Line-tune opera, also known as Line-score opera, is an ancient traditional opera in Shanxi Province. It first appeared in the Han and Tang Dynasties, and developed greatly. It flourished in the Song Dynasty. It has a history of more than 1000 years. It is a bright and dazzling flower in the hundred gardens of Chinese opera. According to textual research, the origin of the line cavity is Ruicheng in southern Shanxi, which was once popular in the triangle area bordering Jin, Qin and Henan. In the long-term development and evolution, influenced by Pu Opera, Qin Opera and other operas, Line Opera is popular with the masses, with its high and fresh style, graceful and lingering, rich in Lyric color.
On November 11, 2014, the Line Cavity was selected as the fourth batch of representative projects of national intangible cultural heritage with the approval of the State Council .
A Brief History of Plays
Line tune music appeared in the early Ming Dynasty, which was derived from "good calligraphy tune". In the course of its development, Pu Opera and Qin Opera had great influence. During the invasion of China by Japanese invaders, the line chamber suffered from bad luck and was almost extinct. In the spring of 1950, after liberation, the local government hired artists and appointed cadres to form a troupe of performers. In 1964, when leading comrades from central, provincial and local governments visited southern Shanxi Province and watched the performances of the Line Opera Troupe, they put forward the reform plan of "retaining the aria and employing people to perform". Later, the Yongle Line Opera Troupe was set up to perform in the front stage with actors instead of puppets.
Line cavity, also known as "line drama", commonly known as "line Hu opera". Its role image resembles Tang figurines and Lai Baozi, and has the traces of Guo Tuo, so it has a long history. Heyang line puppets are 80 to 90 centimeters tall. At the beginning, they were flat and had no hands or feet. They were replaced by sleeve gowns. Five to seven lifting lines (head 3, hand 2, waist 1) were added to 13 for special needs, and the length of the line was about 1 meter (called "low line"); after the 1970s, the stage was renewed and the artists operated at high altitude, and "high line" appeared. After a long period of practice, artists have groped out eight techniques, such as lifting, plucking, hooking, picking, twisting, grabbing, flashing and shaking, so that they can make almost all kinds of life and dance movements and have a lifelike manner. The early stage was about 15 feet square, supported by wooden pillars and surrounded by mantles, with both sides going up and down. Six accompaniments, five dolls, visiting each other, should not be festive, vivid and lifelike.
The musical tunes of line tune can be divided into two categories: line tune and random play. There are adagio, 28, running water, scattered board and so on. Different professions have different singing methods. Accompanied instruments are set up with civil and military scenes. There are two kinds of drum boards in the martial field, namely, dry drum and blast drum. Dry drum is mainly used for singing accompaniment through the door, the drum tone is low and broad, close to the homophony of "violent" sound, mainly used for inter-action. In the opening and closing performances, the drummer holds the wooden cylinder board in his left hand while accompanying the singing, shaking and beating, and the sound is high and bright. There are three different size gongs, tied on a wooden frame, by the drummer one person to attack, two large shell board Hu mainly. After that, flute, erhu, monohu and plucked instruments were added. There are many lines of opera, the main representative of which are "Qingyi Tactics", "Zhonggu Tactics", "Hundred Treasure Boxes in Anger" and so on. After the establishment of the Line Opera Troupe, the more successful actors are Zhang Bucao, Guo Melan and so on.