, and a pedal bracelet was tied on the legs of the table. The storyteller has four bamboo grasshopper boards under his knees, embracing three strings, playing and singing by himself. When rapping, the rhythm is beaten only by foot bangles, and other instruments are not mixed with accompaniment. When crossing the door, the atmosphere is rendered by other instruments. The singing is clear and elegant, so it is called "silent board".

Luonan Jing's blackboard writing naturally forms three different styles of rap and singing, namely, East Road, West Road, North Road.

East Road static blackboard writing is simple and rude. When rapping, strings use three rhythms from top to bottom, repeat three times, and develop according to the bibliographic plot, sometimes with dragging, sometimes without dragging.

West Road quiet blackboard writing, vocal emphasis on the rhyme of magnificent, steel and soft, generally with a drag cavity, a long tail.

Beilu quiet blackboard writing, singing to strive for light language, articulation clear, pay attention to lyric, without dragging tone

Representative works

Bao Gong Case, Shi Gong Case, Peng Gong Case, Feng Shen Bang, Sui and Tang Dynasty Romance, Three Kingdoms, Yang Jia Jiang, La Jingba, Little Son-in-law and so on.

Circulation area

Luonan County is located in the southeast of Shaanxi Province and the northeast of Shangluo City. It borders Lantian in Huaxian County in the west, Danfeng Shangnan in the south, Lingbao in Henan Province in Huayin and Tongguan in the north, and Lushi in Henan Province in the east. The county is 195 kilometers away from the provincial city of Xi'an and 45 kilometers away from Shangluo. The longest is about 65 kilometers east and west, the widest is about 64 kilometers north and south, and the total area is 2791.3 square kilometers. The cultivated land area is 503,000 mu, with a total population of 460,000. There are nine nationalities and 30 townships in Han, Hui, Mongolia, Zhuang, Manchu, Bai, She, Tujia and Korea.

Luonan is located in the south foot of the eastern Qinling Mountains and the upper reaches of the Nanluo River. The terrain inclines from northwest to south, and the mountains stretch from west to east. The terrain is finger-shaped mountain, like a flying pigeon, generally between 800 and 1600 meters above sea level. The relative height difference is about 800 meters.

Located in the northern edge of subtropical zone, Luonan has a warm temperate mountain climate with distinct seasons, moderate rainfall and mild climate. "Eight Mountains and Half Water and Half Field" is rich in plant, animal, mineral and hydraulic resources.

According to Local Records of Luonan County and Kangxi Records, "Luonan" is named "Luonan" because it is located in the south of Luoshui and named after water. The River in Shangluo is the only county in the Yellow River basin, which separates the Yellow River and the Yangtze River by the natural boundary of the Python Ridge winding hundreds of miles. Luohe River is also a big river in this county. The basin area is 2505.6 square kilometers, accounting for 97.8% of the county's basin area. Muchagou, originating in Luoyuan Township, is 449 km south-northwest of the mainstream. It enters Lushi County, Henan Province, east of the Lancao River Estuary, and flows into the Yellow River near Luoyang.

Luonan County has a long history and outstanding people. In the late Paleolithic and early Neolithic periods, ancestors settled down here. In the 1960s, spiky flowers and rocks, ape-man sites were discovered, which were proved by archaeologists for about 500,000 years. Luonan County is also a red base where the older revolutionaries such as Li Xiannian, Liu Zhidan, Xie Zichang and Xu Haidong fought. The cultural landscapes of Wenmiao, Baoan Cangjie, Yuxudong in Shimen, Laojunshan, Gubai in Yeshan and Danxia in Songcun have been exploited and utilized to attract tourists from home and abroad. Nowadays, the countryside, towns, villages and groups of highways are in all directions, high and low voltage circuits are directly sent to thousands of households, television and telecommunications networks cover the whole county, urban and rural construction is changing with each passing day, with superior geographical position and elegant environment.

Jingbanshu in Luonan mainly distributes in Sanyao, Wangling, Gaoyao, Temple Slope, Lingkou, Liyuan, Sicha, Temple Bay, Temple Platform, Shangshidian, Huangping, Ancient City, Yeshan, Malian Beach, Jingcun, Waterlogging, Zhanghe, Youquan, Niuwan, Yangcun, Baiyu Temple, Temple Ping, Guanqiao, Shipo, Lihe, Sangping, Liangtou Plateau, Shangshumen, Huamiao, Gushan, Yongfeng, Bailuo, Huyu, etc. Sihao, Xiewan, Mahe, Chengguan, Yaodi, Bali, Fengling and other towns.

Endangered situation

1. People continue to die, and their physical condition is not good. With the change of age, their memory declines, their hands and feet lose flexibility, and most of them can no longer speak and sing.

2. Old artists mostly teach by mouth and heart. Many excellent traditional bibliographies are lost without written records.

3. The ancient traditional singing style lags behind the aesthetic needs of modern people.

4. The threat of modern art forms.

5. Young artists lack of understanding of national folk culture and art. Many artists have changed their performances to drama, song and dance, and the relationship between teachers and inheritors has been broken.

6. Difficulties in funds and funds restrict the training of new recruits.

7. The congenital weakness of slow rap and singing can not catch up with the rhythm of modern life, and young listeners are hard to satisfy.

8. Old artists are old-fashioned in their ideas and concepts, and "disseminating art" is neither inside nor outside. No one learns from inside, no one teaches from outside. If rescue measures are not taken, this peculiar folk art will decline.

Protection plan

Main Protective Contents

1. Census registration;

2. Training exchange;

3. Establishing art archives;

4. Organizing a competition book show;

5. Send young artists for further study.

6. Publishing a special collection of Luonan Quyi;

7. News media publicity;

8. To commend and reward those who have made outstanding contributions to quyi;

9. Processing and improving singing music;

10. Organize tours to counties and cities. Protective measures taken

Protective measures taken

1. Census and registration of new and old artists has been started. A Symposium of 10 artists has been held.

2. Li Guicun, an old artist, has been invited to pass on art for 8 young novices and learn new books for 5 chapters.

3. Planning two training sessions of new and old artists in 2006 (70 people, 30 days) to commend and reward 10 people.

4. Two old artists'feature films have been broadcasted 10 times through the county cable TV station to continuously improve the social popularity of silent blackboard writing.

5. The county's artists'directory is being compiled to facilitate artists' contact.

6. Artists'liaison stations have been set up, with full-time receptionists and artists' accommodation.

7. Leading teams of township and town management are being prepared, and artists'performance teams are being set up separately.

8. Full-time personnel have been arranged to start collecting and sorting out traditional bibliographies, so as to do the preliminary work well for the special collection.

9. The artists'art archives have been set up, recording and video recording have been started to continue the line of inheritance.

Luonan Jing Blackboard

Five-year protection work plan

Protection measures in 2005: census and registration of new and old artists in the county. Expected objective: To complete the census task by the end of the year.

Protection measures in 2006: two training courses for new and old artists were held, and artists with outstanding contributions were commended and rewarded. Expected target: 70 people 30 days; 10 people.

Protection Measures in 2007: Establish art archives for artists. Expected goal: Recording, recording and bibliographic materials are complete.

Protective measures in 2008: Holding a large-scale artist book contest. Expected goal: Press media column introduction, publishing 4000 volumes of Luonan Opera Art Collection.

Protection Measures in 2009: Select young artists for further study and organize and arrange a wonderful repertoire. Expected goal: Art academy 10 people, tour Shangluo counties, cities and performances.

Five-year Major Safeguards

1. Organize condolences to famous artists over 60 years old to help solve specific difficulties.

2. Digging and sorting out more than 300 traditional bibliographies (books and Hui).

3. Invite music experts to reform rap music and melt new tunes on the basis of tradition.

4. Hold regular training sessions for artists to exchange traditional bibliographies and learn new bibliographies of rap and singing.

5. Establish artist reception liaison stations and full-time receptionists to provide free accommodation for artists.

Luonan Jing Blackboard

Establish mechanism

1. County management committees are set up, Township and town management leading groups are set up, and artists are divided into rap teams.

2. To formulate management rules and regulations and issue performance licenses.

3. Coordinating the relations among all parties, and preparing for the construction of Luonan Opera Museum in 2010.

Expenditure Budget and Basis Statement

1. Census of new and old artists in 2005, compiling address book: 15,000 yuan

2. In 2006, there were 70 training courses for 30 days, rewarding 10 people: 79,000 yuan.

3. Establishment of 60 artists'archives in 2007, audio-visual and written materials: 50,000 yuan

4. In 2008, a large-scale Book Competition was held, a special collection of folk art was published, and news media propaganda: 60,000 yuan

5. In 2009, 10 young artists were selected for further study (one year):100,000 yuan

6. Organizing and arranging a wonderful repertoire, touring the counties and towns outside the county and performing in the counties and cities, 40 people board and lodging fares, compilation fees, rehearsal fees, miscellaneous expenses and so on: 80,000 yuan

Total: 384,000 yuan.

1. It is suggested that the state finance grant 300 yuan a month to the old artists over 60 years old.

2. It is suggested that the local financial subsidy of 200 yuan per month should be paid to artists under 60 years of age.

3. It is suggested that the five-year planning fund be included in the normal budget.

Important performance

The World Expo

Jingbanshu is a well-known folk art form in Luonan County. It made a brilliant appearance at the Shanghai World Expo and participated in the ten-year cultural and artistic exhibition of the Shangluo event at the Shanghai World Expo. It was welcomed by Chinese and foreign tourists and attracted more than 40,000 audiences. It made Luonan Jingbanshu famous at home and abroad.

It is reported that Luonan Jingbi, as a famous folk art in Luonan County, has performed 49 consecutive performances in Shaanxi Pavilion of the Expo Garden for 7 days, with an audience of 40,000 people. The repertoire includes the folk traditional bibliography of "Four Great Peking" in Luonan, as well as humorous bookcaps such as "Family Worship", "Fear of Wife" and "Young Men's Dreams". The grand performance is unprecedented, not only favored by tourists, but also attracted the attention of many media. After the performance, three performers were selected by a large entertainment company in Shanghai Pudong Development Zone and signed a performance contract.

Luonan Jingbanshu was published as the first batch of intangible cultural heritage list by the Shaanxi Provincial People's Government in June 2008. In June 2010, the Ministry of Culture of China published it as the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.

Ode to China

The Fifth National Competition of Opera Sketches and Opera Arts was held in Beijing from November 15 to 20, 2014, organized jointly by the Public Cultural Development Center of the Ministry of Culture, the Chinese Cultural Management Association and the Art Development Center of the Chinese Dramatists Association. Luonan Jing's blackboard book, which has been listed in the third batch of intangible cultural heritage protection projects at the national level, participated in the competition and achieved good results.

The competition was attended by professional and amateur groups from 25 provinces, cities and counties in China. A total of 25 small operas, sketches and opera performances were performed. Luonan Jingbi participated in the program "Eight Provisions of Zhengdang Style", which adopted the traditional form of opera and eulogized the Eight Provisions of the Central Committee. Its main content was to uphold the Party Style, strengthen the country, rejuvenate the nation and realize the beautiful Chinese dream. The program won applause from the audience with its profound theme, unique form, ambitious momentum and wonderful performance. After the judges voted, the program won the silver prize in the competition. At the same time, Wu Quanxi was awarded the Excellent Screenwriter Award; Niu Xinhong and Fang Aimin were awarded the Excellent Director Award; Li Baoxiang was awarded the Excellent Art Guidance Award; Ren Yinfeng, Li Guicun and other seven folk artists were awarded the Excellent Performance Award; Luonan Cultural Radio, Film and Television Bureau was awarded the Excellent Organization Award.

Inheritance significance

"Luonan Jingbanshu" project was named as the city-level non-legacy list by Shangluo City in March 2008; was announced as the first batch of provincial non-legacy list by Shaanxi Province in March 2009; and declared to the state-level in August 2009. Declaration Unit: Luonan County Opera Troupe. It has:

1. It has a strong popularity. The characters in the bibliography are praised and disparaged, and their love and hatred are distinct.

2. It has abundant knowledge, from astronomy to geography in the bibliography, from the previous dynasties to the future generations, the universe has nothing, all through the artist's rap, to convey historical allusions to the audience.

3. Strong artistry, tortuous stories in bibliography, vivid characters, strong breath of life, rich vocabulary.

4. Great enlightenment, legends and stories in bibliographies, court struggles, neighbourhood relations, contradictions and fierce unfolding, clever resolution, so that the audience enlightened by enjoying teaching.

5. It can be used for reference by other artistic creations. Many stories in the bibliography have been adapted into dramas and other art forms, which play an important role in inheriting national folk culture.