Legend of Yao
The legend of Yao is one of the local folklores in Jiangxian County, Shanxi Province. Yao is the Saint King of ancient Chinese legend. It is said that later generations named him Tao Tang and surnamed Yiqi, so it is also called Tang Yao. Shangshu and Shiji both said that his name was Fangxun.
On June 7, 2008, Yao's legend was approved by the State Council to be included in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists.
Father Yao was legendary emperor and mother Chen Feng's daughter. Emperor is the great-grandson of the Yellow Emperor. He reigned for 70 years. When the sun and the moon shine on him, the wind and rain come, he must obey him. After his death, Yao Zhi's half-brother succeeded him sincerely. Sincerely in office for nine years, for the sake of bad governance, Zen gave way to Yao.
The Emperor Fu Mi of Jin Dynasty said in The Century of Emperors: "Yao Du Pingyang is the Tang Dynasty in Poetry". In later dynasties, there was the saying of "Yao Du Pingyang". Pingyang is now Linfen City, Shanxi Province. The Tang Dynasty mentioned in the Book of Songs is in Shanxi Province. There are still Yao Temple built in Jin Dynasty and Yao Mausoleum built in Tang Dynasty in Linfen today.
Yao's quality and intelligence are extraordinary. "His benevolence is like heaven, and common knowledge (wisdom) is like God." Just like the day, look like clouds. Rich but not arrogant, expensive but not comfortable. So after he took office, the situation changed greatly: recommending the sages with both ability and virtue, first of all, to make the people of the clan unite closely and achieve "nine ethnic harmony"; also inspecting the achievements of the hundred officials, distinguishing between the high and the low, rewarding the good and punishing the evil, and making the government orderly; at the same time, paying attention to coordinating the relations among the various ethnic groups, educating the people to live in harmony, and so on. "Harmony of all nations, Li Min in time-varying Yongyong", the world is peaceful, politically clear, the world is peaceful.
In the historical records, it is recorded that Emperor Yao married Chen Feng's daughter and gave birth to Fangxun. Marry a woman of the Peugeot's family and be sincere. The emperor collapsed and sincerely stood for him. Emperor's sincere establishment is not good, but his younger brother's liberation is for Emperor Yao.
Emperor Yao, let go. Its benevolence is like heaven, and its knowledge is like God. Just like the day, look like clouds. Rich but not arrogant, expensive but not comfortable. Yellow harvest pure clothes, Tong car ride white horse. Be able to understand and tame virtues, and be close to nine families. Since the nine nationalities are in harmony with each other, the people will follow suit. The people are clear and united with all nations.
It is the life, harmony, respecting and obeying Hao Tian, counting the sun, the moon and the stars, and respecting the people. Divided into Xizhong, living in Yuyi, called Yangu. Respect for the sunrise, then Cheng Dongzuo. Sino-Japanese, Star-bird, Yin Zhongchun. Its folk analysis, birds and beasts word is small. Deuteronomy Xishu, Junan Jiao. Ben Cheng Nanwei, respectful. Riyong, sparks, midsummer. The cause of its people, the birds and beasts of Hegel. Deuteronomy and Zhong, who live in the west, are called the valley of ignorance. Respect for the coming day, Cheng Xicheng. In the night, the stars are empty and the Mid-Autumn Festival is just around the corner. Its people are easy to live in, birds and animals are feathered. Deuteronomy and uncle; living in the north, called Youdu. It's in the void. Days are short and stars are in the middle of winter. Its people, birds and animals, clover hair. The age of 366 is four o'clock in leap month. Every official has his own merits.
Yao said, "Who can comply with this matter?" Fangqi said, "My heir Danzhu Kaiming." Yao said, "Call! Fierce, no need." Yao said again, "Who can do it?" He said, "It is useful to gather and distribute work beside the common work." Yao said, "Gong Gong and Gong Yan, their use is remote, as if respectful all over the sky, can not." Yao also said, "Siyue, Tangtangtang flood, Haohao Huaishan Xiangling, the people's worries, there are able to make the ruler?" They are all called Gong Ke. Yao said, "It's impossible for Gong to destroy the clan at the cost of his life." Yue said, "Hey, try not to use it." Yao Yu listened to Yueyue's gill. Nine years old, not enough.
Yao said, "Sigh! Four Yues: I have been in office for seventy years. Can you practice my position with mediocrity? Yue Ying said, "Despise the throne." Yao said, "All your relatives and alienated concealers." Everyone said in Yao: "You are in the folk, Yushun." Yao said, "Yes, I heard about it. What is it? Yue said, "The blind. Father stubbornly, mother, brother proud, can be with filial piety, harnessing, not adultery. Yao said, "Let me try it." As the second daughter of Yao's wife, his virtue is better than his two daughters. Shun Shun's two daughters are like women's rituals. Yao Shanzhi made Shun Shen and the Five Classics possible. It is the time sequence of all officials. Guests in four gates, four Mumu gates, the princes far away guests are respected. Yao sent Shun into the mountains, forests and rivers, storms and thunderstorms, and Shun was not lost. Yao thought it was holy. He called Shun and said, "Women's counseling has been successful for three years. Female ascended the throne." Shun gave in to virtue. On the first day of the first lunar month, Shun was finally accepted by his ancestors. The ancestor of literature, Yao Dazu.
Emperor Yao ordered Shun to take charge of the government of the Son of Heaven in order to observe the destiny of Heaven. Shun was in Jingyuheng, Qi and Qi. They are similar to God, they are in the Six Sects, they are looking at mountains and rivers, and they are arguing with the gods. Five Rui, choose the auspicious month day, see four Yue Zhumu, Banrui. In February, when he was visiting the east, he arrived at Daizhong and looked up to the mountains and rivers. Then he saw the Eastern monarch, who was on the first day of the month, weighing and balancing in the same law, fixing five rituals, five jade, three silks, two lives and one death as sincerity, such as the five weapons, the death was restored. In May, hunting in the south; in August, hunting in the west; in November, hunting in the north: as before. Gui, as for Zuyou Temple, use the special ox ceremony. Five-year-old hunter, group after four dynasties. Let's say everywhere, try hard in the future, and wear mediocre car clothes. There are two states in Zhaoshi, Juichuan. As with pawn punishment, loitering five penalties, whipping for official punishment, throwing for imprisonment, and gold for ransom. After calamity, forgive; pay attention to the end of thieves, punishment. Qin Zai, Qin Zai, only the silence of punishment!
Goodbye talks about working together, and Yao says that it's impossible to have a try, and they work together to achieve good results. Yao thought it was impossible for the four Yues to control Hongshui by lifting the gills. Yue Qiang asked for a try, but it failed, so the people were inconvenient. Three Miaos are in disorder in Jianghuai and Jingzhou. As for Emperor Shun Gui, please work together in the Youling Tomb to change Beidi; let your carcasses go to Chongshan to change Nanman; move three seedlings to three dangers to change Xirong; move to Yushan to change Eastern Yi: four sins to the world salty clothes.
Yao Li acquired Shun in seventy years and was twenty years old. He recommended Shun to govern the Son of Heaven. Yao Bibian collapsed in 28 years. The people mourn like the bereavement of their parents. For three years, all sides should not take pleasure in Siyao. Yao Zhizi, Danzhu, is not good enough to confer power on the world, but to confer Shun. If Shun is given, the world will benefit from Danzhu disease; if Danzhu is given, the world will benefit from Danzhu disease. Yao said, "Never benefit one person by the illness of the whole world", but give Shun the whole world by death. Yao collapsed, and after three years of mourning, Shun allowed Bidanzhu to lie south of the Nanhe River. Feudal pilgrims praise Dan Zhu and Shun, prison litigants praise Dan Zhu and Shun, and eulogists praise Dan Zhu and Shun. Shun said, "Heaven also", and then China practiced the position of Son of Heaven for the sake of Emperor Shun. From this we can see that Yao is a saint.
Writings in vernacular
Legend has it that in the Yao era, the calendar was formulated for the first time, so that the working people could engage in production activities on time and on time without delaying agricultural time. As a nation with a long history of agricultural reclamation, the Han nationality attaches great importance to agriculture, so Shangshu Yao Dian has detailed records on it. Yao Dian says:
Yao ordered Xishi and Heshi to make a calendar according to the operation of the sun, moon and stars, and then promulgated the world so that agricultural production could follow, called "respecting the people's time";
Pai Xizhong lives in the east coast called Yangu. He observes the sunrise and takes the day of equinox as the spring equinox, and corrects it by referring to the position of the stars.
Uncle Paixi lives in the place called Mingdu. He observes the movement of the sun from north to south. The longest day of the day is the summer solstice. He corrects it by referring to the location of Mars.
Pai and Zhong lived in the Western place called Wugu. They observed the sunset and took the day of equinox as the autumn equinox, and corrected it by referring to the position of the virtual star.
Pai and Shu live in the North called Youdu. They observe the movement of the sun from south to north. They use the shortest day of the day as the winter solstice. They are corrected by referring to the position of the Pleiades.
After dichotomy, dichotomy and dichotomy, Yao decided to take 366 days as a year, to set up a leap month every three years, and to use the leap month to adjust the relationship between calendar and seasons so as to make the annual farming hours correct and without errors.
From this we can see that the ancients regarded the era of Emperor Yao as an era of great progress in farming culture.
Yao's era is also the legendary flood period. "Tangtang flood Fangmo, Dangdang Huaishan Xiangling, the vast heavens". The water is huge, galloping and roaring, flooding the hills, rushing to Gaogang, endangering the world, people do not live.
Yao was very concerned about this. He consulted Siyue (the head of the four princes) and asked who could control the flood. Siyue recommended Gong. Yao felt that this man was unreliable, often disobeyed orders and endangered the interests of his own people. He was not suitable for this important task. But Siyue insisted on giving Tan a try, saying it was really not possible, and then dismissed him from his post.
So Yao appointed Gong to deal with the flood. Gong Yeshui has had no achievements for nine years. This is a political mistake in the legend of Yao. There are a number of similar shortcomings. In a word, the era of Yao is not perfect, so Shun has made great efforts to govern it.
In Zhuzi's books, there are legends about Emperor Yao's martial arts. Both the literary and martial arts are well equipped. Only then can we see why Yao was the Saint King of the past.
"Lu's Spring and Autumn Period, Chao Lei" said, "Yao fought in Danshui Pu to serve Nanman." He had fought against the gangs in the South and fought in person.
"Huainanzi Ben Jingxun" said: "Yao's time, ten days together, burning crops, killing plants, and the people have nothing to eat. Orangutans, chiseling teeth, nine babies, gale, seal jackets and repair snakes are all harmful to the people. Yao Paiyi killed the beasts and shot them down for nine days.
It is said that people are very grateful for Yao's action of eliminating harm for the people, so they praise him as the Son of Heaven. The Ninth Day of Yi Shooting is already a myth, but the meaning of praising Yao's "promoting interests and eliminating harms, fighting riots and forbidding violence" is really to advocate and admire Emperor Yao'an's way of governing the country, which is not only prosperous in culture and politics, but also brilliant in martial arts.
Yao's legend is most praised for not passing on his son but spreading his virtues. Zen is located in Shun, not in the position of the Son of Heaven. Yao was in office for 70 years and felt it necessary to choose his successor. He had long thought his son Danzhu was tough and unusable, so he consulted Siyue and asked them to recommend candidates. Four Yues recommended Shun, saying that he was filial, that his family relationship was handled properly, and that he could inspire his family and make them change from evil to good. Yao decided to make an investigation before making a decision.
Yao married his two daughters, Emperor E and Nvying, to Shun. He inspected his virtues from his two daughters to see if he could manage his housekeeping well. Shun, E Huang and Nvying lived by the river of Gongshui and acted in accordance with courtesy. Both of them were very devoted to Shun and abided by the way of women.
Yao also assigned Shun to carry out moral education. Shun then taught his subjects to guide their actions with the five virtues of "Five Classics" - father's righteousness, mother's kindness, brothers and friends, brother's courtesy and son's filial piety. The subjects were willing to listen to his teachings and generally act in accordance with the "Five Classics".
Yao also asked Shun to be in charge of all the officials in charge of government affairs. All the officials obeyed Shun's command, and all the things were rejuvenated without being abandoned. They also appeared to be particularly well organized and undisturbed.
Yao also asked Shun to be in charge of receiving the four princes who came to visit him at the four gates of the Mingtang Hall. Shun got along well with the princes, and made them all harmonious and friendly. The guests of the princes from afar all respected him.
Finally, Yao let Shun go alone to the forest at the foot of the mountain to stand the test of nature. Shun in the storm and thunderstorm, can not lose his way, still walk, showing a strong ability to live.
After three years of various investigations, Yao felt that Shun, no matter how he spoke or acted, was mature and reliable, and was able to build achievements. So he decided to surrender the throne to Shun. On the first day of the first month of the first lunar month, he held a Zen ceremony in the Taimiao Temple, formally allowing Shun to take over from himself and ascend the throne of the Son of Heaven. Yao retired and died 28 years later. "People are sad, such as losing their parents. For three years, all sides should not take pleasure in missing Yao." People cherish his memory deeply.
In the pre-Qin period, Confucianism and Mohism were the two most powerful schools, known as "outstanding learning", both of which were called for by Yao and Shun. Since then, Yao has become the Saint King of the past. He is not only an ideal personality in ethics and morality, but also a model monarch who governs the country and stabilizes the world. Confucius said, "Great Yao is the king! Towering! Heaven is the only man, Yao Gang is the only one. Wandering, the people can not name. Majestic and successful, glowing with articles! ______________ Confucius'praise of Yao has become more and more important in the Chinese cultural tradition, and has become increasingly popular. Later, Confucianism was marked by "Zushu Yaoshun, Charter Wenwu". In Tang Dynasty, Han Yu and Song and Ming Dynasty, Neo-Confucianism advocated the doctrine of "Taoism", and Yao became the spiritual ancestor of Confucianism. Throughout the feudal era, no one doubted Yao's existence in history and his achievements.
In the 1920s, under the impetus of the new ideological trend of the May 4th Movement, a school of doubting ancient times emerged. Gu Jiegang, the giant of the school, believed that Yao Dian in Shangshu was unreliable and appeared in the Warring States Period. Therefore, the first record of Yao and Shun in The Analects of Confucius was taken as the earliest. From this, it can be inferred that the story of Yao and Shun appeared in the Eastern Weekend, Yao, Shun and Shun. Yu's relationship and the deeds of Zen concession were gradually fabricated and perfected.
In the early Spring and Autumn Period, the oldest known ancient king was Yu, without Yao and Shun. Therefore, Yao, as Qian Xuantong said, must be "Wu Gong" and "Wu You, Mr. Wu You", not a historical figure at all.
The rise of Marxist historiography, using the historical materialism and the general law of social development history to study the legend of Yao, pointed out that the era of Yao was a transitional period from primitive society to slavery society, at which time the clan tribes of consanguinity had formed a tribal alliance, and Yao was the leader of the alliance elected by the tribal alliance council. Legend has it that Yao and Siyue discussed the candidates for water control and succession, reflecting to a certain extent the situation of tribal alliance council; Yao Chan, located in Shun, is a relic of primitive democratic style. Engels once pointed out that every cultural nation must experience its own heroic era at this stage. Yao, Shun and Yu are the heroes of the Chinese nation.