Luodai Ancient Town
Luodai Ancient Town is located in Longquanyi District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, with a total area of more than 20000 square meters. Luodai Ancient Town is a national historical and cultural town and one of the five "Dongshan five fields" in Chengdu.
Luodai Ancient Town became a street as early as the Three Kingdoms, and became a regional market town in the early Song Dynasty. It is the most complete Hakka ancient town in the suburbs of Chengdu. It mainly includes the core protection area of Luodai Ancient Town, Jinlong Lake Scenic Area and Baosheng original ecological Hakka village, showing a cultural and ecological tourism pattern of "walking into history, returning to nature and experiencing landscape". The thousand year old streets and Hakka houses in the town are well preserved. The old streets are in the pattern of "one street and Seven Alleys", which is a typical architectural style of Ming and Qing Dynasties. The town is famous for Luodai guild hall (Guangdong guild hall, Jiangxi guild hall, Huguang guild hall, North Sichuan guild hall), Hakka Museum and Hakka park. It is a wonderful flower in the Grand View Garden of ancient Chinese architecture.
Luodai Ancient Town is a key scenic spot, a national key town, a national historical and cultural town, and a national advanced town of fitness activities for hundreds of millions of farmers. On November 28, 2006, Luodai Ancient Town was rated as a national AAAA tourist attraction.
It is said that Luodai had already been a street in the Three Kingdoms, known as "Wanfu Street". After that, Zhuge Liangxing city was renamed "Wanjing Street". Luodai, the original work of Luodai, was named "Luodai" from two sources: first, it was said that Liu Chan, the prince of Shu, played in the town during the Three Kingdoms period, and accidentally dropped the jade belt into an octagonal well in the town to catch carp; second, there was a river with the shape of a jade belt, so it was called "Luodai". After that, they gradually simplified the Convention custom and became "Luodai". The name of "Luodai" was first found in the "Chengdu Luodai people Mou Yu Yi" in Du Guangting's "immortal experience" written by Du Guangting in the late Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, indicating that the name of "Luodai" was established before the end of Tang Dynasty.
Qin destroyed Shu and established Shu County, Luodai was under the jurisdiction of Chengdu county. From Qin Dynasty to early Tang Dynasty, Luodai was an important post station on the post road.
It is said that Luodai had a street in the Three Kingdoms period, named "Wanfu Street"; after Zhuge Liang prospered, it was renamed "Wanjing Street".
In 643, the 17th year of Zhenguan of Tang Dynasty was divided into Chengdu county and Shuxian county was located in Luodai county. In the first year of Wu Zetian's long-term vision in the Tang Dynasty (700 years), Dongyang county was set up in Guangdu of Shu County, and Luodai was subordinate to Dongyang county.
"Luodai" is called "town" in the "Notre Dame hall" in Huanghu period (1049-1054) of Northern Song Dynasty. In 1074, Zhang Pu wrote the record of praying for rain in ruiyingyuan of Lingquan County, which recorded: "Lingquan is the capital of the government, and riluodai is the town of the city"; the National Geographic record of Yuanfeng nine regions (Volume 7) compiled and issued in the year of Yuanfeng in the Northern Song Dynasty (1078-1085), clearly records that the jurisdiction of fulingquan County in Chengdu is "15 townships, Luodai, Wangdian and xiaodongyang".
In the sixth year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty, Luodai was subordinate to Jianyang county. In the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, the immigration movement and the history of "Huguang filling Sichuan" made Hakkas from other places take root in Luodai, Sichuan.
In May 1950, the PLA put an end to the "3.3 rebellion" launched by the remnants of the Kuomintang in Luodai.
In 1955, it was named Luodai district.
In 1976, Luodai was assigned to Longquanyi District of Chengdu.
In the 1990s, the main street of Luodai Ancient Town was mostly for unit houses, such as the location of hospitals, banks and grain depots.
Around 2000, with the promotion of public housing to private housing, most of the housing began to enter the market.
Around 2005, in order to welcome the 20th World Hakka conference held in Luodai, the government launched the style restoration project to build the ancient streets in a unified way. The residential buildings were built into standardized shops, and the rolling shutter doors were replaced with wooden door panels. A total of 485 shops were created, and the "agricultural materials, building materials, household appliances, and hardware" were all moved out of the ancient town.
In 2006, Luodai Ancient Town was rated as a national 4A tourist attraction.
Luodai Ancient Town scenic area is located in Longquanyi District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, with a total area of more than 20000 square meters. It is 18 km away from Chengdu urban area in the west, 11 km away from the national Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone in the south, 3 km away from the entrance of Chengdu Chongqing Expressway Sunshine City, 43 km from Shuangliu International Airport and 6 km away from Hong'an railway station in the north. Chengluo road and chenghuan road run through the town in the East, West, North and south. They are also the intersection of Chengzhao highway, Chenghong highway and Luohuang highway.
Luodai Ancient Town has a subtropical monsoon climate, with an annual average temperature of 16-17 ℃. It has a pleasant climate without severe cold in winter and hot summer in summer. The water quality and air meet the national standards, so it is suitable for tourism throughout the year.
Luodai town is widely planted with fruit trees, with a forest land area of 22491 mu, a forest land coverage rate of 35.33% (55.6% in hilly areas), a greening rate of 99.6%, and 2222.4 mu of returning farmland to forest. In the east of Zhendong, there are sane mountain, which is located in the northern section of Longquan Mountain. It is a green barrier to the east of the Western Sichuan plain. There are some species on the mountain, such as ormosia, juniper, pine, Osmanthus fragrans, Cinnamomum camphora, etc. on the mountain, the tree age is more than two or three hundred years. Among them, more than 10 red bean trees are the most precious. It is said that they were brought from Guangdong by the Hakka ancestors when they came to Sichuan in the early Qing Dynasty. Planting them here is a historical witness and a symbol of homesickness of Hakka ancestors.
Luodai Ancient Town has a profound history. It was built in the Shuhan period of the Three Kingdoms. The pattern of one street and seven alleys has not changed for thousands of years. Luodai Ancient Town is the most complete Hakka ancient town in the suburbs of Chengdu. It has rich Hakka culture. It has more than 500000 square meters of Hakka buildings in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, including the national key cultural relics protection unit "four guildhalls", and more than 50 Hakka pavilions and ancestral halls in Sichuan.
The ancient town of Luodai has a thousand years old street. Hakka dwellings are well preserved, especially the "four halls and one garden" (Guangdong guild hall, Jiangxi guild hall, Huguang guild hall, North Sichuan guild hall and Hakka Park) and the ancient temple of lighting lamp. Among them, Luodai guild hall (Guangdong guild hall, Jiangxi guild hall, Huguang guild hall and North Sichuan guild hall) was listed in the Sixth Batch of national key cultural relics protection units by the State Council on May 25, 2006. Luodai guild hall embodies the richness of immigrant culture and the colorful of classical architecture.
Guangdong guild hall
Located in the south of Shangjie street, Luodai old street, Guangdong guild hall covers an area of 2712 square meters, with a building area of 2499 square meters. In 1746, it was funded by the Hakka Family of Guangdong origin. It is also known as "Nanhua Taoist" for advocating Huineng, the founder of Zen Buddhism. After the fire, the main halls were burned down, only the main gate theater and wing rooms on both sides of the front yard dam were left. In the ninth year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu, the museum was rebuilt. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, it was turned into a granary. Most of the buildings were demolished and added, and then used by Luodai commune.
The main building of Guangdong guild hall is composed of stage, music building, ear building and front, middle and rear hall. It is symmetrically arranged along the central axis and has a compound quadrangle structure with a total construction area of 3310 square meters. There are many couplets on the stone pillars of the main hall of Guangdong guild hall. Among them, "the boundless clouds and the long-time living in Bazi country in different places; the long-distance delivery from the countryside, and the desire to go to the Wangtai of Guangdong Province" can best reflect the Hakka immigrants' feelings of pioneering and hard work and missing their hometown. The antithetical couplet of the modern Hakka painter (Longquan Xihe Town, the national first painter), created by Qiu Xiaoqiu guild hall and hung in the middle hall, is a couplet "the Guangdong style of the western style of the bells, which is the Central Plains ancient Chinese sound." it depicts the Hakka people's roots in Sichuan after they have been dissolved in Ba Shu culture, and the spirit of their own culture, which is "the spirit of selling the ancestral land, not losing the Hakka". Quality. Guangdong Guildhall is one of the most well preserved and largest guildhalls in China. Its fenghuoqiang architectural style is unique in Sichuan, and it is the landmark building of Luodai Ancient Town.
Huguang guild hall
Huguang guild hall, also known as Yuwang palace, is located in the middle street of Luodai town. It was built by immigrants of Huguang nationality in 1743 (the eighth year of Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty) and dedicated to Dayu. It was the contact point of Huguang people in Sichuan (now Hunan and Hubei) in Qing Dynasty. The hall block faces south to the north and is symmetrically arranged along the central axis. It is composed of memorial archways, stage, ear tower, middle back hall and left and right wing rooms. It is decorated with gold. The building area is 2480 square meters, which fully reflects the hard work and social life of immigrants from Huguang. There is no sewer in the courtyard of the museum, but even if the flood on the street is overflowing, the Huguang guild hall will not overflow. It is a great miracle of Huguang guild hall, and it is said by the folk that Dayu protected him. The guild hall was destroyed in a fire in 1912 and rebuilt in 1913.
There is a Sichuan Hakka Museum in Huguang guild hall, which holds "Western China Hakka folk cultural relics exhibition" free of charge all year round. It displays more than 400 pieces of Hakka cultural relics, folk customs and red revolution achievements and other objects or pictures, which has high research value.
North Sichuan guild hall
It was rebuilt in 1862-1874 in the reign of emperor Tongzhi of the Qing Dynasty (1862-1874). It was originally located in wolongqiao street, Chengdu. In 1998, it was moved to Zhengxing village, Luodai town. It is the contact point of merchants in northern Sichuan. Now, there are only hall and stage. The stage is two-story, with double eaves and gable roof, lifting beam type wooden frame, carved doors and windows, and decorated with caisson. After the relocation, the northern Sichuan guild hall covers an area of about 3330 square meters, with a courtyard layout consisting of a mountain gate, a theater building, a main hall and a courtyard. The roof of the mountain gate and theater is Xieshan style, and the main hall is a frame beam with a single eaves and a roof covered with tube tiles. The wood and stone carvings on the building site are exquisite, which is a typical architectural style of West Sichuan temple.
Jiangxi guild hall is located in Jiangxi Guan Street, Luodai Town, formerly known as "Longevity Palace". The building area is 2200 square meters. It was donated by the Hakkas from Jiangxi Province in 1746. It was dedicated to the God Xu Zhenjun of Gannan village and served as the contact point of Jiangxi people who filled Sichuan in Qing Dynasty. The main building of Jiangxi guild hall is composed of a grand stage, a folk house, a memorial archway, three halls in the front, middle and back, and a small stage. Jiangxi guild hall is of great value in terms of overall layout and architectural aesthetics. There is a small stage in the courtyard between the middle and rear halls, which is unique in Sichuan Guildhall.
Lighting ancient temple
As the fourth batch of cultural relics protection units in Chengdu, the ancient temple of lighting lamp has a long history and a long history, and its original name is "Xinxiang Temple". Temples were built in Sui and Tang Dynasties. In the Tang Dynasty, Zen master farun and Wuda Zhiwu successively practiced here. Under the leadership of the master, Xinxiang Temple became famous. During the Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhenzong granted the temple the name of Ruiying Zen temple. Since the Qing Dynasty, the temple has been renamed as the ancient lighting Temple because of the worship of a Buddha. During the cultural revolution, the ancient temple of burning lanterns was hit. Later, because of the opportunity of the Hakka Family's ancestor worship, the master below came to the lantern temple to work with all sectors of society to rebuild the temple on the ruins. After more than ten years of hard work, after years of baptism, the ancient temple of burning lanterns has been rekindled and flourished again.
There are a large number of Steles and couplets in the ancient temple. All the Buddhist statues in the temple are made of pure copper. The ancient temple of burning lanterns covers an area of 18 mu, including Tianwang hall, Daxiong hall, Guanyin hall, ancient Buddha Hall, etc.
History and culture
The immigration movement in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties and the history of "Huguang filling Sichuan" made these Hakkas from other places take root in Luodai, Sichuan. After hundreds of years of reproduction, the unique Hakka customs and culture have been formed in Luodai town. Luodai Ancient Town is also known as "the first Hakka town in Western China", "Luodai in the world and Hakka forever".
Intangible cultural heritage
There are 11 intangible cultural heritages in Luodai Ancient Town, including Hakka dragon dance and Hakka marriage customs, Hakka Water Dragon Festival, Dongshan Hakka dialect and Hakka ancestor worship ceremony.
Hakka dragon dance
Hakka dragon dance is the intangible cultural heritage of Sichuan Province. Luodai has the tradition of dancing water dragon and praying for rain. It has several professional water dragon teams, such as male dragon, female dragon and baby dragon.
The Hakka dragon dance in Luodai is represented by "Liujialong", whose name is derived from the Liu family members of Jiangxi Hakka. The Liu family has lived in Luodai town for 14 generations for more than 300 years, and the dragon dance in the ancient town has a history of more than 300 years. Liujia dragon dance directly developed from the ancient Chinese dragon dance. It has a long history, and the inheritance within the family has not been interrupted. Therefore, it has preserved many of the most primitive procedures and simple rituals of ancient Chinese dragon dance.
Hakka Dragon Festival
Hakka Water Dragon Festival is the fifth batch of representative projects of Sichuan intangible cultural heritage. Hakka Water Dragon Festival is a folk activity with a long history. In ancient times, Hakkas used to dance Water Dragons to pray for rain and harvest every summer. After that, they came to Luodai with "Huguang filling Sichuan", and gradually evolved into today's "Hakka Water Dragon Festival". Since the Hakka Water Dragon Festival was held in 2001, Liujialong, with a history of more than 300 years, has gradually added women's Dragon team, baby dragon team and bench dragon team on the basis of the first two men's dragon teams.
The Hakka dragon dance in Luodai is represented by "Liujialong", whose name is derived from the Liu family members of Jiangxi Hakka. Water Dragon Festival, summer drought, dance water dragon is to pray for rain. All the dragon dancers were naked, wearing only a pair of shorts, moving up and down. Hakka people take water as their wealth. The wetter they splash, the more prosperous they become. Dancers and spectators advance and retreat. Liu Jialong has also become an attractive activity in Hakka culture.
World Hakka Conference
In 2005, Luodai Ancient Town held the 20th World Hakka conference. Therefore, Luodai Ancient Town is known as "the world's Luodai, forever Hakka", and its positioning as "the first town of Hakka in the west" has also been established.
Hakka academic seminar
On March 18, 2001, the 7th Hakka academic seminar was held in Longquan District, Chengdu. The theme of the 2-day international Hakka academic seminar is "to promote the name of Hakka culture and observe the best peach blossom in China".
The fire dragon is a seven festival festival. It was originally burned on the 15th day of the first month. Later, it was changed to March 18th to match the Peach Blossom Festival in Longquan district. All the dragon dancers were naked, wearing only a pair of shorts, moving up and down. Fireworks are the symbol of fortune. The redder the fire is, the more prosperous the fortune will be.
Hakka Culture Forum
From October 26 to 29, 2018, "the ninth Hakka Culture Forum and seminar on Hakka cultural and creative industry development" was held in Luodai.
Luodai Ancient Town has more than 20 kinds of well-known Hakka cuisine, such as sad jelly, oil hot goose and so on.
Jiudou bowl, also known as Baba banquet, running water mat, nine bowls and nine bowls, is one of the traditional dishes in Sichuan. It focuses on steaming dishes and is originally named after the nine dishes. They are: soft fried steamed meat, steamed spareribs, steamed beef, steamed turtle, steamed Hun chicken, steamed Hun duck, steamed elbows, sand meat, salted white. At the same time, "dou" in Sichuan dialect refers to a large container. To call this scene with nine bowls is also to praise the abundant dishes.
Scalded goose with smoked oil
Smoked oil hot goose, Longquan Luodai Ancient Town Hakka cuisine, created by the Hakkas who moved to Sichuan, the specific date of birth is unknown, and it is inherited by the Hakkas in Luodai town. The production process of oil scalded goose is complex. It takes more than 10 hours to go through seven or eight processes from slaughter, pickling, hanging, smoking, stewing to frying.
Swan egg (sugar oil fruit)
It is said that one winter hundreds of years ago, a group of swans came to spend the winter. In the eyes of Hakkas, swans are auspicious and happy animals. Local Hakkas are worried about the theft of swan eggs, so they use glutinous rice, sesame and brown sugar to fry into a swan egg size food, named "swan egg", for human consumption, in order to protect the wild swans. Later it became a Hakka snack. Swan's egg is made of glutinous rice, ground and fermented for a certain time. It is packed with brown sugar or bean paste. Brown sugar and white sugar are boiled in clear oil and fried into a ball of glutinous rice. "Swan's eggs" are fried in hot oil in a large iron pan. The white sugar wrapped in sesame seeds is taken out, and the outer part is burnt and the inside is glutinous. One pot can fry about 200-300 eggs at a time.
Sad jelly, one of Hakka's special snacks, can be explained in two ways: first, it was made by the Hakka people who lived in Luodai town when they came to Sichuan from Huguang, and they missed their hometown, so they got the name because they were sad because of missing; the other was that the cold noodles were too hot, and everyone who ate the cold noodles would be tearful. There are two kinds of cold noodles, the main ingredient is pea made of beige, and another is potato flour or rice flour made of white. It tastes smooth. Seasonings are mainly: red oil, hot pepper oil, salt, vinegar, ginger and garlic, scallion, chicken essence and other 13 kinds.
In addition, there are Luodai mutton soup, chicken fir (meat) Mushroom Noodle Soup.
In 2006, Luodai Ancient Town was rated as a national 4A tourist attraction.
In October 2008, Luodai Ancient Town was rated as the fourth batch of Chinese historical and cultural towns.
In July 2014, Luodai town was rated as a national key town.
Self driving: starting from Chengdu, via Chengdu Ring Expressway, Chongqing Chengdu Expressway / Xiamen Chengdu expressway, to Luodai Ancient Town.
Bus: Take Chengdu bus No.850 to China Art Library Station and walk about 400 meters to Luodai Ancient Town. Take bus no.219/1024 from Chengdu to Luodai Passenger Center Station and walk about 900 meters to Luodai Ancient Town.