Liu Sanjies Ballads
Liu Sanjie's ballad, the local traditional folk literature of Yizhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
The content of Liu Sanjie's ballads is extensive, including astronomy and geography, myths and legends, farming, daily life, ethics and morality, love and marriage and other aspects. Liu Sanjie's ballad contains rich emotions and outstanding poetic wisdom for thousands of years. It expresses people's real feelings about real life and reveals people's emotions and sorrows. Liu Sanjie's ballads show the charm of the living culture of Chinese traditional folk art and have the research value of ethnology, anthropology, sociology and aesthetics.
On May 20, 2006, Liu Sanjie's ballads were approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists. Heritage Number: I-23.
Origin of Ballads
To explore the origin of Liu Sanjie's ballads, we can start with the origin of the Zhuangs'ballads. Song pool is the platform for the spread of Liu Sanjie's ballads. Without this platform, Liu Sanjie's ballads are hard to pass on.
There are several viewpoints on the origin of the Song Dynasty in the academic circles. There is one point that everyone agrees that the Song Dynasty of the Zhuang Nationality originated from the primitive society. Song pool is just a platform for displaying songs. As the main body of the pool, Liu Sanjie's ballads should have sprouted before the pool appeared.
The Zhuang nationality developed from Xiou and Luoyue in Baiyue, an ancient Chinese minority. Because of the unbalanced historical development of all ethnic groups, especially for geographical reasons, when the feudal culture of the Central Plains flourished, the economy and culture of Lingnan, where the ancestors of the Zhuang nationality lived, were still very backward.
According to Volume 2 of Zhang Hua's History of Museums in the Western Jin Dynasty, "There are wild women in Kounan who travel in groups to find husbands,..." "Naked without clothes" here refers to "Rinan", that is, the county of Rinan in the Western Han Dynasty, Biding. In Vietnam today, from the records of "naked without clothes" and "group travel to find husbands", we can see that people in this area still live in primitive society, and retain the dual marriage system of clan or clan tribe. Therefore, these women can not marry men in the clan, they must go to other clan tribes collectively to find husbands. This collective search for the coral image of the husband is the premise of the existence and development of Gexu.
Before the Tang Dynasty, the custom of "marriage without matchmaking" and "singing into marriage" was still popular in the Zhuang nationality areas. People used songs as matchmaking and chose spouses according to songs. Song pool became an ideal place for young men and women to talk about love and choose spouses.
After the Song Dynasty, Songxiang Geqian continued to develop. Many writings, such as Zhou Qufei's Answer to the Outer Ridges in the Song Dynasty, Taiping Huanyu Ji in the Music History, Wang Ji's Daily Inquiry Handmirror in the Ming Dynasty and a large number of local chronicles, all had vivid descriptions of Geqian's grand occasion, such as the Chiya by Tuo in the Ming Dynasty, which said, "Those who bump into people and gather into villages become portals". "In the Spring and Autumn Period, Dongnu was located in the famous mountains, with five threads of concentric knots and Bainu Mandarin duck sacks. The few good people in the cave, the daughter of the cave official, were named Tianji Team. Yu Zaifang picks up the green pepper in the spring. Singing is for two men and three or five groups, singing. If we get it, we will sing it together, unfasten our clothes and tie it up, and give it to each other." This shows that in the Ming Dynasty, the custom of singing and courtship of the Zhuang nationality was still continuing, and the pool was very prosperous. Singing Sister Liu's ballad was the main way for young men and women to exchange feelings and find spouses.
In the Qing Dynasty, Lu Zuo-fan of the Qing Dynasty wrote in his book The Story of Two Dolls in Guangdong that Zhuangxiang was "the most popular place for people to sing songs, wear heavy makeup and clothes, walk across the country, men and women are mixed in deep woods and bamboos, singing a hundred harmony, and the clouds are not popular, so it is called Huiyi". At that time, the Song Dynasty in Zhuangxiang was bigger, the lovers were close, the music was the joy and the music was the medium. The momentum of the vigorous development of Song Dynasty lasted until the 1950s.
The spread of Liu Sanjie's ballads was not smooth. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the implementation of "land reform and return" was carried out in the Zhuang nationality areas. The feudal ruling forces represented by the imperial power went deep into the Miao nationality areas. The spread of Liu Sanjie's ballads clashed with the feudal ethics. The feudal rulers regarded the "choosing spouses by singing" of the Zhuang nationality men and women as an immoral act, which had been banned many times, and the same enterprises prevented Liu Sanjie's ballads. Spread: According to the Record of Zhenan Fuzhi, "The Tumin's family is frugal in marriage, not luxurious in etiquette. The custom of singing is ancient. It still follows the custom of Yanren jumping the moon and treading on the rocks. Although it is strictly forbidden, it has not been reformed." It's rather cold. In the Qing Dynasty, Li Yanzhang, the prefecture of Sienzhi in Guangxi, also posted a notice forbidding song pools. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, officials of the Donglan government thought that Liu Sanjie's ballads were "romantic songs". In order to prohibit singing pools, they captured the local Zhuang female singers, painted their faces with paint, and traveled the streets for ever. However, Liu Sanjie's ballads could not be stopped. The more people banned from singing, the more singers faced with the attack and persecution of the government, they angrily sang, "The stars in the sky are small stars, the Marshals in charge of the army on the ground, only Zhizhou Guanzhi County, Who dares to care about my singer! "
By the year of the Republic of China, the government was still banning songs. There were many bans in Guangxi. "Folk singing has existed since ancient times, and there is no reason for banning folk singing." In the face of the rulers'movement of banning songs one after another, Liu's three groups of ballads have been circulating, and the pools of Zhuang Township have developed with the development of the times.
Inheritance and protection
As a product of the spiritual life of the Zhuang people, an important carrier of the traditional culture of the Zhuang people and a concentrated expression of diverse cultures, Liu Sanjie's ballads are closely related to the life of the Zhuang people in cultural form, interdependent and inseparable, and have become the soul of the Zhuang people.
Liu Sanjie's ballads have exerted far-reaching influence in China and even in the whole world, which shows the charm of the Chinese traditional folk art and living culture. It has not only the research value of cultural history to witness the national history and the way of expression of emotion, but also the research value of ethnology, anthropology, sociology and aesthetics.
With the disappearance of the traditional social basis of "depending on songs for matching" and the impact of strong culture and new forms of entertainment, Liu Sanjie's ballads are in danger of being lost.
Xie Qingliang, male, was born in January 1953. In December 2012, Xie Qingliang was selected as the representative successor of the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects. He Chi City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, declared in Yizhou City. Declaration item: Liu Sanjie's ballad.
In 1984, the People's Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region officially designated March 3 as the "March 3" Song Festival of the Zhuang Nationality. During the festival, in addition to the traditional pool activities, there will also be activities such as fireworks grabbing, throwing embroidery balls, touching colored eggs and performing divination, dragon dancing, poem contest, film showing, martial arts performance and acrobatic performance.
On December 24, 2016, Yizhou City, with the theme of creating and promoting the cultural brand of Liu Sanjie's ballads, held a "Liu Sanjie's ballads" mass singing activity in the Civil Culture Park. By means of duet, duet, group singing, chorus and other forms, it stimulated the whole city's people to love their motherland and hometown, and protected Liu Sanjie's ballads.
Xie Qingliang, the representative successor of the national intangible cultural heritage project, is committed to teach Liu Sanjie's ballads to more people. He teaches children in Dongping village to sing whenever he has time. He also often transmits folk songs through the network platform.
On the morning of April 18, 2018, the main venue of the "Zhuangzu March 3 Bagui Carnival" opened at the Guangxi Museum of Nationalities. The national representative inheritors of "Liu Sanjie's Ballads" recited prayer eulogies.
According to legend, Liu Sanjie was born in 705, the first year of Shenlong in Tang Zhongzong. She was very intelligent and good at singing and dancing. She was regarded as a "goddess" by people. Liu Sanjie and Li Xiaoniu, a firewood singer from the same village, have long loved each other. However, the local wealthy Mo huai-ren, in the name of their violation of etiquette, tied them up and threw them into the river. Li Xiaoniu drowned. Liu Sanjie escaped from the disaster and floated all the way along the river to Liuzhou, where she was rescued by an old fisherman and accepted as a righteous daughter. Later, Liu Sanjie became famous for singing in Liuzhou City. When Mo Huairen learned about it, he invited three singers to compete with Liu Sanjie. As a result, she failed. Mohuai-ren was so angry that he ordered his men to tie up Liu Sanjie and put her in a pigsty and sink to the bottom of the river. After the death of Liu Sanjie, people sacrificed two big carps in front of her grave. While she was sacrificing, the grave suddenly split open. Liu Sanjie jumped out of the grave and flew up to the sky on a carp, while the other carp became "Yufeng Mountain".