Lu an drum
Luan drum is a traditional drum book and drum music form with distinct regional characteristics in the north, also known as the "old tune of Lu'an". It is named for its popularity in the area of Anfu (now Changzhi, Shanxi Province). In addition, there are other names such as "Ganbanqiang" and "Luan drum book".
Lu'an drum is good at absorbing the advantages of brothers'art forms, which plays an important role in enriching people's lives and prospering local culture. Its aria music is a slab-style variation, rich in melody, beautiful melody, rich in local flavor.
On May 20, 2006, the Luan Drum was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists with the heritage number V-9.
Background of origin
During the reign of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1736-1796), rap artists spontaneously organized the "Three Emperors'Club" to support their families by saying "Wish Book" and "God Club". In the third year of Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty (1739), more than 100 famous artists, such as Lu Zhanyuan and Dong Xiangwu, who were well-known in Shangdang area, contacted eight counties of Luan Prefecture to form the "blind team", namely the performance activity class club of drum artists, and later developed into the "Three Emperors'Club" organized by guild organizations, namely, Emperor Tianhuang, Emperor Dihuang and Emperor Renhuang. Accordingly, it is generally believed that Luan Drum was formed by the middle of the Qing Dynasty, and the early artists were mainly blind.
In the twenty-sixth year of the Republic of China (1937), the Eighth Route Army crossed the Yellow River eastward, created Taihang Taiyue Revolutionary Base, and created a new era in the history of Shangdang's rap and singing art. They disbanded the "Second Emperor's Club" and set up anti-Japanese propaganda teams one after another. In order to meet the needs of the new situation, they actively carried out local music and art reform according to the instructions of their superiors and made great contributions in various historical periods.
In the twenty-second year of the Republic of China (1944), the Taihang Mountains Branch Office established the "Five Counties Quyi Federation". People actively sang new anti-Japanese bibliographies and became the new force of anti-Japanese propaganda. The Luan drum became a mature folk art form. At that time, compiling new singers became popular, and there were no fewer than 1000 new bibliographies with more colorful sounds. Troops, local cultural groups, organs and schools are also very active in singing. Before the opera starts, many troupes always compile the tasks and principles of the time into drum scripts for singing.
In the twenty-third year of the Republic of China (1945), the Luan Drum ushered in a new spring in Changzhi neighbourhood. The following year, seven people, Zhang Yinmo and Yu Shutian, joined the Quyi Publicity Team organized by the Democratic government, which was also the first professional performing group of Luan Dagu.
In 1959, Aiyu, a female artist who was absorbed by Luan Dagu Music Team, boldly reformed the "running water" and other platforms, creating a beautiful singing tune suitable for actresses and with various professions. The tune was changed from "G" to "D". Suona and Sheng were added to the musical instruments, and the drum was removed from the percussion instruments and used instead of the book drum to make people refresh.
In the 1970s, Luan Dagu Opera became more and more prosperous. Folk artists such as Yu Shutian, Shi Aiyu, Jiao Tianbao, Du Yushan, Li Changsheng and Li Ergou were welcomed by the masses.
In the 1980s, on the basis of inheriting the crystallization of the old artists for many years, the new writers and artists reformed the traditional aria of Luan drum once again.
Form of performance
The traditional folk Luan drum performance forms are multi-people sharing drum board, three strings, erhu, low hu, etc. to sing in circles. After stepping onto the high platform, one person usually beats drum board to stand and sing, and another person sings with the accompaniment of three strings and erhu.
Luan Drum Book's singing tune belongs to the board cavity knot, with the running water board as the main board type, in addition to the ceiling, tragic board, palletizing board and the transition board type of starting, bearing, passing and delivering. The running board consists of the upper and the lower sentences, and the lyrics should be smooth. Luan drum Book sings with white, white with singing. The language is based on the local dialect in the suburbs of Changzhi, and it is also mixed with some Putonghua elements. The rhythm of the lyrics is based on the rhythm of "2 + 2 + 3" of the seven-character head. It can develop to sing cross sentences and thirteen-character sentences. Its accompaniment is relatively simple. Generally speaking, singing without playing, playing without singing.
Accompanied instruments include Banhu (63 strings), two (36 strings), low Hu (15 strings), three strings (363 strings), flute, suona, pipa, cello, Zhongruan, Sheng and electronic piano.
The main bibliographies are "Qinqiong Night Days to Dengzhou Prefecture", "Luo Cheng to Break Mengzhou", "Sweeping the North of Yan King", "Da Bayi", "Xiao Bayi", "Huyanqing Dalian", "Qiao Lianzhu", "Qiaoqi Yuan", "Three Switches", "Earrings", "Golden Bracelet Jade Ring", "Laundry", "Huilong Biography", "Qinglong Biography", "Landlord and Changgong", "Zhang Fenglan to advise Fu to join the army. 》 "Hundred Heroes", "Long March of the Red Army", "Outline of Land Law", "A Land Certificate", "Mutual Cooperation", "Pan Yulin Mutual Assistance Group", "A Sugar-coated Shell", "Always Be Alert", "Xiao Liang's Oral Appointment" and so on.
Inheritance and protection
Since the end of the 20th century, the inheritance and development of Lu'an Drum has encountered unprecedented difficulties, which urgently need rescue and protection.
First, the constant impact of new culture. Let Lu'an drum display platform is decreasing day by day. With the continuous influx of Western learning into the East, Chinese music has taken a reform road that is in line with the strong Western culture, that is, taking western music as the yardstick, constantly transforming local music: the result not only transforms music, but also transforms the national appreciation perspective, making the national concept increasingly westernized, and the recognition of westernized music and the deafness of local music are becoming more and more serious. Because of the differences between Chinese music and Western music in cultural background, social structure, aesthetic value standards and manifestations, many things that should not be westernized have also been westernized, and this phenomenon has made local music lose its survival soil. Luan drum has become the object of neglect, and the stage of display has been slowly narrowed down. The opportunity of exhibition has been gradually occupied, which has brought great obstacles to the development of Luan drum.
Secondly, some accomplished drum calligraphers have withdrawn from the stage because of their age, while the younger generation has less unique skills: it is likely that Lu'an drum in the inheritance of the phenomenon of green and yellow. Without the ancestors, the music can not be retained, which is a terrible problem. This will probably lead to the gradual disappearance of the music.
Finally, Luan drum itself, its own innovation can not keep up with the pace of the times, although there are many art groups, but can not attract the eyes of a new generation of people, viewers, only stay in the older masses. If this goes on, Lu'an drum will also face the problem of losing market and consumers.
In order to protect, inherit and carry forward Lu'an Drum and folk social fires, the Changzhi County Committee and the county government have invested a lot of manpower, material and financial resources in recent years, and through the establishment of protection mechanisms, the establishment of organizations, cultural activities and other forms of effective protection mechanism has been established.
1. Include Luan Drum and Civil Society Fire in the Important Art Development Items in the Cultural Strategy, and invest special funds to support and establish a policy protection mechanism.
2. Take professional performance groups as the main body, and take the county vocational education center and the non-governmental organization talent team construction mechanism as the main body.
3. Establish a reward and punishment mechanism to encourage folk artists to create excellent works. Establish an organizational structure: establish a leading group of intangible cultural heritage in the county, Changzhi County Quyi Artists Association and Changzhi County Folk Artists Association to carry out cultural activities: take the annual Lantern Festival cultural activities as the main line, take various festival activities and commemorative days as an opportunity, vigorously carry out Lu'an drum and folk activities. During the social fire drawing competition and performance activities, Jing actively organized and held a folk art festival.
Wang Haiyan, female, born in December 1976, is from Donghe Village, Changzhi County. In 2008, it was designated as the successor of Luan Drum, a national intangible cultural heritage in Shanxi Province. She loved the local opera Luan drum as a child, and took inheriting it as her lifelong pursuit. At the age of 15, she worshiped folk artist Wang Kuihua as her teacher and learned to sing with her group. At the age of 18, she chose to play with her own group.
Selected non Heritage
In June 2006, Luan Dagu was selected as the first national intangible cultural heritage protection list.
Academic value: Lu'an drum combines the advantages of two forms of opera singing and storytelling. It is a unique form of second art, which is based on various folk musical instruments and expresses the rich ideological content and large historical facts of characters. Its rich content and basic characteristics, as well as its inheritance experience, are military opinions in other Chinese folk cultures. The excavation, rescue and protection of Lu'an drum will play a certain role in enriching and perfecting the history of Chinese music culture and even the history of world music culture.
Social value: Luan drum and folk society fire are popular artistic forms of expression. Their protection, inheritance and promotion play an important role in strengthening the construction of spiritual civilization, enriching the cultural life of the masses and building harmonious socialism.
Practical value: Lu'an drum and folk society fire performances are not limited by venues and props, easy to arrange, and have strong practical value for propaganda, policy and guidance.
In June 1986, Lu'an Drum "Vinegar as Matchmaker" created by Fu Huaizhu and sung by Cui Changjuan won the first prize of Shanxi Quyi Performance, and in October of the same year, "Vinegar as Matchmaker" won the second prize of creation in the National Quyi New Songs (Book) Competition.
In April 1988, Fu Huaizhu's Luan Drum "My Humble Wife" won the 20th Anniversary Essay Award of Quyi and the Gold Prize of "Xigang Cup".
In May 1989, in preparation for the upcoming "Changzhi Cup" National Quyi Competition (Drum Singing Part), Changzhi City organized the whole city's Quyi performance in advance. The Luan Drum "September 9" and "Clumsy Wife" selected by Changzhi County won the first prize.
In October 1995, Lu'an Drum "New Edition of Pearl Reversed Curtain" by Fu Huaizhu and Jia Qingyan won the "Peony Award" at the 2nd Chinese Quyi Festival.
In October 2010, Wang Haiyan, the inheritor of Luan Drum, won the Peony Award, the highest prize in Chinese traditional opera, for his work "Returning Meat to Mother".