Legend of Chen Sanwuniang
Li Jing Ji of Chen Sanwuniang is an ancient folklore, belonging to the legendary works of Ming Dynasty in China. The author has lost his life in Quanzhou (Chen Sang) of Fujian Province and Chaozhou (Wuniang) of Guangdong Province in southern Fujian Province. It is mainly composed of Qupai (script) and is performed in drama. It is widely spread in Fujian, South Fujian, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines.
It is the earliest publication of Minnan dialect. The content of the story is about the tortuous process of Chen San (Quanzhou native) and Wuniang (Chaozhou native) love stories.
Because of the conflict between the free love story written by Li Jing and the traditional Chinese matchmaker's words and marriage, the play was banned repeatedly by the government in the Ming and Qing dynasties, but it was still widely welcomed by the people in southern Fujian.
On November 11, 2014, the legend of Chen Sanwuniang was approved by the State Council to be included in the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
"Chen San Wuniang" is a romantic love story about Chen San's encounter with Huang Wuniang in Quanzhou against the background of Lantern Festival, which is widely circulated in Chaoshan area.
"Walking lanterns" creates a romantic atmosphere for the Lantern Festival and increases the opportunities for young people to communicate. In the old days, those ladies who did not go out on weekdays were allowed to go out to enjoy the lamp only on this day. They often took the opportunity to talk with their loved ones and meet each other, so this day also created countless good luck and beautiful couples.
The romantic verse of "Liu Shao Tou on the Moon, People Around Dusk" and the "Golden Chai on the Head always falls, which is the thunder song of the Lantern Festival in Suixi County. "Looking for him in the crowd, suddenly looking back, the man is in the lamp languishing place." It is also a vivid portrayal of the mutual affection between Chen San and Wuniang. Let's see if some of us can make a good story about Lantern Festival and Lantern Walking, and make countless good marriages.
"Chen Sanwuniang" is a well-known folk story which is spread in the eastern Guangdong, southern Fujian, Taiwan and Southeast Asia where Chaozhou people live together.
In 1993, Liu Meifang, a graduate student of the Institute of Chinese Literature Studies at Taiwan's Dongwu University, published her master's thesis Chen Sanwuniang Research, which is a comprehensive study of Chen Sanwuniang's story after Chen Xiang's Chen Sanwuniang Research and Lin Yanzhi's Jiajingben Litchi Records Research.
According to the author, this article has been written for five years, covering Fuzhou, Xiamen, Putian, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Chaozhou, Shantou and Hong Kong. There are more than 100 references, including 90 works, 32 operas, plays and novels, 13 periodicals and 27 audio-visual materials.
The scripts and audiovisuals involve local operas such as Liyuan, Gaojia, Chaozhou Opera, Puxian, Huangmei, Haifeng Baizi, Gezi Opera (Xiangju Opera), Pupu Opera, Pu Bag Opera, Paper Shadow Opera, etc. There are songs and ballads in Fujian and Taiwan, such as song books, brocade songs, Nanyin, Nanguan Baizi, bamboo horses, cart drums and Chaozhou, and stories such as Lijing Biography, Embroidery Towel Margin, Chen Sanwuniang and Lijing Margin New Biography. Besides the Pear Garden Opera Chen Sanwuniang and Chao Opera Li Jingji filmed in mainland China, there are Hong Kong's "New Chen Sanwuniang" and Taiwan's "Yichun Advice to the Emperor", "Chen Sanwuniang", "Wuniang Sijun" and so on. In addition, there are TV plays "Li Jingyuan", "Modern Chen Sanwuniang" and dance drama "Chen Sanwuniang".
In 1995, Chaozhou Literature and History Material, Volume 15, published Lijing Spring and Autumn Period, which was compiled by Liu Guanyao, a well-known late dramatist in our city. Its income ranged from before Zhengde in the Ming Dynasty (1521 years ago) to more than 400 years in 1995 about "Chen Sanwuniang". It can also be said to be a cultural history of Chen Sanwuniang, including 36 plays, 17 novels, 22 opera books and 3 stories. There are 26 audiovisual products, 68 reviews and research articles, and 68 performance activities (including 6 films and 6 TV shows).
A folk love story, after hundreds of years of spread, regardless of its depth and breadth, is far more than the same theme in the whole country. At present, its story is still developing. In the past 20 years of reform and opening up, Yichun Night Meeting, Biography of Lijing, Yichun, Biography of Lijing and recently awarded biography of Yichun have been created in our city alone, which is a unique cultural phenomenon.
Liu Meifang's comparative study of the story's development, editions and categories in Chen San Wuniang's Study concludes that Chen San Wuniang has more "humanistic romantic spirit" and "human awakening" than Zhang Gong and Ying Ying in Yingying's Biography and Tang Yin and Qiuxiang in Huayingyuan's "Rebellion to the shackles of the times" in consciousness. And "by virtue of the commonality of language, it is popular in Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Puxian, Chaozhou, and extended to Taiwan and Southeast Asia through immigration".
Can we make a further study of the cultural phenomenon of "Chen Sanwuniang"? That is, to study its cultural connotation through this phenomenon? According to the above information, we can study it from the following aspects:
_The origin relationship between Chaozhou and southern Fujian in history. From the two protagonists belong to Quanzhou in Fujian and Chaozhou in Guangdong, people will find the close relationship between them in history. In the Tang Dynasty, Chaozhou was once under the jurisdiction of Fujian for three times, while the jurisdiction of Chaozhou is now under the jurisdiction of Zhangzhou counties; in the Song Dynasty, a large number of Fujian officials came to Chaozhou to govern, which promoted the spread of Central Plains culture and the formation of Chaozhou dialect; in the Ming Dynasty, Chaozhou and Quanzhou, as the main ports along the southeastern coast of China, had closer economic and personnel These should be the important historical background of the generation and dissemination of the story of "Chen Sanwuniang".
_According to the existing materials, the story of "Chen Sanwuniang" originated in the middle of Ming Dynasty. This is the embryonic stage of capitalist economy in China. As the window of foreign exchanges in southern Fujian and Eastern Guangdong, the ideological influence of democracy and freedom also appears, which is bound to be reflected in literary and artistic creation. This is why Miss Huang Wuniang dared to throw "handkerchief litchi" upstairs. However, Chen San, the noble son, sold himself as a slave for three years in order to pursue the Five Niangs. Aren't these "deviant" acts of "bold and arrogant" just the embodiment of democratic and free thought? Although the official government (such as Xiamen) once banned the performance of "obscenity" by explicit decree, they failed to prevent its spread, which can not be said to be the germination and influence of democratic thought.
(5) The development of the story of "Chen Sanwuniang" reflects the struggle of two different ideas in modern China, "letting Yichun go in the middle of the mountain", "the legend of Hongchengcuo (a scholar of the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties), and the programs such as"Chen Sanmartyrdom"and"Chen Sanniang"reflect the criticism of the main characters of the story, that is, those who violate the ethics and religion should be punished; and"Sequel to Lijing Ji"and"Li Li"reflect the criticism of the main characters of the story. The biography outside the mirror, Yichun and Yichun Advice to the Emperor extend the story's democratic and free thinking, especially with Yichun as the "humble character" as the main role, which reflects a kind of grassroots consciousness more strongly.
(5) As the oldest song book in Fujian and Taiwan, Chen Sanwuniang is the first script of Chaozhou Opera (i.e. the reissue of Chaozhou Spring in Ming Jiajing and the addition of Poetry and Ci in Northern Opera Goulan and Lijing Opera) and the first script of Taiwanese Opera (recorded in the History of Taiwanese Film and Drama), in which the characters, scenes, languages, customs and aesthetics are all fresh. The local characteristics of Ming Dynasty reflect the cultural essence and connotation of an art form in the process of its birth and formation. It is not only of great value to the study of the history of folk art, but also inevitably has an impact on the creation of local themes.
The cultural phenomenon of "Chen Sanwuniang" provides us with an important enlightenment, which is to attach importance to the study of popular culture.
Culture generally has the distinction between elegance and vulgarity. Elegant culture mostly exists in palaces. Popular culture exists in the folk. But there seems to be no clear boundary between the two cultures. The so-called "elegance in vulgarity" and "elegance in vulgarity". Chaozhou culture, known as "vulgar and elegant", mostly exists in the folk, that is, the so-called popular culture. But precisely this part of culture is rarely recorded in historical records, mainly in the folk hereditary dissemination, so it is often ignored by people. The protection of intangible cultural heritage initiated nationwide is enough to arouse people's attention in this respect.
Chen Sanwuniang, also known as Lijing Ji, is a classic work of Chao Opera. But it seems that Chen Sanwuniang is more famous than Lijing Ji.
In "The Spring and Autumn Period of a Century's Pear Garden", we can see that the Pear Garden Opera "Chen Sanwuniang" can not see the Chao Opera "Lijing Ji".
Moreover, the name "Chen Sanwuniang" is relatively popular. As soon as ordinary people hear it, they know that it is a love story between Chen Sanniang and a woman named Wuniang.
Therefore, whether in Chaoshan or outside, the name "Chen Sanwuniang" has a greater impact than "Lijing Ji".
Li and Jing are the material evidence of the love between Chen San and Wuniang. Wuniang cuddled her head and saw Chen San riding by, expressing her love with the help of litchi. It is a folk ballad that sings: "In the summer of June, Wuniang upstairs admire litchi, Chen San riding in front of the building, Wuniang litchi thrown to Iraq!" Because of the lychee romance, Chen Sanqin later came to Huang's house pretending to be a mirror grinder. It's only a preliminary start to come to Huang's house with the help of mirror grinding. Chen San is willing to sell himself to mortgage the mirror by breaking the mirror. Without lychees and mirrors, this classic drama would be impossible to deduce.
This opera has been performed in the Ming Dynasty. Among the five kinds of opera and prose in Chaozhou in the Ming Dynasty, one of them is Lijing Ji.
The story of this drama took place in the Song Dynasty. Song Dynasty is a very rational and legal dynasty. It is not acceptable for men and women to be together without matchmaker. Litchi Mirror is a matchmaker in Litchi Mirror. I think we can find a legitimate reason for this story in the social reality at that time.
"Chen Sanwuniang" is a beautiful legend widely spread in southern Fujian cultural circle. It began with historical stories and later evolved into operas, which made folk legends more legendary. Historically, Chen Sanniang, Wuniang, Yichun, Wuniang's maidservant, and Lin Da, who had the orders of his parents and had a close relationship with Wuniang, really have others. According to Zheng Changshi, a Chaoyang native in the Qing Dynasty, Chen San, a Quanzhou scholar, went to work with his brother and sister-in-law Guangnan. He passed through Chaozhou and met Huang Wuniang, the daughter of Huang Jiulang. He fell in love at first sight and decided to propose marriage. After several twists and turns, he finally got married. Chen San lived in the late Southern Song Dynasty, famous Lin, the word Boqing, ranked third, also known as Chen San. His hometown is Wuzhai, Heshi City, Luojiang District, Quanzhou City. There is a dam near Wuzhai called Chen Sanba. At that time, there are still traces of the "Qingyang Room" in Chen San's reading office. In the middle of the 20th century, a stele inscribed with Chen San's epitaph was found on Pengshan Mountains in Quanzhou. It was said that Chen San was a "romantic, literary and artistic figure who had no intention of becoming an official." He had lived in Lin Quan since he married Huang Jiulong's fifth daughter, Bichen, in Chaozhou.
From the historical story-folklore-the legendary classical novel of Quanzhou in Ming Dynasty "Lijing Biography" (ancestor edition) - the performance edition of "Lichi Ji" before Jiajing in Ming Dynasty - the performance edition of "Lijing Ji" in Jiajing in Ming Dynasty, to the popular performance edition of "Chen Sanwuniang" in Liyuan Opera in Quanzhou in modern times, the opera has added Lantern Festival Lantern, Lin Datuo, Chen Sanyou Street, Chen Sanmo Jing and Chen Sanwei as slaves. The plots of Yichun's leaving umbrellas, Qiaoxiu Lonely Luan, Lin Da's forced marriage, Wuniang's breaking appointment and running to Quanzhou at night, and some later abridged operas, such as Lin Da's complaint, Wuniang's probing into prison, distributing Yazhou and Xiaoqi's sending books, become folk stories. Along with the enrichment of Chen Sanwuniang's legend, it has later derived from the literary and artistic forms of opera, dance drama, drama, novel, film, drama, story film, etc. There are also experts and scholars who study Chen Sanwuniang's culture.
In order to pursue a better love, Chen Sanyi, a scholar, concealed his identity and was willing to serve as a slave for three years. Huang Wuniang dared to break with the feudal etiquette system and elope with her loved ones. The lover eventually became a family member. In another way, she expressed the spirit of fighting against fate and placed her faith in the direction of a better love. In the past, it conforms to the "people have formed a fixed cognitive positioning and psychological expectations" and gives people the enjoyment of beauty. Legend has it that the Yuan soldiers entered Quanzhou and massacred it. Chen's house was surrounded by officers and soldiers and destroyed by fire. Chen Sanhe and Wuniang fled in the desert, and they both threw themselves into the well to die. A memorable love story, a sad and beautiful ending of life and death, touched and praised by later generations, has been handed down to this day.
The love story of the Chao Opera "Chen Sanwuniang", also known as "Lijing Ji", is widely spread among the people in eastern Guangdong and southern Fujian. In the play, Wuniang watches lanterns at the Lantern Festival, meets Chen San, Lin Dabi engages, Wuniang refuses to follow, Wuniang throws Li and Chen San to show affection, Chen Sanmo mirror enters the mansion as a slave, Lin Dabi forced marriage, Chen Sanqi Wuniang Yichun runs to Quanzhou.
The play was first performed by Zheng Shun Chao Opera Troupe in 1955, directed by Zheng Yibiao and Wu Feng, composed by Yang Qiguo, Huang Qinzhi and Chen Hua. The main actors are Li Qinyu as Chen San, Yao Xuanqiu as Wuniang, Xiao Nanying as Yichun, Guo Shihai as Lin Da and Wu Linrong as Zhuo II. After the public performance, "Chen Sanwuniang" became a never fading pearl of Chao Opera.
The Guangdong Chao Opera Troupe was founded in 1956 to perform the play. In 1961, it was produced by Hong Kong Phoenix Film Company as a color film. After years of performances and broadcasting, the main characters such as Chen San, Wuniang, Yichun and Lin Da have become well-known figures of Chaozhou people, men and women, old and young, but their true historical facts are seldom known. According to Zheng Changshi's Hanjiang Wenwenlu of Qing Dynasty, Wuniang was born in Ming Dynasty and his father, Huang Jiugong, was a wealthy man at that time. He lived in a beautiful garden with green flowers and noisy birds outside the west gate of Chaozhou City. Huang Jiugong has two daughters. The elder sister is Wuniang and the youngest sister is Liu Niang. Wuniang is rich and gorgeous, known as the national color. She was hired as a wife by Wusheng Lin Dasuo (commonly known as Lin Dabi), a playboy in the middle and west streets of the city.
It's no coincidence that it's not a book. There's a talented man named Chen Boqing in Quanzhou, Fujian Province. He ranks third in the family. His neighbors and neighbors all call him Chen San. His elder brother was a senior high school student in the imperial examinations in his early years, and later a transit envoy in Guangdong. That year, Chen San was ordered by his mother to escort his sister-in-law from Quanzhou to his brother's residence. Passing Chaozhou City, he was enthusiastically remitted by his brother's friend Chaozhou Zhifu in the same year. It was spring, and the scenery of Chaozhou was fascinating. Chen Sanxing traveled to eight sceneries in Chaozhou and passed through the warm and quiet garden. He couldn't help but stop and watch. He happened to see a beautiful lady in the embroidery building, who was Wuniang. Chen Sandun had a heart of love and was determined to marry Wuniang. When he returned to Fuya, Chen Sanxiang asked the Zhifu to marry Wuniang, only to know that Wuniang had already made a marriage. Chen San was not reconciled, and vowed to design and marry the Five Niangs, that is, to seek advice from Chaozhou Master Ye. After thinking about one side, the Master asked, "Does the Five Niangs still have sisters?" Answer: "Six Niangs have little sisters and have not yet been affiliated. "The Master said to Chen San with great ingenuity,"Why don't the Prince marry the Six Mothers?""Chen San frowned:"Xiaosheng wants to marry the Five Mothers. Please ask the Master to give him good advice. "Master muttered to Chen Santian in a whisper, and finally said:" The prince will first appoint Six Niangs! "Chen San was glad to hear that. He asked the government to act as a matchmaker. He went to the Huang family to raise his wife and appointed Six Niangs.
Mr. Chen Sanzhao's plan was to escort his sister-in-law to Guangzhou. On his departure, he said to the court gentleman, "Chen Sanzhao has made an engagement with Wuniang. These words came to Lin Da's nose and ears. He was half-convinced and asked the matchmaker to question Huang Jiugong. Huang Jiugong said, "Huang Jia is a poetry and etiquette style. There is no reason for marriage change." Chen Sanhired not Wuniang, but my six little girls. "The matchmaker returned Huang Jiugong's words to Lin Dabi, and after Lin listened, the big stone fell to the ground. A few months later, Chen San returned from Guangzhou to Chaozhou Prefecture Ya. He chose the auspicious day to welcome his relatives. At this time, he made a rumor in Chaozhou City: "Chen San is going to marry Five Niangs. "Lin Dabi heard that Chen San was going to marry Huang Wuniang again and again. It must be Huang Jiapan and Chen Guanda. Huang and Chen colluded to replace Li with peach. They were very nervous and asked their relatives and friends to question Huang Jiugong. When Huang Jiugong heard this, he was furious and scolded the Lin family. He said, "The old man is a well-known and wise squire in Chaozhou County. How can he do something against the customs?" Besides, Chen Sanshi, the brother of Guangdong transshipment envoy, was the intermediary of Chaozhou Zhifu, who was both law-abiding and disciplined, and there were all married posts. "When the visitors were scolded, Lin Dabi had to swallow his breath and dare not speak any more.
On the day of Chen Sanying's marriage, he invited many strong soldiers to guard him along the way. He also took many relatives to Huang's house, took Six Niangs to the sedan chair, and secretly sent people to rumor again: "Chen Sang has captured Five Niangs!" "When the news reached the Lin family, Lin Da sniffed and scolded Chen Sanying for taking his wife and wife by relying on official position. At that time, others said to Lin Xianzhi, "Chen San is a son of an official family, but his family is far away in Quanzhou. The dragon can't fight with the snake. Xianggong is a local gentry. He dares to rob people. Are we afraid that we can't rob him? Chen San robbed us, we robbed him;" "Lin Dabi thought it was reasonable, so people immediately arranged the hall to welcome their relatives, and took their own family until they stopped Chen San's sedan chair robbing his beloved wife, Huang Wuniang. Chen Sanna's Gang pretended to resist the enemy, but they let the sedan chair be carried away by the big nose man.
When the sedan chair was lifted to the Lin family, early friends and relatives filled the hall, drums and firecrackers burst in unison, and Lin Dabi raised the sedan chair door to see that he was deceived. The bride was a six-bride, not a five-bride. Lin Dabi didn't know what to do for a while. The government has sent a messenger to pass on Lin Dabi to the court. Chaozhou Zhifu has scolded Lin Dabi for having no royal law and robbing officials and relatives in broad daylight. Lin Dabi mute eats Coptis chinensis, pointing to heaven and earth: "villains in the plan, but also the crime of robbing relatives?! How do you punish adults? "Zhifu said:" I think you still have the performance of confession, our government forgives you. But Six Niangs sedan chair has been carried into your home, the husband and wife's name has been determined, you will be wrong to marry Six Niangs. "Chen San finally married Wuniang as he wished.