Lao Tzu

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Lao Tzu

Laozi, surnamed Li Minger, is a character of Bai Yang, or posthumous Bo Yang. In the late spring and Autumn period, the birth and death years were unknown. About 571 years ago, it was born in the late spring and Autumn period. Ancient ChinaThinker , philosopher , Litterateur and historian , Taoist school Founder and main representative.

Laozi is World cultural celebrities One of the 100 celebrities in the world, and Chuang-tzu Also called the Daoist school of philosophy. stay Taoism Lao Tzu was honored as the first ancestor of Taoism. Lord Lao Zi " stay The Tang Dynasty Lao Tzu was considered to be the first ancestor of Li.

Lao Tzu thought Yes Chinese Philosophy Development has profound Influence Its thinking core yes simple Dialectics. In politics, Laozi advocated "rule by doing nothing" and "saying nothing". In politics, Laozi pays attention to extremes. In terms of self-cultivation, Laozi is the first ancestor of Taoism's life and life. He is concerned about the practice of being modest and honest and not contending with others. Laozi's works The Scripture of Ethics (also known as " Lao Tzu It is one of the largest publications in the world.

Paul Mauriat's History

Born bitter County

Lao Tzu was born in 571 BC (Zhou Ling Wang Yuannian, Lu Xiang Gong two years, and Song Ping Gong five years) was born in Chu (formerly Chen) Guo Ku county. According to Redords of the Grand History of China · Biography of Laozi Han Fei "Laozi, that is, Li Er, is the Li village of Li Xiang, the bitter country of Chu.

Professor of philosophy, Peking University Guo Lan Fang In Laozi's philosophy, Lao Zi's surname is Li Ming, who was born in the late part of the spring and Autumn period. He was born in the late spring and Autumn period. He served as a librarian and Book Manager of the Zhou Dynasty. He was a predecessor of Confucius.

Effectiveness week

In 551 BC (twenty-one years of Zhou Ling king and twenty-two years of Lu Xiang Gong), Lao Tzu entered the Zhou Dynasty to serve as a Tibetan official. Before I was recommended to enter the room, Lao Tzu followed Chang Fong. Shang Rong Learning knowledge.

In 535 BC (King Zhou King ten years and Lu Zhao Gong seven years), Lao Tzu was run away from the state of Lu in the history of the Tibetan chamber because he was excluded by dignitaries. In Lu Guo Lane, the party presided over the funeral of friends, Confucius helped bury. time Confucius At the age of 17, he asked the old man.

In 530 BC (fifteen weeks in King Chou and twelve years in Lu Zhao Gong), Lao Tzu was recalled by Gan Ping Gong and remained in charge of Tibetan history.

In 526 BC (nineteen weeks in King Chou and sixteen years in Lu Zhao Gong), Confucius, 26, visited Chou and visited Lao Tzu.

In 516 BC (twenty-six weeks in the four years of King Zhou and Lu Zhao Gong), Lao Tzu was moved back to his native place because he was sent to Chu state by his prince. Later went to Qin state, the exact age is not known.

In 501 BC (nineteen weeks in King Chou and nine years in Lu Ding Gong), Confucius, 51 years old, asked Lao Tzu from the south to Laozi's hometown.

Book entry

About 485 BC (thirty-five weeks of King Chou and ten years of Lu Gong Gong), Laozi saw that the Zhou Dynasty was becoming more and more decadent, leaving the native land and preparing to go out and hang around. Guarding the governor of correspondence Valley Yin Xi I admire Lao Tzu. I am very glad to hear that he has come to correspondence valley. But when he knew that Lao Tzu wanted to go out and go for a ride, he felt very sorry. He tried to keep Lao Zi. So Yin Xi said to Lao Tzu, "Sir, you want to leave the customs, but you have to leave a book." After listening to Lao Tzu, he stayed in correspondence Valley for a few days. A few days later, he handed Yin Xi a book about five thousand words, and then left on the big green bull. It is said that this book is the "Tao Te Ching" which was handed down later.

Post mortem closure

According to legend, Lao Tzu lived long, died in Qin Kingdom about 471 BC, at the age of one hundred and one. "Chuang-tzu health master" has: "the old man dies, the Qin loses suspends, the number three comes out." Hu Shi believed that Lao Tzu lived at least more than 90 years old.

In 666 ad, Lao Tzu (emperor taochung's first year of dry seal) was called the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. In the 1013 (Song Zhenzongxiang Fu Liunian), the emperor of the Supreme Court was mixed up with the emperor.

Main achievements

Lao Tzu's achievements are mainly reflected in Lao Tzu's book. Laozi, also known as Tao Te Ching or Tao De Jing, andBook of changes " Analects "It is considered to be the three most influential masterpiece of the Chinese people. The book age has been debated in the past and is still uncertain. However, according to the age of Laozi, which was unearthed in the Guodian bamboo slips unearthed in 1993, the book age was at least in the middle and early stages of the Warring States period. The book amounts to about five thousand words, originally known as Laozi and without the name of Tao Te Ching.Later, it was called "Tao Te Ching", and it was divided into eighty-one chapters. It was composed of two chapters, thirty-seven chapters of the first passage and forty-four chapters of the German classics. The ideological structure of the whole book is that Tao is the body of virtue and morality is the use of Tao.

Theory of heaven

The main category of Laozi's thought is "Dao", and the word "Dao" has appeared seventy-three times in Laozi. Tao is a kind of initial state of chaos, which is not divided. It is the beginning of the world, the beginning of heaven and earth, the mother of all things, the root of all things that are generated by life, and the nameless and inaction of the Tao. It is like water. It is good for all things but not for everything. It is the highest good to be weak and strong. The Tao is unspeakable, and the human senses can not be directly perceived. Tao is not only the body of the universe, but also the rules of life, or the criterion of life.Confucianism regards heaven, earth and man as "three talents", while Laozi is "four big" in terms of Tao, heaven, earth and man. The "four big" has increased the way on the "three talents". It has opened an extremely high and imaginative space for Chinese culture and thought. Tao is metaphysical and runs through the form. Moreover, it does not give heaven or emperor such willpower and purposeful creator, leaving any room for intervention. Heaven's natural and inaction is the purport of Lao Tzu's book. Two thousand and five hundred years ago, Lao Tzu's way was a great invention on the basis of fundamentally transforming the original Tao theory.

Tao, as the original and noumenon of heaven and earth, creates and achieves everything in the universe. But Tao accomplishments of heaven and earth is not intentional but entirely unintentional. Laozi said, "man, law, land, law, heaven, law, Taoism and nature." The natural law is natural. Nature is the description of the state and action of the Tao, rather than the nature of the entity beyond the Tao. Although Tao achieves all things, Tao does not mean to achieve all things; Tao does not achieve anything in order to achieve anything; it is entirely natural and totally natural and ineffective. "Born without being, not for special", everything is natural and natural. This is the nature of Tao. The nature of Tao is natural and inaction, but it is this kind of inaction, which achieves success. It is precisely because of inaction that everything is accomplished. This phenomenon is highly generalized by Laozi's philosophy, which means "doing nothing but doing nothing". "Doing nothing for nothing" is not only the great virtue and the great use of Tao, but also the most fundamental law governing everything in the universe. It is the fundamental law of personal well-being and the so-called "truth". "Without being born, it can live forever" and "because it does not become big at the end, so it can become big". This is the principle of heaven and earth: "only the husband can not argue, so the world can not compete with it". "Doing nothing for nothing" is not only the use of Tao, the principle of Tao, but also the "Taoism". It is the fundamental means and method for Hou Wang to govern the country. Therefore, "I do nothing for the sake of the people, but I am quiet and the people are right. I have nothing to do but the people are rich, and I have no desire but the people are plain."

Dialectical Thought

Laozi believes that everything in the world exists in comparison. Beauty and ugliness, good and evil, existence, difficulty and length depend on each other. This is the only way to have good and evil. On the face of it, the two opposing aspects are mutually exclusive, but in fact they are mutually inclusive and interpenetrating. "Misfortune, happiness depends on it; happiness, disaster." Everything is me, I have you, everything is not static. Laozi put forward the "anti - Dao movement" in the fortieth chapter of Tao Te Ching. That is to say, when things develop to a certain extent, they will transform to the opposite side.At the same time, the development of things and the transformation of things to the opposite are not realized at once. They need to undergo a continuous accumulation process. "The foundation of the embrace is born at the end of the day; the nine level of the platform rises from the earth; the journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step."

Social theory

Laozi thinks that the nature of Tao is natural inaction, and natural inaction is the fundamental law governing the universe. It is also the basic code of conduct for human beings to abide by. Starting from the principle of inaction, Laozi objected to man's deeds, because he destroyed the original natural simplicity of human beings, resulting in the split of personality, bringing hypocrisy, cunning, greed, evil and other social ugliness. "The road is useless, there is benevolence and righteousness; wisdom comes out, there are big false; six parent discord, filial piety; the state is confused, there are loyal ministers." Everything in the world is natural. Do not flaunt benevolence and righteousness, but have benevolence and righteousness. When we are praised by benevolence and righteousness, it means that righteousness and righteousness no longer exist. From this point of view, Lao Tzu put forward the idea of "giving up all kinds of wisdom and abandoning fraud" and advocating "a small number of people in a small country." This is an idea of restoring ancient times. In accordance with this social ideal, Laozi also advocated that you should be weak and weak, and think that "strong and weak", "the world is not weak in the water, but the tough ones can not be the first", and then advocate "good deeds like water". They believe that the most perfect personality should have the same mindset and behavior of water, "where everyone else is evil", go where others do not want to go, do what others do not want to do, bear the burden and bear humility.

Aesthetic thought

The core of Lao Tzu's thought is Tao, and the nature of Tao is nature. Because of its admiration for nature, Laozi also highly admires simplicity and childish. He believes that "great skill is stupid," praises the infant's "deep virtue" and advocates that a man should not live in China. As a form of beauty, simplicity and naivety have always been widely praised in ancient China. The antagonistic Huayan frivolity has always been scorned by people. This tendency is influenced by Lao Tzu's thought.Besides the simplicity and childish, Laozi also highly praised the tranquil nature and thought that "indifference is superior, but victory is not beauty". The beauty of simplicity is also advocated by many people, and has become an aesthetic trend in Song Dynasty.

Lao Tzu's idea of "being born or not" and "having thought for profit" are also great influences on Chinese traditional aesthetics and traditional art. Chinese painting has always emphasized the combination of reality and reality, emphasizing the importance of "being white and black" and emphasizing "empty". These theoretical sources are precisely the theory of Laozi's "being born or not". Lao Tzu also put forward "tasteless". "Tasteless" is originally a way of speaking, because the Tao is intangible and tasteless, so we can not understand the Tao by perception, but only by appreciating it. Ancient Chinese aesthetic theory had long believed that aesthetics did not know and experience, which was also influenced by Lao Tzu's thought. Lao Tzu said that "eliminating the metaphysical mirror" is originally a theory of Taoism, and aesthetics must also eliminate the desire for material desires. This theory is inherited by future esthetics and becomes the theory of aesthetic appreciation in Chinese aesthetics.

Literary achievement

Lao Tzu's article has certain literary nature, and it has great influence on later literature. First of all, Tao Te Ching played a very specific role in literature, and played an important role in understanding natural phenomena and social life at that time. Literary works are the image reflection of social life. Good literary works are actually reproducing scenes in natural and social phenomena, reflecting the economic, political and cultural aspects of a certain historical period, describing the mental outlook of different classes, different strata and different personalities, reflecting people's various realities, and enabling readers to get all kinds of correct understanding of history and reality, society and life. Lao Tzu has made great achievements in these aspects.

Secondly, Lao Tzu's achievements in writing skills. Only more than 5000 words of the Tao Te Ching contain so much content and end up in the end. It all depends on the skill of the author in writing articles. Lao Tzu's literary techniques can be summed up as follows: first, Wen Jian, ICO, has short and long flavor, and is good at three words and four words. The descendants divided the Tao Te Ching into eighty-one chapters, with few words in each chapter, more than eighty words, and fewer than 20 words, but it resembles a string of eight treasures pearls, which are wrong and continuous in one sentence, and often rhyme in the middle, in order to increase the musical quality of the article. Two, use metaphor to make good use of couplets. The best use of metaphor is like the fifth chapter of "the world is not benevolent, and everything is a dog", and the twenty-sixth chapter is "heavy for light root and static for impetuous king"; the best use of the phrase is "the beginning of the nameless world, the mother of all things", and the second chapter of "inaction without deeds". Each sentence has cast the author's strong thoughts and feelings. This is the result of Lao Tzu's use of metaphor and couplets. Three, Lao Tzu's article is easy to understand, not "difficult to understand subtle", but to find its beauty from his language use. Four, Lao Tse's article is good at using contradiction to explain the natural laws of things being transformed into each other. In the making of sentences, there are words that are loaded with words, skillfully combined to use it to reveal the nature of natural phenomena and social phenomena, such as: whether there are differences, similarities and differences, beauty and evil, difficulties, lengths, ups and down, high and low, around, false and real, strong and weak, etc. Five, Laozi's article is based on rational prose. From the following six hundred schools of thought, articles are all tools for reasoning, Laozi is no exception, but Laozi's plot structure and form of expression are unique. Lao Tzu tries to strive for literary work. A reason is often repeated by several synonyms, and it is repeated again and again because of its short and long flavour. It is not clear that it is repetitive. Lao Tzu wants the form of articles not from the content to "the system must be the first"; Lao Tzu's article does not seek to be empty and delicate, but rather relies on the facts, narrates the arguments, and makes proper preparations. The eighty-one chapter of the Tao Te Ching, from the beginning to the end, echoes clearly and clearly, and has no confusion, reflecting the performance of the structure obeying the theme.


Laozi was born

Laozi, Lao Tzu's father, is Sima of Song state. Chu attacked the Song Dynasty, while Lao Tsao was shot by the Chu Jun fish stone at the end of the battle of Pengcheng, and fell into the chest five inches. Song Jun had no head, failed in battle and fled in all directions. Lao Zuo's family is in the tent of Song Ying army. There are several maids, ten generals and dozens of guards. When he heard that Lao Zhu had been killed in battle, and the enemy troops were rushing in, all the families would rush to drive, protect the old lady and fight and run away. In the evening, although the pursuers had disappeared, only two maids and a motorists left the old lady's side. The family will not dare to stop for a short time, go to the stars and go to the moon, go for a walk in the dark, run wild in the southwest direction. On the second day, at dawn, the old lady and her family came to a remote village and asked the villagers to go to song Du road. They shook their heads and said they did not know. The family will only know that westward should be known to the south. A row of four people circled the path for seven days, but still did not see sung Du, but they came to Chen Guoxiang city. When he was walking, the old lady suddenly felt pain in her abdomen. She had been pregnant for seven months, and Lao Zuo fulfilled her promise before her husband and went to battle with her heart. At this time, the old lady lost her husband's grief. He was worried about his life, worried about his body, tired of his body, and the pain in his abdomen. The servant girl was in a panic. The family would be busy stopping by the roadside and rushing to the village to find an old woman. But for a few moments, I heard only the cry of "Wah" in the van. A premature baby boy was born. This is Lao Tzu's son, Lao Tzu.

Lao Tzu was born, weak and head big, broad eyebrows and broad ears, eyes like the abyss pearl clear, nose containing two beams as rut. Because its ears grew up, it was called "Jiao". Because it was born in the year of tiger Yin (571 BC), the neighbors also called it "little tiger". Jianghuai people call "cat" as "beaver", which sounds like "Li Er". Over time, the name of "Lao Er" was named "Li Er".

Smart boy

Lao Tse is intelligent, quiet and eager to learn. He often gets entangled with his family and will listen to the rise and fall of the country, the success or failure of war, the worship of divination and the observation of stars. The old lady looks forward to becoming a son. Shang Rong Tong's astronomy and geography, ancient and modern etiquette, is respected by Lao Zi and his family.

One day, Professor Shang Rong said, "between heaven and earth, man is dear, and all men are kings." The old man asked, "what is heaven?" The gentleman said, "the sky is clear." The old man asked again, "what is the Qing Dynasty?" Sir, "in the Qing Dynasty, space is also." "What is it above space?" He said, "above the space, the people of the Qing Dynasty are also." "What is it above?" "The Qing Dynasty is more clear than the Qing Dynasty." Lao asked again. "What is the end of the Qing Dynasty?" He said, "the ancient sages have not been handed down, but the ancient books have not been carried out." At night, the old man asks his mother with his doubts, and his mother can not answer. So he looked up at the sun, the moon and the stars, and looked down at the sky for what he could not sleep all night.

On another day, Professor Shang said, "in Liuhe, people in heaven and earth live. Heaven has heaven, earth has geography, people have human relations, things have physical properties, there are natural ways, so the sun, moon and stars are feasible. There is physical property, so it is long and short. " The old man asked, "who is pushing the sun, the moon and the stars? Who built the mountains, rivers and seas? Who is the elder and the younger? Long and short and brittle, who should row? He said, "all gods do." Asked the old man. "Why can God do it?" He said, "God has the power of change. The work of creation can be done. " The old man asked, "where does God come from? When does God work? The teacher said, "the teacher did not pass the ancient books, but the old teacher did not dare to speak." At night, the old man asked his mother with his doubts, and his mother could not answer. The family will not be able to speak. So he thought of things and touched things, and three days did not know the taste of rice.

Another day, Professor Shang said, "the king is the one who stands for heaven." If you don't want it to be abolished, you will not be able to obey it. " The old man asked, "people's livelihood is not just for the king. What is the reason why a gentleman is born in heaven? Sir, "God sends God to heaven. If you are born, you will be left behind. When you are born, you have no intention of heaven. The old man asked, "God has the power of change and the power of creation. Why not create a gentleman who listens to his fate?" He said, "the ancient sages have not been handed down, but the ancient books have not been loaded."At night, the old man asks his mother with his doubts, and his mother can not answer. Therefore, the scholar of Xiang Yi, who went through the land of Xiang Yi, was not wet in the rain, and could not feel it in the wind.

One day, Professor Shang said, "everything in the world is very precious. If they lose their peace, they will fight, but they will be disabled while they are fighting. If they are injured, they will be injured two, and two injuries will be harmful and useless.Therefore, we must profit from others and benefit ourselves, and we will do harm to others. The old man asked, "if the world is out of harmony and the great harm of the people, why should the king not be treated?" He said, "the struggle of the people is a loss and a small loss. It is a great loss for a country to struggle, but a great disaster for a great loss. The old man asked, "why can't God govern himself?" He said, "the sages have not been handed down, but the ancient books have not been loaded." At night, the old man asks his mother with his doubts, and his mother can not answer. Thus, he visited all the relatives of the city and read the book of Xiang Yi.

Study in the week

Professor Shang, professor for three years, came to the old lady to say: "old man is shallow," Si Min. This is not the end of life. This is the old man's learning. There is no limit to the endless demand of the children. The children of zhe yuan are also in the same place. If you want to cut jade into jade, you need to go all week and pursue advanced studies. Zhou Du, such as the classics, such as the sea, the wise men are like clouds, and the holy places of the world are not accessible to them. The old lady listened to this, and was puzzled in her heart: one was thirteen years old, and the other Song Dynasty was hard to return. Why not go to Zhou Du for nine days? Two nailao only leave this root. How can he rest assured that he is alone? He hesitated to know how to answer, but he had guessed that it was difficult. He said hurriedly, "to tell the truth, old man is the doctor of Zhou Tai Xue. He is knowledgeable, broad-minded, and loves to respect his virtuous. He is born with trees, to help the virtuous and to be virtuous. The number of family prodigies is chosen by folk. Do not feed your clothes and treat them as your own children. A doctor knows the old man's words, knows that he is good at learning and thinking, intelligent and extraordinary. A few of his servants went there, especially to the old man, who wanted to take him to Zhou. This is a golden opportunity to cherish! " After listening to the old lady, she couldn't help feeling sad and happy. Mr. Xi's sponsorship has led him to the next week. There is a way to get to Longmen. Thinking this way, like a child has been thousands of miles away, do not feel sad and difficult to suppress, tears. The old man threw himself into his mother's arms and cried, "mother must not be sad. He will never lose his teacher's hope. When he is successful, he will come to meet his mother early." Then, the two mothers and sons embraced and wept. After crying for a long time, mother and son turned around to be happy. Three days later, the family and Mr. Shang sent Mr. Lao to five miles away. The eleven men knelt down and went on their way to the West with their doctoral servants. The old lady looked at the shadow far away, and just returned to her car.

The old man came to the Zhou to see a doctor. He entered the Imperial Academy, astronomy, geography, and human relations. He had nothing to learn. Poetry, book, Yi, calendar, rite and music had no exception. Cultural relics, laws, and history books had nothing to learn, but they had made great progress in the past three years. The doctor recommended that he should be a Tibetan official. The preservation room is a collection of books collected in the Zhou Dynasty, collecting books from all over the world and collecting books from the world. Among the old men, such as dragons swimming into the sea, the sea is wide by dragons. If the eagle spreads its wings and the sky, the sky is high enough to fly. The old man is hungry and thirsty. He has gradually seen the good scenery, the source of the ceremony and music, and the purpose of the Ming Dynasty. After three years, he moved to the history of guarding the Tibetan chamber.

Confucius asked Li

The old man lived in the sun for a long time. In the spring and Autumn period, people who were knowledgeable were called "Sons" to show respect. Therefore, people called Lao Zi "Laozi".

On the day of 523 B.C., Confucius said to his disciple, uncle Jing, Nangong: "Zhou Shou Shou Tibetan history, old and modern, the source of knowing the ritual and music, the moral imperative. If I want to go to Zhou Qiujiao, would you like to go with me? " Nangong Jing uncle readily agreed, and then reported Lu Jun. Lu Jun is sure to do so. Send a car two horses, one child and one imperial guard, accompanied by Confucius, Nangong Jing Shu. Lao Tzu was very happy to see Confucius coming from a long distance. After the professor, he visited Confucius and Qiu to visit Dr. Kun hung is good at music. He teaches Confucius music and music theory. He uses Confucius to observe the ceremony of sacrificing gods, examines the place of propaganda and education, and examines the etiquette of temple fairs. Stay for a few days. Confucius spoke to Laozi. When the old man was sent to the library, he said, "I heard that rich people give people money, and benevolence and justice give people words. I am not rich nor expensive; I have no wealth to send you; I wish to send it in a few words. In today's world, people who are wise and deep in observation are killed, and few of them are dead. They are good at ridiculing people. Those who are good at argument and who are good at understanding are so good at evoking evil that they are good at raising people's evil. To be a son of man, do not regard yourself as a high person; as a minister of man, do not regard yourself as a leader. Confucius first said: "disciples must bear in mind!"

When it reaches the shore of the Yellow River, it is seen that the river is surging and the waves are rolling. When Confucius stood on the shore, he sighed and said, "time flies. The flow of water in the Yellow River is endless. The flow of human life is endless, where the river does not know where to go. Maconchu's words, Laozi said, "between life and heaven, it is one with the universe. Heaven and earth, natural things, life, and natural things. Human beings are young, young, strong and old. Born in nature, died of nature, let nature take its course, nature is not chaotic; do not be natural, bustle between benevolence and righteousness, then the fetters of nature. Fame and fortune are in the heart, but anxiety is born. Confucius explained: "I do not worry about the road, no mercy, no war, no chaos in the country, so life is short, can not be meritorious for the world, can not be sighed for the people." Laozi said, "heaven and earth do not push themselves, but the sun and moon do not burn themselves and they are self explanatory. Stars do not list themselves, and animals are created by themselves. The reason why human beings are born, so they are not, so proud and dishonored, is natural and natural. Follow the principles of nature and follow the path of nature, while the state is self-governing and people are in the right place. Why should we be motivated by rites and music and advocate benevolence and righteousness? If Jin and Jin advocated benevolence and righteousness, it would be far from human nature. Like a man beating a drum to seek a runaway man, the more he strikes, the farther away he will be. "

After a short pause, Lao Zi's fingers Hao Hao, the Yellow River, said to Confucius, "why don't you learn the great virtue of water?" Confucius said, "what is the virtue of water?" Laozi said, "good is like water: water is good for all things but not for everything." it is the virtue of humility. So Jianghai can be a hundred king of the valley. The world is not weak in water, but the strong ones can win. This is the virtue of virtue. Because it has nothing, it can enter into nowhere, so we can see that the benefits of teaching without words are also beneficial. Confucius heard the words, suddenly enlightened: "Sir, this makes me suddenly enlightened: everywhere, the water alone;" people everywhere easy, water alone danger; everyone clean, water alone. Where do we fight against evil? This is why we are good. Lao Tzu nodded and said, "you can teach! You can remember: no one can compete with the world, this is the same as water Germany. Water is a few roads: the Tao is everywhere, and the water is free from any disadvantages. Good for the abyss, too bad for all, but not for loss, and not for goodness, nor for benevolence; for the circle must rotate, the square will be broken, the plug must be stopped, and the flow will be good, and the faith will be kept; washing will be dirty, fair and high, and good governance will also be carried out. Therefore, the sage goes at any time. The wise man should change things. Wise men do nothing but govern them. After you go, you should be proud of your words, except for your desires. Otherwise, the voice of the people is not yet heard, but the body is not yet there, and the wind has moved and spread like a tiger. If the tiger is walking on the street, who dares to use you? Confucius said: "the words of a gentleman come from the bottom of his heart and enter the heart and spleen of his disciples. His disciples have benefited greatly and will never forget it. Disciples will abide by the grace of Mr. Xie. After saying good-bye, he left Lao Tzu and went to Nangong with Uncle Jing. He reluctantly went to Lu state.

Back to the state of Lu, the disciples asked, "can I see Mr. Lao?" Confucius said, "see it!" Asked the disciple. "What about Lao Tzu?" Confucius said, "bird, I know it can fly; fish, I know it can swim; beast, I know it can go. The traveller can use the net to bind him, and the swimmer can use the hook to catch it. The dragon takes the wind and the ninth day! I see Lao Tzu, and his dragon? Knowledge is profound and unpredictable, but it is hard to understand; for example, when a snake is at any moment, it is flexed and stretched. Old man, really my teacher! "

On life and death

Lao She kept the Tibetan history for many weeks, and went home several times to persuade his mother to go to the Zhou Dynasty. His mother lived in Chen Guo Xiang for a long time, but he was too familiar to move far away. As time flies, time flies, and in the twinkling of an eye it has been over thirty years. One day, the old man suddenly got home news, saying that his mother was critically ill, so he reported to the emperor and returned home. When she got home, her mother died. In the face of a pile of loess on the boundless land, the spirit of mother in the spring, memories of the mother's kindness and appearance, the rearing kindness, the old man's grief and grief, all the food and clothing on the ground, sitting on the ground, meditating, suddenly blinding his stupidity. So I had a big meal and fell asleep. The family and the maid were all surprised, and asked them to wake up. The old man replied: "life in the world, love and wisdom. There is love and harmony in old age, but in warmth, there is wisdom, and reason is clear and accessible. Love is the master of wisdom, and wisdom is the master of love. If intelligence is communicated, people will be fatuous and things will be reversed. Mother is born with great kindness. My mother's words are gone. Love is hard to break. It is difficult to break but not to be wise. Today, sitting and meditating, suddenly wisdom comes, with wisdom and emotion, the emotion can be controlled and things can be adjusted. Love is made, and things are rationale, so the belly is hungry and wants to eat, and the body is tired and sleepy.

The family will ask, "why is wisdom unified?" The old man replied, "man's life is from nothing to existence; from nothing to existence, there must be a return to nothing." There is no mother and child's feelings when there is no mother and Qi. There are mothers and children who have mother's feelings. When there is no human relationship, is there no difference between human feelings and human feelings? Do not be different and indulge in love, sorrow and desire, but not foolishness? Therefore, the flesh and blood are hard to break, so is everyone. It is foolish to abandon nature. I think so, so I lose my appetite and sleep.When people hear it, their hearts are broad-minded.

Writing in the valley

In 518 BC (King Chou King II), the old man returned from mourning. In 516 BC (4 weeks of King Zhou), there was civil disorder in the royal family of Zhou Dynasty, and the prince rushed to capture Liu Gongzhi. King Zhou is forced. At that time, the Jin state was strong enough to send troops to rescue King Zhou. The prince fled to Chu state with his old colleagues and his Zhou imperial classics. Lao She was responsible for being dereliction of duty and was implicated in his old job. So he retired from the palace and rode a green bull to go out of the correspondence Valley and travel to the Qin State on the West.

It is not far away from the Zhou Dynasty, but the four fields are desolate. The broken walls, the broken wells, the crisscross footpaths, and the wilderness of the fields. There was no horse in the field, but the horses on the road were running fast, and some horses were dragging their stomachs hard to catch up. Seeing this scene, the old man's heart was like a knife, and he thought to himself, "husband soldier, ominous device, not a gentleman's device. We must use it as soon as possible. It is better to win than to be beautiful. If you kill a murderer, you can't get anywhere in the world. He who takes the road of the Lord will not strengthen the world by force. Where soldiers live, thorns are born; after soldiers, there must be a bad year. There is a way in the world, but a horse goes by the manure. When there is no way, the horse is born in the suburbs. When the army horse was born in the suburbs, the chaos was broken.

It is said that Guan Yun, a customs officer in the correspondence Valley, is good at watching astronomy, reading ancient books and training deeply. One night, on the side of the independent building, he gazed at the starry sky and suddenly saw the eastern Ziyun gathering. Its long, thirty thousand miles, shaped like dragons, rolled from east to west, and said to himself, "Purple spirit comes to thirty thousand li, sage goes westward. The green cow slowly carries the old man, concealer and mix up. Guan Yin heard the name of Lao Zi early, and thought it would be Lao Tzu's future. So he sent a man to sweep the road forty miles and burn incense to meet the sage.

In the afternoon of July 12th, the setting sun was in the West. Guan Yin is looking for a pass. Suddenly, there is an old man in the street. The old man's white hair is like snow, his eyebrows and temples, his earlobe shoulders, his knees must be lowered, and his robes and plain robes are simple and clean. Guan Yin looked up at the sky and sighed, "I am lucky to be born.To see the sage! " Step by step, step forward and kneel before the green bull.

Lao Tzu saw the square face, thick lips, thick eyebrows, nose, dignified and not cruel, gentle and gentle, and no obsequious attitude. The old man dare not take it. Do you have any idea? Guan Yindao: "old man, sage!" We must stay overnight to refer to the path of practice. Laozi said, "what is the sanctity of the old man? Be ashamed and ashamed, and kill the old man with shame? " Guan Yindao: Guan Yin is not talented; good astronomy knows something about change. In the sight of purple clouds, we know that saints travel westward, see purple and mighty, and roll like dragons. Know the most holy and noble, not the usual saint; see the clouds in the purple head, know the sage's white hair, is the old man's appearance; before seeing purple, there are green bull horoscope leading to know that sages are coming from green cattle.

Lao Tzu listened and laughed. The old man also heard your name very much. Guan Yin smells great joy and kowtow. After that, Guan Yin introduced Lao Tzu to his official residence. He asked Lao Tzu to sit on the table and burn the incense and perform the ceremony of his disciples. He pleaded, "Sir is the great saint today." The sage is not to steal his own wisdom, but also to take the wisdom of the whole world as his duty. Now you will live in seclusion, but you will never find it. Why not take your wisdom as a book? Although Guan Yin is shallow, he is willing to pass on to the generations to come, and to benefit all generations.

Lao Xu promised to trace the rise and fall of the Dynasty and the safety and danger of the common people. He traced the source of the two dynasties and the following five thousand words. The first chapter is "Dao Dao Dao, very Dao", "Ming can be named, very famous", so it is called Dao Jing. The first part of the article is "virtue is not moral, but virtue is virtue. Morality is not lost, virtue is not virtue". The root of the universe in the Taoist Scriptures contains the machine of heaven and earth changes, and contains the wonderful changes of yin and Yang. The second part of the German classics is about the way of life.Guan Yin, who is so successful, is always hungry and thirsty.

Dot Yang Zi

One day, the old man was riding a cow to the outskirts of the Liang Dynasty. He was watching his eyes shut, and suddenly heard someone shouting "Sir". The old man heard the sound, opened his eyes, and found it was his disciple Yang Ziju. Yang Zi) Yangzi Ju, Wei, entered the Zhou Tai school and heard Lao Tzu's profound knowledge. Unexpectedly, when Liang meets with Lao Tzu, Yangzi lives in a hurry to turn over from the top of his head and set off the brocade green robe. The old man came down and helped Yang Zi to live together with him.

The old man asked, "what have you been busy with lately?" Yang Zi Ju Li Shi said, "come here to visit your ancestral home, buy real estate, modify Liang Dong, recruit servants, and renovate family rules." Lao She said, "it's enough to have a place to lie down and eat. Why do we need to be so publicized?" Yangzi Ju Road: "Sir, self-cultivation, sitting needs quiet, the line needs to relax, drink need to be clear, lie need peace, not deep house alone, how can it be so? How can we support a deep house with a single family, without servants or equipment? Why should we be able to recruit servants, equipment and family rules? " The old man laughed and said, "the road is natural. Why should it be strong? To be free without seeking is to drink without extravagance and self purification. Why do we need a deep house to cultivate ourselves? Hungry and hungry, the body is tired, but the sun rises, and the sun goes down. Why do we need to be a servant? If you obey nature and do nothing, you will be safe and healthy. When you are back to nature and camp, you will be in disorder. Yangzi lived in a humble and ashamed way: "disciple is vulgar, thank you for your advice." Asked Lao Zi. Where to live? Yangzi Ju Road: "Pei." The old man said, "just to be with you." Yangzi Ju was very happy and cheerfully joined the teacher to the East.

The two people traveled by boat. The old man takes the lead and the Yangzi replaces the horse. Lao Tzu is kind and smiling. With the passengers to chat with each other, Yang Zi lived up to the top and the guests saw the seat of the boat.Difficult to swim, two people continue to ride. Lao Chao sighed, "just look at you, be proud and upright, and look up to others, but only yourself, arrogant and arrogant. Yangzi lived with shame, and said earnestly, "disciples are accustomed to nature. They must be changed." Lao he said, "if a gentleman and a man live, if he is released in the water, he will work with others, such as a servant." After listening to Yangzi, he changed his arrogance and his pride. His words were neither arrogant nor charming. Laozi praised, "little boy goes in! Man is born in his parents, standing between heaven and earth, and natural things.If you value yourself, you will not be able to carry it back to nature. If you are cheap, you will be unnatural. When things are on the same side, things will be integrated into one. Let's take advantage of the situation and take advantage of it.

On health preserving classics

The old man lived in the land of song Guo, and plowed himself to eat, weaving himself. No one knows his name, no one's self, and his followers who follow his name. He asks for the right way to learn, the purpose of his academic life, and his disciples all over the world.

There is a disciple named Geng sang Chu, who won the way of Laozi and lived in the northern part of the mountain. For three years, there was a great change in people's fear of land: men were ploughing and millet were edible, women knitted and clothes were worn, and they did their best. All people want to push the emperor into the throne. Geng sang Chu Wen, unhappy in the heart, intended to move. Disciple puzzled, gun sang Chu Road: "the beast can open the mouth to swallow the car, the potential is strong. However, outside the mountains and forests, it is inevitable to catch the trouble; giant fish can open the mouth to swallow the boat, and its strength is great. Therefore, birds do not hate the sky, animals do not hate Lin MI, fish do not hate the sea, rabbits are not tired of holes. The bird can fly; the forest can hide; the sea is deep, the fish can be hidden; the hole is much, and the rabbit can escape. They are all for their bodies and all their lives. Those who protect the whole body should shape their shadows, so they will not be tired of being humble and mediocre.

One of the Gung sang Chu disciples, one named Nan Rong, was over thirty years old. Today, Wen Geng sang Chu has a healthy regimen, and he wants to keep healthy. Geng sang Chu Road: "the ancients said:" the earth bee can not hatch the green worm, but the chicken can't hatch the swan. Sang Chu's talent is not enough, so why don't you go to the south of Song Dynasty to ask for Mr. Lao? Nan RONG Wen Yan, farewell Geng sang Chu, the wind and snow, seven days and seven nights to the old residence.

Nan Rong saw the old man, and said, "disciple Nan Rong, the qualification is dull and difficult, especially for seven days and seven nights." Lao She said, "what way do you seek?" "The way to keep healthy." The old man said, "the way to keep healthy is in a calm mind." Quiet mind, clear heart, wash the dirt of the heart. The scale of the heart is material desire and knowledge. If you want to ask, you will feel calm in your heart. Movement is natural, but there is nothing to worry about in the mind. So when lying down, it is lying down. When it starts, it goes on. When it is done, it stops. When things are stopped, things can not disturb their hearts. Therefore, learning the way of the road, two internal and external divides; the person who gets the right way and the two forget inside and outside. The inside is also the heart. Inside and outside the two excluded, the desire to go inside, outside the temptation of things; inside and outside the two forget, forget the desire inside, forget things to lure. Apart from being forgotten, the internal and external unity is attributed to nature, so it reaches the main road. Now, in your heart, you never forget to learn. In addition to seeking the desire of the Tao, the mind is quiet. In the quiet mind, the road can be repaired.Relieved, the body and mind have become cool, refreshing, relaxed and calm. So he thanked Lao Dao and said, "Sir, I won ten years of training. Today, Rong does not ask for avenues, but I hope it will be accepted by health.

Lao She said, "health preserving should be done in nature. Move, do not know what to do, do not know what to do, curl with the object, with the wave flow, moving with Yang Tongde, quiet and Yin with waves. If it moves like water, its stillness is like a mirror, and it should be heard. This is the way of health preservation. Nan Rong asked, "is this the realm of perfection?" Lao She said, "no, too. This is the beginning of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of nature. If you enter a perfect realm, you will live in harmony with the beasts and do not feel inferior. You will enjoy the sky with the immortals, but do not think it is expensive; do not innovate, do not worry about your stratagem, and do not bother to hurt yourself. Nan Rong asked, "is this so far?" The old man said, "not yet. Standing between heaven and earth is like dead branches and withered wood; the heart is in the form, like the dead leaves of the burnt leaves. In this way, the sun is hot and the heat is not hot. The snow and snow are not cold. So no harm comes, nor does fortune come. There is no luck, no pain. "

Re teach Confucius

The difference between Confucius and Lao Zi is seventeen to eight years in the twinkling of an eye, but not yet learned.Wen Lao returned to song Guo to live in seclusion, especially to bring his disciples to visit Lao Tzu.

When Lao Tzu saw Confucius visiting, he asked in the main room: "do not take ten minutes to tell you that you have become a great talent in the north." What advice do you have for your visit? " Confucius said, "disciples do not think much of their studies, but they do not travel to the main road. So I came to ask for advice. Laozi said, "if you want to see the main road, you must first concentrate on the beginning of things. Inside and outside the universe. The characters of heaven and earth are different from each other. All those who live together are born and died in accordance with nature. To know their differences is to see their watches. When we look at the same thing, we can get to the beginning of things. At the beginning of the matter, one is mixed and the other is invisible. Confucius asked, "what's so happy about it?" Lao Tzu said, "seeing everything is the same.Qi and I, too. Therefore, we can see that life and death are day and night, and the same is true of misfortune and happiness.

Confucius has heard of it. It is useless to look at oneself. What shape did you have before you were born? What is its reputation? What is the skin after death? What is the price? So we ask for benevolence and righteousness, and pass on etiquette, relieved, relieved and carefree. Laozi went on to say: "the road is deep like the sea, tall and mountain like, everywhere in the universe, everywhere, and the flow is endless, and nothing can be achieved. It is impossible to get it, but it is impossible to do so. Those who give birth to heaven and earth do not fail, who subsidize all things but do not lack them. The sky is high and the land is thick, and the sun and the moon have to go. The four time is the order, all things are shaped.Confucius heard it, such as Tengyun, such as diving into the sea, such as entering the mountain forest, such as objects, heaven and I together, everything is everything, everything is in itself, the heart is vast and pleasant, and can not help but praise, "wide!" Wide! Boundless! I live in the world for fifty-one years. I only know benevolence and righteousness. Do you know that the universe is so vast and vast? Good life, let's talk again! Speak again! " When Lao Tzu saw Confucius entering the road, he talked and said: "sages live in the world. When things happen, they do not go back. They move instead of keeping things.Those who are reconciled and who conform, those who have virtue are also those who conform to the situation and get the right way. Confucius heard that if the clouds were floating, they would follow the wind; if the water turned, they would move. Xi said, "leisurely! Idle! Take a boat and float Yu Hai. If we enter the same way, we must go ahead. A gentleman is not only different from others but also good at things. Wonderful! Wonderful! Speak again! Speak again! " Laozi added: "from the beginning of the universe, everything is vaporized and vaporized. The life of man is also the gathering of Qi, and the death of man is also the dispersion of Qi. Life is between heaven and earth. The birth of all things is full of vigor and vitality. There is no need for nothing but for those who have it. The life of things is changed from nothing to nothing. Yes, gas gathering and visible; no, gas scattered but not visible. Yes or no. Neither is Qi, nor is it Qi, so life and death are all Qi. The living is not immortal, but when people see life, they are happy. The death of man is like the bondage of the form, the coercing of love and the world of temporary lodging. People are far away from the original, such as wandering far away from home; death is the return of the original, such as the return of the wandering home, so life does not think happy, dead do not think sad. Those who have the right way, regard life and death as one, live in peace and rest in death, regard the right and wrong as the same, be neither right nor wrong. Why? Standing on the road, observing things, life and death, right, wrong, honor and disgrace are all human values and transient changes. The fundamental is the same but no difference. If you know this avenue, you will not change your mind. The sun and moon will alternate, the world will vibrate, the wind will howl, the tsunami will strike, and the thunder and lightning will strike away.

Confucius has heard that he has been a magpie flying on the branch; he feels himself as a fish and swam in the rivers and lakes: he feels himself as bee and collecting honey flowers; he has become a man and seeks for old men. I can not help but feel great, and say, "I am thirty years old and I am forty, but I am not puzzled. Now fifty-one parties know what fortune is. To make me a magpie is to become a magpie, and to make me a fish is to turn fish into nature, and to make me a bee is to turn bee into nature, and to make me a man is to be human. Unlike magpies, fish, bees and humans, natural instincts change the same way; they change according to their nature, that is, they follow the same path. I ask for it everyday, but I do not know it is in me. Let's say goodbye and start to say goodbye.

Taoist priest

Lao Tzu was respected in Taoism. Taoist ancestor And renamed the book of Laozi as "the true Scripture of morality" as the main canon of religion. In many of the Taoist temples, the Jade Emperor, the emperor of heaven and the emperor of the Qing Dynasty, worship the Jade Emperor.

Taoism believes that Laozi is the embodiment of Laojun, because he passed down Taoist classics "Tao Te Ching", so he called Lao Jun as the emperor of heaven, and was also regarded as Taoism by Taoism.


Chuang-tzu in the Warring States Period

Xunzi in the Warring States Period

Han Feizi in the Warring States Period

Western Han Dynasty Sima Qian Historical records Laozi biography of Han Fei

Huangpu mi Gao Shi Chuan

Liang Yu Sheng Shiji Zhi Zhi

Historical evaluation

Confucius Evaluation of Laozi: "birds, I know that they can fly; fish, I know that they can swim; animals, I know that they can go. A traveler can be a friend. As for dragons, I do not know that they ride the wind and the sky. I see Lao Zi today, and he is still evil! "

Kant I commend Lao Tzu: "the goodness of Laozi praises" no good ". This kind of sermon is" no good ", that is, a kind of consciousness that is fused with the divine power, so that the feeling of self can be dissolved in the abyss of the gods by eliminating personality. Spinoza's Pan spirit and close thinking are related to Lao Tzu's thought in China.

Hu Shi Comment on Laozi: "Lao Tzu's greatest credit is beyond the heaven and earth. Do not assume a" Dao ".

World influence

Lao Tzu's works and thoughts have become a valuable asset of the world's historical and cultural heritage. The influence of Laozi's thought is not only uninhabited by Taoists, but also influenced by Taoism. Its influence not only includes philosophy, religion, politics, economics, sociology, aesthetics, ethics, literature and art, psychology, pedagogy, logic, rhetoric, but also involves many fields such as medicine, health preservation, qigong, military affairs, management, architecture, horticulture, and so on. According to incomplete statistics in Yuan Dynasty, since the beginning of the Qin Dynasty, more than 3000 kinds of old books have been published.

As early as in the eighteenth Century, there were many versions of Laozi in some western countries. according toUNESCO Statistics, Laozi is a book besides today. Bible Outside the world, the largest number of books published in the world, there are only more than 300 versions in Japan alone. By 40s and 50s twentieth Century, there were more than 60 translations of Tao Te Ching in Europe, German philosophers. Hegel , Nietzsche Russian major writer Tolstoy Many famous scholars in the world have studied thoroughly the Tao Te Ching, and have published monograph or monograph.

Laozi is one of the three Oriental saints in the eyes of Westerners. Us " New York Times Lao Tzu has been listed as the first of the ten greatest writers in the world. Laozi is one of the ten great thinkers in London. Lao Tzu's thought has broken through national boundaries and become the common spiritual wealth of all mankind.

Various controversies

Name and font size

From the pre Qin classics to "Chuang-tzu", Lao Tzu began to talk about the evolution of Lao Tse. Historical records Laozi biography of Han Fei: "surname Li, famous ear, character". There is a word "Bo Yang" in this book. But according to Yao YaoLaozi Zhang Yixu, Duan Yucai Notes on Shuo Wen Jie Zi, Wang Nian sun Journal of books and magazines. Gao Heng Textual research on Lao Tzu's biography and proof in Shiji, this is a pen that later generations take away from the immortal family book.Justice leads Zhang Junxiang to say, "Laozi is a number, not a name." Modern scholars advocate Lao Tzu's surname. But there are many differences in the origin of Lao Shi.

Some scholars (e.g. Li CI Ming I think Lao Tzu is Lao Lai Zi Chu people.

Others say Laozi is Lao Yangzi, and Lao Tzu is called father Yang, or Peng Zu.

Birth and death time

As for the Laozi's birth and death years, the history is not clear. After the debate between Lao Tzu and Confucius, there is a great controversy. Historical records carry Laozi as Confucius's predecessor, who was around five hundred BC. Shou is one hundred and sixty years old or over 200 years old. Han Shu says that Confucius is a teacher. Hu Shi I have been speculated that Lao Tzu was born in the early years of Zhou Ling, when it was 570 BC.

Native place and hometown

Because of the different records, Laozi's birthplace is different from that of ancient and modern scholars. There are three main arguments.

I talk about Chu people. Western Han Dynasty Sima Qian Historical records Laozi biography of Han Fei: Laozi, Chu Ku County Li Xiang Ren Ren, also surnamed Li, famous ear, character, and Zhou's history of Tibetan chamber. Eastern Han Dynasty Bian ShaoLaozi Ming: Lao Tzu, Chu Xiang county. "Zhu Tao Yu Zhu" Yun: Lao Tzu, Chu country bitter County Lai Qu Xiang Ren Ren. Si Ma Zhen Shiji Yin: according to "geography records", the county belongs to Chen Guo, but also by mistake. Bitter county belongs to Chen, Chu Chu Chen in the spring and Autumn period, and bitterness belongs to Chu, so Yun Chu Ku county. Eleven years to Emperor Gao, Huaiyang, Chen county and Ku county are all. It is unclear that Pei is cited. Today's geography is Huaiyang county. Bitter, sound parents. Zhang Jie Jie " Shiji justice "Cloud: annual cloud Huaiyang, Jing emperor discarded in three years. In the days of Han Dynasty, Chu Festival King was all in Pengcheng. This is the case of Chu Kingdom. Laozi plain explanation: Lao Tzu is a native of the kingdom of Chu in the spring and Autumn period. Li Shicheng also talked about the birthplace of Laozi: Laozi, Lao Tzu, was the thinker and founder of Taoism in the spring and Autumn period. The name is Li Ming. Chu country bitter County, Li Xiang Qu Ren Li. The chronicles of the Han Dynasty: bitter, spring and autumn. Lao Shao Laozi tablet: Lao Tzu, Chu Xiang Ren. Ci Hai (1989 edition): the founder of Taoism in the spring and Autumn period of Laozi. One is Lao Gu, the last name is Li Minger, Chu country bitter County Li Yuan Qu Ren Ren. Concise history Dictionary: Laozi, surnamed Li Minger, Bai Yang, Chu country bitter County, Li Xiang Ren Ren.

Two, Chen people. Liu Xiang in the Western Han Dynasty, "Li Xian Zhuan": Laozi's surname Li Ming, Zi Bo Yang, Chen Ren. Huangpu mi Gao Shi biography: Lao Tzu Chen people. Kong Ying Da In the book of rites, Zeng Zi asked "historical records": Lao Tzu Chen people. Lu De Ming "Lao Zi's sound and meaning": Lao Tzu, "Shiji" also says: "Chen Guoxiang, Li Xiang." The interpretation of Chuang-tzu's "Tian Yun chapter" introduces Sima Biao's "Chuang-tzu note": Lao Tzu is a Chen nationality. Liang Yusheng's "Shi Ji Zhi Zhi": the book "four books of explanation and continuation" said: "bitter county is Chen, Lao Tzu grows, Chu is not. Chen died in Chu Hui king. In the three years after the spring and Autumn period, Confucius died."History" crowns Chu on Yu County, Laozi as Chu people, not also. Yu Yin Kao Hong's "biography of gods" is called "Chu Ku county". "Laozi Ming" by Li Shao, "Li Xie", is called "Chu Xiang county". After the spring and Autumn period, Xiang county was deserted and now it is bitter. In the east of Lai village, its water is located in its Yang. And history is wrong. Huangfu Mi, Gao Shi Chuan, Yun Chen. Lu's "classic preface" cloud: "Chen country bitter County Li Xiang." In the Tang Dynasty paragraph, "You Yang Za Zu Yu Ge Ge" Yun: "Lao Jun was born in the old town of Kuai County, Zhejiang Province. It is never wrong. However, "Li Zeng Zi asked Shu" to quote "Shiji" as Chen Guo Ku county.

Three, say the song people. Yao Yao "Lao Zi Zhang Yixu": "Chuang-tzu" carries Confucius, Yang Zi Ju Nan's Pei to see Lao Tzu, Pei's Song Dynasty, while song has Lao Shi, Laozi Song people, son surname, Laozi, son as Li, and words change.Laozi original in Wuyi believes that Laozi is not a man in Chu Ku but a song in Song Dynasty.

There are many kinds of statements about the modern possessions of Laozi's hometown, including Luyi in Henan and Anhui in the sun.

Commemoration of future generations

Tai Qing Palace Be located Henan Province Zhoukou Luyi County 5 kilometers east of the city Tai Qing Gong town The northeast corner,

It is a memorial temple for Laozi. According to the book of the Han Dynasty, Tai Qing palace was built in 165 years (eight years in the Eastern Han Dynasty), and it was named Laozi temple. At that time, the two Minister of Han Huan emperor visited Luyi to worship Lao Zi and build Laozi temple. Luyi Tai Qing palace was designated as a county level cultural relic protection unit in 1978, and was designated as a key cultural relic protection unit in Henan in 1986. State Administration of Cultural Heritage Listed in the fifth batch. National key cultural relics protection units.

Luyi county was formerly called "deer", "bitter", "true source", "Gu Yang" and "Xian yuan".The 15th day of the second month of the Chinese lunar calendar is Laozi's birthday. Later, in honor of Laozi, he worshiped the temple fair at Laojun Tai and Tai Qing palace in Luyi county. In February 2012, Luyi county was officially named "the Chinese Federation of literary arts and the Chinese people's Association". Hometown of Laozi culture in China "

" SHUI JING ZHU There are two monuments in front of the temple. Outside the south gate, the emperor of Han Huan sent the Laozi, who was in charge of the imperial court, to write the article. Bei Bei has two stone que, and very purge is also. Since then, Tang, song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties and other dynasties have collected records of emperors' homage or sending ministers to pay respects.

Artistic image

In the Tang Dynasty, the statue of Laozi in Suzhou, the legend of Tang Wu Daozi, Tang Xuanzong's praise, Yan Zhenqing's book, carved by Zhang Yundi, the stone carving master of the Song Dynasty, can be called the "four absolute" tablets. It is one of the two Laozi monuments left in China. In the Song Dynasty, Quanzhou's Qingyuan mountain, like the old man, was very expressive.

The final stereotype of Laozi's literary image has gone through a long process of evolution. stay Pre Qin philosophers Lao Tzu was a learned scholar with many knowledge. In Taoist classics, Lao Tzu's image began to be exaggerated. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, with Huang Lao's philosophy of governance, Fang Xian Tao rose, and Wei became a Sinology. In this context, Lao Tzu's image became legendary and mystifying. Zhang Dao Ling After the "apocalyptic incident" and the influence of Buddhism, Laozi finally became the Supreme God. In the yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, with the secularization of Taoism, the mystery of Laozi had subsided to a certain extent.





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