Legend of Dong Yong
Dong Yong's legend is the fifth largest love legend and the fifth largest folk legend in ancient China. It was first recorded in Liu Xiang's Biography of Filial Piety (Picture) in the Western Han Dynasty. Since then, the Ganoderma Lucidum by Cao Zhi of the Three Kingdoms and the Sou Shen by Ganbao of the Eastern Jin Dynasty also have relevant records. Ganbao's records are in me because of its prominent theme (filial piety), complete plot ("father in a deer car", "father in a body to be buried" and "help the emperor to pay In rural areas of China, it has become the mother of story evolution and literary transplantation for more than two thousand years, which has a far-reaching impact on future generations.
In 2006, Dong Yong's legend was listed in the first national intangible cultural heritage list by the State Council.
Dong Yong's legend was first recorded in Liu Xiang's Biography of Filial Piety in the Western Han Dynasty.
Since then, the Ganoderma Lucidum by Cao Zhi of the Three Kingdoms and the Sou Shen Ji by Ganbao of the Eastern Jin Dynasty have also been recorded.
Gan Bao's records are characterized by prominent themes (filial piety) and complete plots ("father in deer car", "father in death" and "help the emperor pay off debts").
Widely spread in rural areas of our country, it has become the mother of story evolution and literary transplantation for more than two thousand years, which has a far-reaching impact on future generations.
As the story of Dong Yong and the Seven Fairies is a folk tale with both enlightenment and love, its educational content is in line with the psychological needs of the Chinese people for long-term stability, and the love story is in line with the internal feelings of the people in pursuit of marital happiness, so its artistic features of ingenious integration of fantasy and human reality are deeply loved by the people.
The legend has evolved from place to place, from time to time, from person to person in the process of long-term oral transmission. It has a tendency to evolve into love stories in the process of development and change, but the theme and "mother" have not changed much.
Dong Yong's legend has been combined with people's life in various places for more than two thousand years. Because of the infiltration of people's emotions and the affiliation of word-of-mouth, it has produced legends with local characteristics, leaving behind customs and relics, steles, villages and place names related to Dong Yong's life.
Since the Western Han Dynasty, the legend of the beautiful love between Dong Yong and the seven fairies has been widely spread in Xixi, Dongtai. According to textual research, there are more than 50 place names related to them (Heluolun, Dong Jiaduo, Shezitou, Phoenix Spring, Cilang River, Miyunzhuang, Dong, Xishoe Erzhuang, Miaosi Jing, Dong Yong Tomb and Dong Xiaoxian Temple of Han Xiaozi, etc.).
Shanxi Wanrong County, Jiangsu Dongtai City, Henan Province Wuzhu County, Hubei Xiaogan City and other places not only have the relics related to Dong Yong, but also have many records in local chronicles, which all call Dong Yong a local person.
For example, there are Dong Jiazhuang and Dong Yong Tombs in Boxing, Shandong Province.
Xiaohuai Village in Wanrong County, Shanxi Province has a plaque of "Dong Yong's Hometown" and folk weaves "Hebride Cloth".
In Wuzhi County of Henan Province, a grand temple fair is held every year on the third day of February and the tenth day of November in the lunar calendar.
There are Dong Jiashe in Dongtai City, Jiangsu Province, and Fang Yu Sheng Lan in Southern Song Dynasty recorded here as "Xiaozi Dong Yong's former residence" and so on.
The historical and literary materials contained in Dong Yong's legend are of certain value to the study of society, economy, politics, culture, especially literature and art in various historical periods of our country. The educational function of Dong Yong's legend has certain practical significance to the practice of building socialist spiritual civilization and harmonious society.
Legend of Dong Yong
Dong Yong sells himself
There is a story of Dong Yong selling his life to bury his father in the twenty-four filial pictures. A young man, after his father died, had no money to pay for his father's funeral.
It is difficult for anyone to sell himself. Dong Yong did it and became a great filial son praised by people all over the world.
In that year, Dong Yong's father died. At that time, Dong Yong's family was very poor and had no money for his father's funeral. But he could not bear to bury it like this. When his father lived, he suffered all the hardships of the world. After he died, he had no shrouds or coffins. It was humiliating for his father to go to hell like this, and he was sorry for his parents'support. Dong Yong was in trouble. He even thought of death.
But who fills their parents'graves when they think of their death? Who is filial to his parents? No matter what, after his death, his parents could not close their eyes under Jiuquan.
No way, Dong Yong wiped away his tears, went out to ask for relatives and friends, and wanted to lend money to his father for funeral. He ran for a day, his legs almost straightened, but he did not borrow any money. The rich people were afraid to lend him money, but did not lend him any more. The poor families had no money, they could not care for themselves, and they had no money to lend him.
Dong Yong ran away for several days. He came home very late every day, but he didn't borrow any money. At night, he knelt down beside his father and did not move. He had no tears in his eyes and his tears had dried up. He didn't know who to turn to.
At this time, as long as someone can help him bury his father, go to his wish, ask him how to repay it. But who can help him? A man who is in a hurry can come up with an urgent method.
Just when he was desperate, he wanted to leave some people who sold their wives and children for their lives. He didn't have wives and children to sell himself. Isn't it the same thing to sell himself? His own flesh and bones are given by his parents. He can't give his parents filial piety. The same is true when he sells his body to his parents. If someone buys it, he will sell himself and bury his father with the money he sells to repay his parents'kindness.
It's a good idea. Dong Yong lay beside his father and slept steadily for a whole night. At dawn, Dong Yong found several straws, tied a handful of straws and put them in his back collar. He came to the market from this market, and from this village to that village, without asking for a price for several days.
That day Dong Yong turned to Li Jiazhuang by the lake. He was stopped by a man when he was walking in front of a tall gate building. The man stood in front of him and asked, "What do you do personally?" Dong Yong looked up at the man in front of him and looked like a rich man in his clothes and shelves.
He thought he had met a buyer. He bowed his head and offered a deep gift. He said, "Excuse me, uncle, are you a buyer? The man was stunned and asked, "Buyer? Do you sell wives or children? "
Dong Yong shook his head and said, "I don't have a wife or children to sell, but I sell myself." "What? Do you sell yourself? "The man listened, looked up and laughed. When he had laughed enough, he said,"My Lord only buys beautiful women, never men."Dong Yong stared at the man angrily and turned back and left. At this time, a fat man with big ears came out of the tall building.
He waved to Dong Yong and said, "Walk slowly, I have something to ask Dong Yong to stand down with a little hope in mind. The man laughed a few times and said,"I have married many daughters-in-law all my life, but they are all useless things. Only one son gave birth to me. A son is very lonely, if you like, you might as well give me a son. I will buy you. What do you think? Like? "
Dong Yong's face suddenly blushed. For a while, he could not tell what it was like. Promise, it was an insult to him. Don't promise, but in case he was a real buyer. Think about it, he sold his heart to others. As long as he paid for it, what did he say about me?
Dong Yongzheng was about to open his mouth, only to hear the man speak again: "Hey, are you willing or unwilling? If you want to be my son, you should call me three dads first. If you want to be my son, I'll listen to your relatives, you call your relatives, I'll listen to your ears, money is not in the way, I buy you. "If you don't listen to him, Dong Yong burst into flames in his heart and his eyes are red."
Speaking for half a day, it turned out to be enemy Li Hu standing here! It was this black-hearted fellow who killed his mother, forced her unmarried wife Zhang Yuelian to death, bought the government and let his family have a wrongful lawsuit. The government also broke his father's legs, lost all his family property and lost the family. How could he have landed in this field without him? It's really a narrow road for a friend. Now he meets him again. He's still making fun of himself. Can he swallow it? The more Dong Yong thought about it, the more angry his eyes were.
Shivering with rage, his teeth creaking, he turned back and walked step by step toward Li Hu, who was standing on the steps. Li Hu looked at Dong Yong, who was approaching, and found that his staring eyes seemed to burst out flames. He was frightened to step backward and said with some distraction and modesty, "What are you going to do?" There's something to say standing down here! "Just as Li Hu's voice fell, two men with big arms and waists came out of the gate. They walked past and blocked Dong Yong. Dong Yong did not seem to see them. Suddenly, like madness, he rushed through the two men and hit Li Hu on all fours.
Dong Yong was trying to rush to him and bite him severely to relieve his hatred. The two men turned around and caught Dong Yong. One punch and the other kick made Dong Yong unconscious in a short time.
Li Hu looked at Dong Yong lying in the ground and waved his hand to the two men. "Drag him outside the village and throw him into the ditch beside the road. When someone asked him, he said he was a thief. He came in to steal something and told you both to catch it." The two men agreed, hurried over and set Dong Yong up and left. When they got outside the village, they threw Dong Yong into the ditch beside the road.
It was cold and the snow was thick in the ditch. In a moment, Dong Yong woke up again. He did not know how he got here, just like a dream. After a while, he remembered what had happened outside Li Hu's gate.
He gritted his teeth and stood up, climbed up the cliff from below. With great effort, he climbed up the cliff. He sat on the snow and panted for a while, enduring the pain of his whole body, and wanted to go to see Li Hu again for his life.
Just after a few steps, he stood down again. Did he go to see Li Hu for his life? There are so many people in his family. Didn't they die in vain? Besides, it's nothing to say that you're dead, but what about your father, but what about your father? Who will do his duty for himself? With these thoughts in mind, Dong Yong swallowed his grievance and slowly turned back to his home. It was very dark before he staggered home.
After entering the house, he lit a fire to warm himself, knelt down next to his father's body and said, "Dad, unfilial son, I'm sorry for you. I sold myself for a few days, but I was bullied by our enemy Li Hu. You have been lying at home for several days and you have been wronged." Dong Yong said, and fell on his father and cried. When is the fate of the miserable man also suffering.
Dong Yong sells himself and nobody buys it. He almost lives when he meets his enemy Li Hu. Later, he lets Fu Jiazhuang's officers buy out the filial piety of people. Since then, the story of Dong Yong's death and burial of his father has been handed down from generation to generation.
Legend of Heaven's Girl Helping People
This legend was first found in the Ganoderma Lucidum by Cao Zhi in the Three Kingdoms period: "Dong Yong suffered poverty from his family, his father and his elder wealth were exhaustive. He used falsehood to provide for his family, and his servant made him happy and fat. He blamed his family for filling the door, but did not know what to return to. Heaven upholds virtue, and goddess and daughters seize the opportunity."
By the time Ganbao wrote Sou Shen Ji, the story was named Tian Nv Ai Ren, and the content was more detailed.
The plot is as follows: Dong Yong lost his mother as a child and depended on his father. After his father died, he had no money for funerals and borrowed 10,000 yuan from others. Dong Yong said to the creditor, "In the future, he will be willing to be your servant if he has no money to pay his debts!" "After three years of mourning at home, Dong Yong went to work as a servant to the creditor. On the way, Dong Yong met a woman and said to him,"I would like to be your wife, not to abandon your poverty."“
So Dong Yong took her to the creditor's house. The creditor said to Dong Yong, "Give you that ten thousand dollars! Dong Yong answered, "Thanks to your kindness, my father was buried. Although I am a poor man, I must try my best to repay him." The creditor asked, "Who is the woman with you? "
Dong Yong answered, "It's my wife." The creditor asked, "What can your wife do? Dong Yong answered, "She knits cloth." The creditor said, "If you want to repay me, let your wife knit a hundred jewels for me (a kind of high-quality silk fabric)."In only ten days, a hundred jewels will be finished, which surprised the creditor very much.
On their way home, the couple went to the place where they first met. The woman said goodbye to Dong Yong: "I am the seven fairies in the sky. Seeing you so filial to your parents, God ordered me to come down to help you pay off your debts. You have paid off your debts, so I am not suitable to live in the world for a long time."
After that, Dong Yong flew away. Tears filled his face and he was grateful.
The beautiful folklore of Tiannu Airen has a great influence on the later Chinese operas. The Southern Opera Dong Yongyue Xianji, Huangmei Opera and the film Tianxianpi are all created on this basis by artistic processing.
Dong Yong's legend has been widely spread throughout the country in the past two thousand years.
In the classics of past dynasties, the stories of Dong Yong and the Seven Fairies in Xixi, Dongtai, are numerous and have many developments.
Dong Yongxing's moving story has been compiled into many operas. The earlier one is the Ming Dynasty legendary drama Brocade Records, and the most famous one is Huangmei opera Tianxianpi.
In 1952, Hong Fei and others re-adapted the Huangmei opera Tianxian Pair, which created vivid images such as honest Dong Yong, good and beautiful seven fairies, sisters of fairies who helped each other, shrewd Fu officials, ruthless and vicious Jade Emperor, and beautiful dancing posture and beautiful Huangmei tune, all of which remain deeply in people's memory.
Especially the outstanding performance of Yan Fengying, a famous Huangmei opera performer, makes the folk tale of "Dong Yongyue Xian" more fascinating, and the artistic image of "seven fairies" known to everyone.
For one hundred years since the 20th century, Dong Yong's stories have been the subject of popular literature (such as rap and opera) with a large audience and the subsequent film and television literary creation, with the emergence of films such as Huangmei Opera "Tianxian Pair" and other far-reaching works.
Dong Yong's legend is a well-known folk story, which has a long history and is a precious national cultural heritage. In the process of oral transmission for a long time, the legend has evolved continuously, and in the process of development and evolution, it has the trend of evolving to love story, but the theme and "mother body" have not changed greatly.
Huangmei Opera Tianxian Pair:
Seven girls: Birds in pairs on trees.
Dong Yong: Green water and green hills with a smile.
Seven Ladies: From now on, they will no longer suffer from that slavery.
Dong Yong: Both husband and wife return home.
Seven Woman: You plow the fields and I weave cloth.
Dong Yong: I'll bring water to irrigate your garden.
Seven women: Although the cold kiln breaks the wind and rain,
Dong Yong: Love between husband and wife is bitter and sweet.
(Chorus: You and I are like Mandarin ducks,
Two wings fly in the world.
Dong Yong's legend is in the area of Danyang and Dantu in Zhenjiang. The legend of Dong Yong and the Seven Fairies has been spreading among the people.
Since the 1950s, this beautiful and moving legend has been widely disseminated due to the screening of the film Tianxian Pair. The lyrics of "Dong Mingyong who lives in Danyang" in the film make Danyang and Dantu become the focus of folklore enthusiasts and tourism enthusiasts.
Dong Yong's legend has become the highlight of Zhenjiang folk literature as the legend of White Snake and the legend of anti-British struggle.
About 500 meters south of Yanling Town in Danyang, there is a "Wangxian Bridge". This is where Dong Yong and his son look up to the sky and hope that the seven fairies will return to the world. It is said that there were two knee prints on the slab of the bridge, which were left by Dong Yong's son when he knelt down to look for his mother. There is also a north-south Xiaoping Bridge nearby, which is called "Xiaowangxianqiao". No one can tell the year when Wangxian Bridge was built.
In Zhishun Zhenjiang Zhi, which was completed in 1333, there is a record of this bridge: in the south of Yanling Town, Dong Yongxiao, a popular saying, felt the emperor of heaven, made Zhinu his wife, who was paid for weaving silk, finished and fled overhead. People looked at it on the bridge, so it was named. Its place was Dong Bi, and there was Dong's tomb in Yanyan.
Now there is still a stone tablet in the south side of the pier near the water. It is recorded that the time of reconstruction was October, 1772, in the thirty-seventh year of Qianlong reign. According to the annual and monthly records of another stone tablet under the pier and beside the three characters of Wangxian Bridge, the bridge has been rebuilt at least twice in the 50 years since liberation.
There are some folk houses at both ends of the bridge. This is a natural village named Wangxianqiao Village. Not far west of Wangxianqiao Village, there is also a village named Dong Xi Village. It is said that there is no Dong family in the village, but it is the legendary home of Dong Yong.
It is said that there were Dong Yong Tombs and Dong Yong Temple in the area of Dong Xicun, but they all disappeared because of the long history. This can also be found in Zhishun Zhenjiang Zhi. This chronicle book in volume 12 "Historical Sites" contains "Han Dong Yong Tomb, in Yanling Tomb, there are tablets to record its events, place name Dong Stele, also known as Dong Tomb".
From Yanling Town to the northwest, through Shanghai Town of Dantu, Shangdang Town of Dantu is Shangdang Town of Dantu. There is a Huaiyin Village (formerly named Shengxue Village, renamed after the magical old locust tree), which is the legendary place where Dong Yong sells himself as a helper and marries seven fairies. There are many surnames of Fu in the village. The legendary master of Dong Yonggang is their ancestor of a certain generation. After his father was buried in Danyang, he went to work at Fu Yuan's house. He had not yet gone to Huaiyin Village. When he passed a place called Penglai Village, he met seven fairies dressed as village aunts.
Penglai is often referred to as a fairyland, which means that the seven fairies are not human beings. Penglai Village has changed into two adjacent villages, one named Pengqiao and the other named Lai Village, all in Shangdang Town. In Huaiyin Village, there are also relics of fairy bridge, Qixiantang, Shangtiantai and Laoshu, and other related legends. In addition, there are Huaiyin Temple and Qixian Temple built spontaneously by villagers in memory of Dong Yong and Qixian. Statues of fairies, etc.
From this we can know that at least 700 years ago, that is, at the end of Song Dynasty and the beginning of Yuan Dynasty, Dong Yong's legend settled in Zhenjiang. It became the source of the creation of later films or Huangmei Opera Tianxianpi. It is said that Yan Fengying, the leading actor of Tianxianpi, came to Yanling, Danyang to interview when filming the film.
Dong Yong's legend has a long history, but today's relatively early and complete records can be counted as "Sou Shen Ji" written by Ganbao in Jin Dynasty. Although in "Sou Shen Ji", the legend has only 181 words, but the plot is relatively complete and dramatic; the ideological tendency is in line with the appetite of farmers and embodies their ideals, so it is in many rural areas. It's all circulating.
The origin of the legends of Danyang and Dantu Dong Yong naturally does not jump out of this range. However, in oral transmission, it has formed its own characteristics.
1. Native tendencies with clear context
Dong Yong's legend of Danyang and Dantu has been perfectly combined with the local topography, place name, village and surname. Dong Yong was born in Dongxi Village, Wangxianqiao is near Dongxi Village, a small mound near Huaiyin Village has become a rooftop, and Qixiantang is a seven-pond close to each other. Many Fu's descendants in Huaiyin Village are the descendants of Fu's family, and Huaiyin Village is also the descendant of Huaiyin Village. The nearby villages of Pengqiao and Lai were also brought into the story, saying that the seven fairies appeared there. The peasants talked about these things, pointing out and pointing out, as Dong Yong's legend happened the day before, which made people feel intimate and realistic. This made us deeply realize that once the legend is combined with the local characteristics, it will firmly take root.
Here we cannot but mention an event that happened in 2002. In October of that year, the State Post Office issued a set of special stamps for Dong Yong and the Seven Fairies. There has been a heated debate about where the stamps originated. The so-called origin is a special term used in Philatelic activities, that is, it refers to places that have important relations with people or things reflected on stamps, such as the place where the incident occurred, people. To be frank, to seize the original place is to seize a business opportunity. Since there has been controversy in the place where Dong Yong's legend took place, Danyang, as a city with a history of at least several hundred years, can not be seen on the wall. Therefore, a "battle of defense" was set off immediately. At that time, relevant foreign newspapers and magazines had published many articles on the place where Dong Yong's legend took place. The article, however, has nothing to do with Danyang. Zhenjiang philatelic collectors soon wrote contentious articles. Only Zhenjiang Philatelic, an eight-to-four-edition bimonthly tabloid, published six or seven articles in half a year, such as Dong Yong and Danyang, The Legend of Huaiyin Village and so on. It demonstrated the historical origin of Dong Yong's legend with Danyang and Dantu from many aspects, and attracted the attention of the State Post Office. Finally, they would. Research with relevant experts confirmed that Jiang Suanyang (ranked first) and three other places were designated as the origin of "Dong Yong and the Seven Fairies" stamps, which temporarily declared the end of the dispute.
2. Details rendering with different emphasis
Although the main plots of Dong Yong's legends in Danyang and Dantu are the same, they have different emphases in circulation. Yanling in Danyang lays particular stress on the return of the seven fairies to Heaven and their subsequent plots, while Shangdong in Dantu depicts more about how the seven fairies meet Dong Yong, fall in love with each other and how the brocade is still negative after they go down to earth. For example, in the legend of Yanling in Danyang, there is no excessive elaboration of the old locust tree and its related plots. Local peasants just say that there is a hollow old locust tree in another village, which is the legendary old locust tree, but it is not consistent with Dong Yonggong's route or place to go to work. The Party described the old locust tree as a riot of flowers. One was that the old locust tree had a real meaning on the village; the other was directly related to the village name of the village; the third was that there was a locust tree temple, in which there were no other gods but an old locust tree. Danyang sent the seven fairies'son back to Dong Yong in the dungeon, and his son was bullied by his classmates later (the other was not loving to work). Actually, begging for a living, crying for his mother and so on. But there is no such legend in Huaiyin Village. When the old people spoke, they said Dong Yong was Danyang, and some even said in a nutshell: Dong Yong was in Huaiyin Village, only 100 days before and after, seven fairies weaved 300 brocades and helped Dong Yong pay off his debts, so they left Huaiyin Village.
This phenomenon with different emphasis is formed in oral communication. Whatever can be combined with the actual situation, it will be described in detail; wherever there is no evidence or evidence, it will pass by. It depends entirely on the experience and judgment level of the dictator. Over time, different places will form different emphasis.
Yanling and Shangdang are not far apart. If we regard the legends of Dong Yong in both places as a whole, it is also necessary (some people also believe that they are an integral whole). According to Dong Yong's activity line from Dongxi Village to Penglai Village of Shangdang to Huaiyin Village of Shangdang to Dongxi Village of Yanling, it is the same as that from Hangzhou to Suzhou to Zhenjiang to Hangzhou in the legend of "White Snake Legend". Like a line, it is a phenomenon worth studying.
3. Extension of all trunks in vitro
In circulation, besides Dong Yong's legend, there are some side branches and side leaves. They do not damage the spread of the main story, but sometimes play a role of foil, making the main story more full, solid, credible and human. Huaiyin Village in the spread of Dong Yong's story extends to the Fu's family where Dong Yong helped workers live, and tells Fu Hua that Fu's name is Fu Wai. There is a small building at home, where seven fairies weave brocade, called Brocade Tower. Although Fu was very mean, he was very filial to his mother and built a thousand Buddha Tower for his mother. Dong Yongxiao and Fu Yuanwai filial mother expressed filial piety as a virtue advocated by society.
The legend of Dong Yong in Yanling extends to the son of Dong Yong and the seven fairies girl. He cries for his mother because he is an orphan without a mother and often bullied by his little companions at school. Then a teacher called Ghost Guzi to tell him a way to see his mother. But after kneeling on the bridge for seven to forty-nine days, the seven fairies did not appear. So Ghost Guzi taught him to be at dawn. As for Dong Yong's son, another foreign language says that he is not as hard-working as his father Dong Yong and can not grow crops. After Dong Yong's death, he begged for a living. One day he cried in front of Dong Yong's grave because he could not beg. At this time, ghost millet appeared and taught him to wait on Wangxianqiao in the early morning of July 7 (September 9). A woman passed by, and the last one was his mother, the Seven Fairies.
The result is similar. Dong Yong's son got seven grains of rice from his mother, but ignored his mother's advice and put them together in a pot to cook. As a result, the rice rose from the pot and the house burst. He had to climb up to the roof to eat, round his stomach and shout at the same time. It is said that as long as he shouted loudly on Wangxianqiao. You will hear the echo from the distant roof, that is Dong Yong's son's voice.
This short story is a bit like a fable, it seems to tell people a truth, that is, to be diligent, if lazy, even immortals can not help. But the follow-up status of this short story, let us see the influence and adsorbing power of Dong Yong's legend.