La blun Temple

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La blun Temple

Labrang Temple is one of the six main monasteries of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. In 1982, Labrang Temple was listed as one of the key cultural relics protection units in China. Located in the western suburb of Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province. At the foot of Fengling Mountain.

Historical development


The Tibetan language of Xiahe Labrang Temple is called "Gadan Xia Zhudal Jizaxi Yisuqi Youlang", which means "Xia Xia Xia Xia Xia Xia Xia Jizaxi Yisuqi Youlang". It means "Xia Xia Xia Xia Xia Xing auspicious right-handed temple". Abbreviated as Zaxiqi Temple, it is generally called Labrang Temple. Labrang Monastery is a variation of Tibetan "Lazhang", which means the residence of the living Buddha master. Since its establishment in 1709, it has been fully supported by the Chinese government and experienced the unremitting efforts of Jiamu Living Buddha, the main monasteries of all dynasties, and the majority of monks and secular believers. It has become a comprehensive large-scale monastery of six universities, 108 monasteries and eight parishes, including Xian and Mi sects, and has formed a unique Tibetan Buddhist culture in its development. It includes architecture, academies, law societies, Buddhist art, Tibetan scriptures and so on. It is one of the highest Buddhist schools of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism and is known as the "world Tibetan school" in the world. In its heyday, more than 4,000 monks visited the world in 1980.

Labrang Temple, located in Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, is one of the six major monasteries of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. At present, the main monastery is the sixth generation.

Jiamu Hutuktu, other leaders include eight Kampot and four Saichi.

Labrang Monastery, known as 108 monasteries in history, is the center of politics and religion in Gannan region. At present, Labrang Monastery retains the best teaching system of Tibetan Buddhism in China. In 1982, it was listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit. The temple is the oldest and only Buddhist temple built during the First Jiamu Living Buddha period. It is the next college's Buddhist Temple beside the Great Sutra Hall.

Labrang Temple consists of six university colleges, one of which is Hidden Secret College and five Secret Sect Colleges. They are Wensi College (belonging to Xianzong), Shilun College, Medical College, Xidiangang College, Continuing Upper Court and Continuing Lower Court. Labrang Temple divides a year into nine semesters (four years of university, two years of middle school, three years of primary school). University term, one month per semester; middle school term, twenty days per semester; primary school term, fifteen days per semester.

Tibetan is called "Gadan Snow Pearl Darjezaxi Yesu Banner Weilin", which means "Zuxi preaches and advocates auspicious right-handed island", short for "Lazhangzaxi Banner". It is reported that the first Jiamu sample selected the Zaxi Banner beside the Daxia River as the site of the temple. After the completion of the Lazhang (Buddhist Palace), out of respect for the master, Lazhang was crowned "Lazhang" in front of the name of the temple, called "Lazhang Zaxi Banner". Over time, "Labrang" was changed to "Labrang" and widely used, so Labrang became the name of the temple and place.

Labrang Temple is located at the west end of Labrang Town, Xiahe County. It is situated on the Northern Bank of Daxia River. It is situated north to south. The Northwest Mountain is like an elephant lying horizontally. The southeast mountain pine forest is green. The front of the temple is open and flat. The Daxia River is winding and flowing from west to northeast. It is like a right-handed conch. It has beautiful mountains and beautiful scenery.

The 13th year of Tuniu in the Tibetan calendar, the forty-eighth year of Kangxi (1709), the first Jiamu Sample was invited by Bailecha Khantanjin, the former flag of Heshuote, Qinghai Province, to return home to build the Labrang Temple, which has a history of 280 years. At the time of the first Jiamu Sample, Wensi College and the continuing lower house were built. By the time of the second Jiamu Sample, Shilun College was built, and the influence of Labrang was growing, its monasteries and tribes increased sharply, and the system of integration of politics and religion was further strengthened. The scale of Labrang Monastery is expanding, and the system of learning classics is becoming more and more perfect. It has established a system of learning, which is mainly based on professors'two sects of Xianmi, supplemented by medicine, calendar, lyrics, rhyme, calligraphy declaration, engraving, printing, painting, singing and dancing. The third Jiamu Sample was built into the Medical College. When the fifth Jiamu Sample was built, the Xidiangang College, the continuation of the Upper Court, and various Buddhist temples were expanded. After more than 200 years of construction and development, the Labrang Temple has become a huge building group with 6 University colleges, 48 Buddhist temples and Angyao (living Buddha residence), more than 500 monasteries, one of the six major monasteries of the Legendary School, and enjoys a high reputation in Ando area as "the second of the Wei Zang". At the beginning of liberation, there were 3424 monks in Labrang Monastery, including 68 living Buddhas and 564 monks. After 1958, there were only 7 living Buddhas, 32 monks and 166 monks in Labrang Temple, totaling 205. In 1961, Labrang Temple was listed as a provincial cultural relic protection unit in Gansu Province. In 1962, there were more than 1200 monks in Labrang Temple. During the 10-year unrest, the buildings and cultural relics of Labrang Monastery suffered great damage. In 1982, the Labrang Temple was listed as a national key cultural relic protection unit. In 1985, the Labrang Temple established the Buddhist College of Gansu Province.

On the eve of liberation, there were 6 temples and 48 large and small Buddhist halls in Labrang Temple. Among them, one is on the seventh floor, one is on the sixth floor, four is on the fourth floor, eight is on the third floor, nine is on the second floor, four is on the third floor, four is on the second floor, four is on the bronze tile, two is on the green glazed tile, three is on the top of Jiamu Master and 31 is on the top of Tibetan-style buildings, 30 is on the top of living Buddhist houses, six are on the Jiwa courtyard, six are on the kitchen, one is on the top of the Press Court, two are on the top of the Classical Court, two are on the top of Jiamu-like villas, more than 500 are on the A number of towers, archways and other buildings cover an area of more than 1000 mu. The whole building is magnificent, rows of buildings, scattered, can be called the first brake in Ando area. These buildings can be divided into stone structure and civil structure, stone inside wood, there is "no wood outside, no stone inside" said. The architectural forms include Tibetan style, Han palace style and Tibetan-Chinese mixed style.

There are six main halls in the temple. The largest one is Wensi College's hall, also known as the Great Hall. It is the venue for the meeting of "Consultation, Imperial Acquisition and Exchange", and it is the center of the temple. When the first Jiamu Sample was built, there were only 80 pillars. In 1772, the second Jiamu Sample was expanded to 140 pillars, which could accommodate 3000 monks to recite sutras. In 1946, the Wushijia wooden pattern built the front Palace again. So far, the Great Sutra Hall has become the most magnificent building of the whole temple with hundreds of houses including the front palace, the front courtyard, the main hall and the back hall, covering more than 10 mu. The front hall is a large-roofed building with ornaments such as vases and Faluns on the top. Upstairs, the statue of Tulei Zanpu Zanganbu is offered. Upstairs, the front porch is equipped with seats for living Buddhas such as Jiamu Master, four colored red and eight Kanbu, who sit in the first and seventh month of each year, and downstairs, the front porch is the seat for monks and officials of the academy when they meet with the Dharma. The vestibular courtyard is the place where the monks and the Law Societies get their degrees. There are 32 galleries in the courtyard. There are 14 halls in the main hall of the Great Classic Hall, 11 halls in the north and the south. Inside the main hall hangs the plaque of Huijue Temple bestowed by Emperor Qianlong, with the seats of Jiamu and General Fatherhood, and the cushions for monks to recite sutras. There are Sakyamuni, Zongkaba, Ershengliu solemn and ancient Jiamu statues, and beautiful embroidered Buddha statues and banner covers, which are very gorgeous and contain classics such as Ganzhul. In the middle of the rear hall, there are 14 bronze statues of Ruijin Maitreya. On the left side of the rear hall, there are the Sailing Pagoda of the past Jiamu Masters, and the Sailing Pagoda of the Princes and Couples of Henan, Mongolia and other living Buddhas. On the right side, there are 14 Sailing Pagodas. To the west of the main hall is a big kitchen with four large copper pots and one large iron pot. Unfortunately, the Great Classic Hall was burned down on April 7, 1985. With the care of the government, it was designed in July, 1985, ground was broken in June, 1986, and the main project was completed in 1987. The new hall not only keeps its original style and style, but also adopts advanced technology and materials.

Situated on the right side of the Great Sutra Hall, the Sutra Hall of Shilun College was built in 1763. There are five main halls in the east, five in the West and eleven in the South and north. It has a strong Tibetan style and provides bronze statues of Shilun Diamond Buddha. In the middle of the rear hall, the statues of Sakyamuni and his seven disciples are worshipped, while the spiritual towers of the living Buddhas, such as Kangbucang, Gongtangluo Zhicang and Danpa Jiatuo, are worshipped on the left and right.

Medical College Classic Hall, built in 1784, has six main halls in the South and six in the South and five in the East and five in the east. The hall is dedicated to the Shelita of King Buddha, Pharmacist Buddha and Lakocang. The front porch of the hall is painted with 18 human skeletons.

The Jingtang of Xidian College was built in 1879 in the style of Nanjie Zacang of the Potala Palace in Lhasa. In 1957, the fire was destroyed, and then the state allocated funds to rebuild it in its original form.

The sequel goes to the Academy Classical Hall, which is located on the west side of Hiking Kong College. Built in 1941, the main hall has 5 east-west, 10 north-south, as high as three floors. The top floor is palace-style, covered with green glazed tiles, so it is called Green Watt Temple. There are bronze statues of Maitreya Buddha and sixteen Arhats in the rear hall. On the left are eight Pharmacist Buddhas and thirty-five Confessional Buddhas. On the right are the ashes pagoda of the fifth Jiamu-like master's parents and 21 statues of Duma Buddha. There are 1000 bronze immeasurable longevity Buddhas on both sides.

The continuation of the lower house is located in the northeast of the Great Sutra Hall. It was first built in 1737. There are five main halls, one East-West hall and one north-south hall. It is a Tibetan-style building. The top of the hall is full of Falun and buildings. It contains Tantra Buddhist statues such as dense, fearful and Shengle Buddhas well as seven spiritual towers of living Buddhas, such as Dewacang I, are enshrined in the rear hall.

There are many Buddhist temples in Labrang Temple besides the scripture halls of various colleges. Buddhist temples are places where monks recite sutras and worship followers. The more famous ones are Zongkaba Buddhist Hall, Thousand-Handed and Thousand-Eye Guanyin Hall, Maitreya Buddhist Hall, Sakyamuni Buddhist Hall, Baidu Buddha Hall, Baidu Mother Hall, Shouan Temple, Wuzhen Temple, Puxiang Temple, Tutanpo Zhang Hall and Nursing Dharma Hall. Among them, Maitreya Buddhist Hall, also known as the "Shougou Temple", is located in the northwest corner of the Great Sutra Hall, up to six stories, five in depth. It was first built in 1788 and renovated in 1844 with the donation of Johnica Khan Hutuk Tueder Nibanzhida, and built the Jinwating Pavilion. The palace is a mixed structure of Tibetan and Chinese. The top floor is a palace-style Square Pavilion with four corners flying eaves. It covers distilled gold, copper lion, copper dragon, copper vase, copper Falun and copper as desired. It is brilliant in the sunshine, so it is commonly called "Dajinwa Temple". Inside the hall is a bronze statue of Maitreya Buddha, about 8 meters high, and on both sides is a bronze statue of eight Bodhisattvas, about 5 meters high. The palace contains Ganzhul written in gold and silver juice.

Sakyamuni Buddhist Hall, located in the west of Maitreya Hall, imitates the Dazhao Temple in Lhasa. It is also the roof of distilled gold and copper tiles, commonly known as "Little Jinwa Temple". The hall is three floors high and two floors with statues of Sakyamuni Buddha. There are two copper dragon pillars on both sides. The top of the statue of Sakyamuni Buddha is a Sakyamuni Golden Buddha. It is about 0.7 meters high. It is the first Jiamu sample welcomed from Tibet, which is very precious. The third floor is the Jiamu Sample Protection Hall. In front of the hall is the Tudanpo Chapter. It is the place where Jiamu Sample sat in bed and held other grand ceremonies. Shou'an Temple, built with the donation of Samuchacang, is in front of Shilun College and five in depth. On the door hangs a plaque of Shou'an Temple written in Han, Tibetan, Manchu and Mongolian by Emperor Jiaqing of Qing Dynasty. The temple is provided with a bronze statue of roaring Buddha, 13 meters high, and eight Bodhisattvas and sixteen Arhats.

Labrang Monastery still has Tibetan Sutra Building, Yinjing Court, Shadan Lakang, Bodhi Garden, Jiamu Villa, Bronze Tower, Kitchen and Archway.

In the west of Samucha Cang, Tibetan Jinglou contains more than 60,000 volumes of scriptures. Unfortunately, during the Cultural Revolution, it was damaged and lost a lot. After being moved to Shilun College, the new Tibetan Jinglou has been rebuilt. In front of the Thousand-Handed and Thousand-Eye Guanyin Hall, formerly belonging to the prince's palace in Henan Province, Mongolia, there are a large number of Scripture plates which were destroyed in the Cultural Revolution, and now have been restored and expanded, with the addition of lead printing equipment such as copper mould, typewriter and platform printer. Shadan Lakang, in the northeast corner of the Great Sutra Hall, is the palace of Panchen Master. Bodhisattva Garden, which is a place for monks to debate scriptures, is located in the south of Sahar village, west of the monastery. Jinglun House, commonly known as "Mani House", is a simple bungalow built around the temple, about 500, with inside Jinglun. Bodhi Pagoda, a copper pickaxe gold, three floors high, is very precious, because it is located in the Gongtang Cang Yuan, also known as the Gongtang Pagoda, and the eastern side of the Great Sutra Hall has a clutch pagoda, the eastern side of the monastery has a "white God pagoda". Originally on the east side of the monastery, there is a memorial archway with a plaque hanging on the forehead of "Losing wealth and defending the country", which is not yet in existence.

Over the past two hundred years of development, until 1958, the Labrang Temple gradually formed a unified organizational structure of church and government, which is not only the highest institution of learning in Ando region, but also one of the highest executive heads.

The supreme power of Labrang Monastery is concentrated on Jiamu Living Buddha. It is a local political and religious leader and enjoys high prestige. By the time of the fifth Jiamu Sample, the organizational structures of the Laleng Monastery were Lazhang Organization, Consultation and Imperial Exchange, Zhongjia Exchange, and the organizational system of managing pastoral and agricultural areas, semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas. Lazhang Organization is a Jiamu Sample Daao (Buddhist Palace) organization. It is composed of Xiangzou, Dining, Costume Director, Economic Affairs, Secretary, Chengxuan, Jiamu Sample Representative, Housekeeper and so on. It is responsible for the related matters of Jiamu Sample Man and Jiamu Sample Buddhist Palace. Under the leadership of Jiamu Sample, Chief Fatai, General Monk Officer, Finance Officer, General Confucian Head, Managing Director, Prince Housekeeper, 6 Monk Representatives and Secretaries are responsible for religious affairs and finance of the temple. Zhongjia Tuotai was established by the 4th Jiamu Sample, which means the tea party in front of the Jiamu Sample, and has formulated a written constitution. It consists of Xiangzuo, the attendant director, the director of food and clothing, the Secretary-General of Economic Affairs, Cheng Xuan, the director of Buddha Palace, the official of Buddha Temple, the representative of Jiamu Sample, the steward of Jiamu Sample, the Guard officer and the monthly prosecutor. At first, it mainly dealt with the internal affairs of the temple, and then expanded to the highest authority to deal with all the political and religious military affairs belonging to the temple, tribe and the whole parish.

In 1940, after returning from Tibet to study classics, the fifth Jiamu Sample adjusted and reformed the organizational structure of Labrang Monastery and established a parliamentary chamber organization, which means that the Secretariat was personally led by Jiamu Sample and presided over by Xiangzuo. The members of the parliamentary chamber were Kanbu, Chief Food Officer, Chief Clothing Officer, Chief Economic Affairs Officer, Secretary-General, Cheng Xuan, Lazhang representative, housekeeper and chief litigant, etc., which replaced Zhongjia's Force governs all political, religious and military powers of the whole temple and its tribes. As a result, the power was highly concentrated in the hands of Jiamu, which strengthened the unity of politics and religion.

There are six colleges in Labrang Temple, the largest of which is Wensi College, which belongs to the Xianzong Sect. The other five colleges belong to the Tantra Sect and others. Emphasis is placed on understanding and systematic study of Buddhist principles; on the practice of Tantra sects, monks receive special education.

Wensi College. It mainly studies five major treatises, which are divided into thirteen levels.

Ming Ming. Five-year course, divided into five grades. The first year, the second year, the third year, the fourth year, the fifth year, the reason. Academic works such as Collection of Classes by Awanzasi, Fabian Quantity Theory and Annotations by Jia Caojie, Kezhujie and First Jiamu Samples.

The Ministry of praise. Four-year course, divided into four grades. In the first year, students learn to discuss new things, in the second year they learn to discuss new things, in the third year they learn from the first grade to the third grade, and in the fourth year they learn from the fourth grade to the eighth grade. Learning works include "On the Solemn View of the Present", Zongkaba's "On the Solemn View of the Present", Jiayan Jinyun, Jia Caojie's "Explaining the Solemn View of the Present" and Jiamu's "On the Solemn View of the Present" and so on.

Meso department. Two-year course, divided into two grades. In the first year, he learned "Medium View New Theory" and in the second year, he learned "Medium View Old Theory". The main works of study include Longshu's Mesoscopic Skills, Yue's Mesoscopic Ming Ju Lun, Buddhist Nursing Buddha's Mesoscopic Buddha's Nursing Interpretation, Zongkaba's Mesoscopic Interpretation, Jia Caojie's Mesoscopic Interpretation, Jiamu's Mesoscopic Interpretation and Dashu's Mesoscopic Interpretation.

Club house. Four-year course, one grade. Four grades in the first year, four grades in the second year, and a total review in the third and fourth years. The works studied include the family's Ode to Fushe, Fushe Self-explaining, Zongkaba's Fushe Lun and the first Jiamu-like Fushe Dashu.

Department of law. Only this level. The duration of study is uncertain. It mainly studied Gongde Guang's "Disciplinary Origin" and "Bodhisattva Disciplinary Disciplinary Disciplinary" and "Picchu Disciplinary Disciplinary Disciplinary Disciplinary Disciplinary" by Zongkaba's three masters and apprentices, and "Dashu of the Law Department" by the first Jiamu style.

The study time of Wensi College is divided into nine semesters a year, namely four university semesters, each semester is January; two middle school semesters, each semester is 20 days; three primary school semesters, each semester is 15 days. The main method of learning classics is to combine recitation with debate. The monks have to pass strict examinations every year before they can be upgraded to the nineteenth day of November on the lunar calendar. During the exam, the examinee sat in the middle, answered the questions posed by Gussie and the monks, answered satisfactorily and passed without missing a drop.

Wensi College has three degrees, Ranjianba. Those who graduate from Prajna Department or from Grade 6 to Grade 12 can apply for Ranjianba Degree. The main subjects are Yinming and Prajna. It is held twice a year, the first between May 17 and June 17, and the second between November 17 and December 17. Garenba, who has completed four years of schoolwork, is called Garenba. Doreba is the highest degree in Wensi College. The monk examiner must be a graduate of Fushe Department. Examination subjects are five major articles, very strict, and only two students are admitted every year. It is divided into two parts, the first on the seventeenth to twentieth day of the first lunar month and the second on the ninth to thirteenth day of July.

Continuation of the College. Specializing in Secret Sect, with three grades. At the primary level, the monks recited the Nine Diamond Sutras of Fear, the Six Arms Sutra, the King's Sutra, the Jimi Sutra, the Great Freedom Sutra and the Sutra Sutra. Upgrading, we must recite one of the three Sutras of Da Zi Sheng Rise and Satisfaction Sutra, Dense Rise and Satisfaction Sutra, Fear Nine Diamonds Rise and Satisfaction Sutra before we can be promoted to intermediate level. At the intermediate level, we must recite the Sutras of Collection, Great Self, Burning Tan, Succession and Buddha Zan. We should learn how to make Tancheng with fine colored sand. Advanced, according to the procedures prescribed in the Sutra of Rise and Perfection. Every year, from February 17 to 21 of the lunar calendar, he passes the debate examination of secret religion and obtains the degree of Orenba, only one person per year.

This college has strict teaching rules and a wide range of disciplines.

Shilun College. In addition to studying the time-wheel density multiplication, the main course is the astronomical calendar of the time-wheel.

The college is divided into three grades and has an indefinite number of years. At the junior level, he mainly studied Miao Ji Name Jing, Supreme Providence Jing and Brief Explanation of Puji Jing. Intermediate, learn and recite the "Shilun Diamond Sutra" and "Existing Bodhisattva Sutra", learn the description of Tancheng. Advanced, majoring in declaration, poetry, calendar, calligraphy, and studying the origin and perfection of Time-wheel King Kong and Fear King Kong.

College of Medicine. The monks majored in Tibetan medicine and were also divided into three grades. At the primary level, monks must recite the Sutra of Conversion, the Sutra of Ludu Mother, the Sutra of Guanyin Heart, the Sutra of Fixed Buddha, the Fundamental Continuation and the Succession. Intermediate, recite Shi Xu, Yao Wang Jing, Ma Wang Bai Lian Jing, etc. Advanced, the main research is "Four Medical Codes" and "Bodhisattva Tao Rank of the Broad Theory".

In addition to learning the principles of Tibetan medicine, medical monks also engage in practical activities. Every year in late April, early June, August to go out to collect medicines, starting in late July pharmaceuticals, ready-made medicines are powder, pills, ointment three, and to patients around the treatment. Medical College has trained many outstanding Tibetan doctors. Nowadays, three kinds of medicines produced by the institute, namely "Jiebaiwan", "Jiuwei Chenxiangsan" and "Jiuwei Banhuangsan", have been listed in the national pharmacopoeia, and 18 kinds of prescription medicines have been listed as local prescription medicines in five northwest provinces (districts), and a Tibetan Medicine Research Institute has been set up in Labrang Temple. Tibetan medicine is being inherited and developed.

Hiking Kong College. This paper mainly studies the way of Xidian Kong's birth and success. There are three classes with indefinite years. Primary monks mainly recite the Sutra of Supreme Provision, the Sutra of Miao Lucky Names, the Sutra of Great Wide Virtue, the Sutra of Fuyuan, the Sutra of Welcoming, Blessing, Entering, Burning Tan, Wishing, Returning to the Sutra, the Sutra of Diamond Hands, the Sutra of Void Yoga, and learn how to draw the Sutra City of Xidian by colored sand. Intermediate majors in Chinese calendar, Tibetan grammar, calligraphy, and dance, which imitates Tibetan Dimulin. Senior people should observe the three laws and meditate in order to achieve the right results.

The sequel goes to college. It was built in imitation of the Lhasa sequel to the College. It mainly studies the way of the birth and success of the Tantric Sect. It is divided into three grades and has indefinite years. The study of classics is basically the same as that of the sequel to the College.

There are many festivals and Dharma clubs in Labrang Monastery, and the most important ones are:

The first month prayer meeting is called "Mauram" in Tibetan. It lasts 15 days from the evening of the third day of the first month to the seventeenth day of the first month. During this period, the Buddhist monks in Labrang Temple recited the Sutras six times a day in the Great Sutra Hall. The fourth time was devoted to praying for the Buddha Dharma to be always there, to be in peace and contentment, and to the equality of the world. On the eighth day of the first lunar month, a "release" was held. The prepared horses, cattle and sheep were sprinkled with clean water, and then let go after wearing ribbons on their ears. No one was allowed to hunt any horses, cattle or sheep that were released. On the thirteenth day of the first month, the "Bright Buddha" was held. The embroidered Buddha statues of tens of feet long were displayed on the foothills opposite the imperial palace to bask in the Buddhist terrace. The monks chanted bathing sutras, and the crowd was solemn and magnificent. The dance was held on the 14th. On the evening of the 15th, a butter Flower Lantern Festival was held. The butter flowers made by various colleges and yawning monks were displayed around the hall and provided with butter lamps to make the butter flowers more brilliant. After the exhibition, the competition was evaluated and ranked. On the sixteenth day of the reign of Maitreya, monks carried Maitreya Buddha around the temple accompanied by a band to show that the future of Maitreya Buddha will rule the world. On January 16, the fee was officially paid by 23 tribes of Labrang Monastery.

February Law Society. From February 4 to 8, the fifth day commemorates the silence of the first Jiamu Sample, named "Good Day". The 8th day of February is the "Bright Treasure Club". Hundreds of monks hold treasures in the temple and circle the temple. The treasures include auspicious knots, Ruyi trees, dragon eggs, tin sticks from Kangxi and one hundred and two gold and Yuan treasures.

April is Niang Nai Festival. It was held on April 15, the day when Muni, the Buddhist monument, was born, became a Taoist religion, and was quiet. Monks and believers had to shut up their fast, turn the prayer wheel and read six words of truth to commemorate it.

July Law Society. From June 29 to July 15, the formal meeting period is July 8. Its scale is second only to that of the first month law meeting. The monks gather seven times a day. The main content of the meeting is debating scriptures. On July 8, it was Mila's Advocation Club that performed the story of Saint Milarepa persuading the hunter Gombodorje.

September "Disaster Relief Law Society". It was held in Jiamu Sample on September 29th by Hi-Diamond College.

The passing of Zongkaba in October. It will be held on the 25th. This day is Zongkabane Pan Day. Monks read the Great Sutra. The temple is open to worship believers. At night, the roof of the temple building is ablaze with lights and shining like stars. It is a wonder, so it is also called the Lantern Festival.

In addition, February 5 is the first Jiamu-like day, October 27 is the second, September 6 is the third, February 22 is the fourth and February 23 is the fifth. These days, monasteries hold commemorative activities.

In addition, there are law meetings held by each college.

Labrang Monastery has 108 monasteries, including 66 monasteries in Gansu, 6 monasteries in Qinghai, 21 monasteries in Sichuan, 7 monasteries in Inner Mongolia, 5 monasteries in Tibet, 1 monastery in Shanxi and 1 monastery in Beijing.

These monasteries are all sub-monasteries of Labrang Temple, but they have different intimate relations with Labrang, basically in three forms. The first kind of religious and political power belongs to the Labran Monastery and is managed by the Labran Monastery School "Gengchabu" (representative), "Jiwa", "Fatai". The second kind of religious power belongs to the Labran Monastery, and is managed by the Fatai of the Labran Monastery or the Buddhist monks, monks and Gengchabu. It only manages religious affairs, regardless of political affairs. The third kind is closely related to religion. However, Labrang Monastery does not directly manage its political and religious affairs.

The tribes of Labrang Temple are divided into four categories according to their degree of dependence. The first category is called "Rad", which means the people of gods. It refers to the "incense-burning households" transferred from the monasteries by the princes and nobles of Mongolia and Tibet from their subordinate ministries. There are eleven arrow fields in Henan Mongqi, thirteen villages near Labrang Temple, Sangko, Ganga, Kocai, Eura, Nima, Aba and Dohor tribes. The second category is called "Mude", which means the government and the people. It is the tribe controlled by the religious power of Labrang Temple. There are Amu Quhu, Zha You, Bola, Chin Gully, Meiwu Five, Sanqiaoke, Awancang and so on. The third kind of "Qude" means the religious people, mainly ruled by hereditary big local officials, and religiously influenced and controlled by the Labrang Temple. These tribes include McColl, Shangzuoglangwa, Yaduanmu, Tangkel, Shangnana, Jingkor, Mula Xiaojun, Manlong, Xiakaga, etc. The fourth category is called "bolt head", which means that there is a relationship with Labrang Monastery, such as Kewa Naimen, Ramawu construction and so on.

Labran Monastery mostly sent "Guowa" (the leader) or "Gengchabu" to "Labran" and "Mude" tribes, representing Jiamu and Labran Monastery to command all the political, religious and military powers of the tribe. The candidates for Guo Wa and Gensangbu were selected from 80 of the Jiamu-like candidates. Generally, pastoral areas are called "Guowa" and "Gengchabu" in agricultural and semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas. The difference between Gwa and Khabu is that the former is in charge of government affairs while the latter is also in charge of monasteries.

Labrang Temple and its main living Buddhas have more land, pastures, forests, livestock, houses and so on. The property of Labrang Monastery can be divided into the following categories: it belongs to the whole monastery, to the Six Colleges of Universities, to the Jiamu Buddhist Palace, to the living Buddhas of all sizes and to the personal property of ordinary monks. The number of them is so large that it is difficult to estimate them one by one. Before 1958, Labrang Temple leased more than 217,000 mu of land, and around 13 villages 900 households were its tenants. Labrang Temple has more than 36500 sheep, 7400 cattle and 9540 horses in Xiahe County. It also rents more than 5100 houses. In addition, the monastery is also engaged in usury, commercial activities, followers'charity, monks' recruitment and so on, so that a large number of financial flows into the Labrang Monastery, so that the Labrang Monastery has a strong economic force.

There are many living Buddhas in Labrang Temple. According to statistics before liberation, there are nearly 100 people. It is also divided into different grades, the most famous of which are the Jiamu Sample and the "Four Colors Red" Living Buddha System.

The first Jiamu Sample Awang Zongzhe (1648-1721), a native of Xiahe County, was a famous Buddhist scholar and scholar of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism. He became a monk at the age of 13 and went to Lhasa to study at the age of 21. He successively studied the Confucian Sutra in Guo Mangzhacang of Zhepeng Temple and the Lower Privy House of Lhasa. At the age of 53, Guo Mangzhacangkanbu of Zhepeng Temple returned to his hometown to build Labrang Temple. In 1720, Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty named him "Buddhist Buddhist monk Ban Zhida Erde Ninomanhan" and gave him a golden seal. The first Jiamu Sample is deliberate and discernible, and has the reputation of being the first person after Zongkaba. There are 15 works in his life, especially the annotations of five major works, which are well-known in Tibet, and are regarded as textbooks by many monasteries in Mongolia and Tibet.

Second Jiamu Sample, Jiumei Wangbo (17281 1791), from Jianza County, Qinghai Province. At the age of 25, Guo Mangzhacang went to Tibet to study classics at Zhepeng Temple and received a Gexi degree. He returned to Labrang Monastery and Tar Monastery. In 1768, he traveled 49 banners in Inner Mongolia. In 1772, Emperor Qianlong named him Banzhida Erdenomen Hanhutuktu, a Buddhist Buddhist monk. He has made great achievements in the development of Labrang Temple, and he is knowledgeable and knowledgeable. His life works include 12 letters, such as The Sample Biography of the First Jiamu, The Biography of Zhang Jiaruo Bi Duojie, The Biography of Baichen Bodan Yixi and the Catalogue of Zhuoniban Danzhul.

The third Jiamu Sample Lausanne Tudan Jiumei Jiatuo (1792-1855), a native of Tongren County, Qinghai Province, was welcomed to Labrang Temple in 1798. He entered Tibet at the age of 18, was appointed to the Fatai of Labrang Temple at the age of 26, and was appointed to the Fatai of Rentar Temple at the age of 55. In 1849, Qingfenghe was a Buddhist monk with a quiet nature. He paid attention to cultivation and indifferent food and clothing. His works include The Collection of Essays, etc.

The fourth Jiamu Sample Gesantudan prosperous show. (1856-1916), from Dege, Sichuan. At the age of 22, he went to Tibet to study Buddhism. At the age of 28, he was appointed to the Fatai of Labrang Temple and Tar Temple. Later, he went to Beijing, Wutaishan, Xikang, Ando and Tibet to worship the sacred sites. In 1900, he was sealed up as "Master Shan of Guangji", and in 1913, the Yuan Shikai government named him "Master Miaoyan of Guangji Jingjue". The fourth Jiamu sample works include Biography of Xirao Jiatuo and Records of Xidiangang College.

Fifth Jiamu Sample Danbai Jianzan (1916-1947), Han name Huang Zhengguang, a native of Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province. In 1933, the Kuomintang government named it "Jiamu Hutuktu, a Buddhist monk who assisted the state to elucidate Zen". In 1937, he went to Tibet for further study and returned to Tibet in 1940. In the same year, he donated 30 aircraft (10,000 yuan each, totaling 300,000 yuan) to the National Government to support the War of Resistance. Jiamu Sample was appointed by the National Government as a member of the Mongolian-Tibetan Committee. The fifth emperor devoted himself to the development of national culture by organizing Tibetan Culture Promotion Association, Tibetan Primary School, Labrang Temple Youth Lama Vocational School, etc.

The sixth Jiamu Sample, Lausanne Jiumei Tudan but Ginima (19481), from Gangcha County, Qinghai Province, is currently the Standing Committee of the National Political Consultative Conference, the Vice-Chairman of the National Buddhist Association, the Vice-Chairman of the Gansu Political Consultative Conference, the Vice-Chairman of the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Political Consultative Conference, and the Honorary Director of the Labrangsi Monastery Governing Council. The four red colours of Labrang Temple refer to the four living Buddha systems of Gongtang Cang, Samuchacang, Hall Cang and Dewacang, all of which have high prestige. Later Lamas Garuokang and Amangcang Living Buddhas also occupy a red position. Labrang Monastery has a strict system of Confucian classics and a large number of talented people have emerged in successive dynasties. Gongtangcang Gongquhu Danbai Zhuomei (1762-1823), the third generation, wrote 12 letters. His "Water Tree Motto" and "Experienced Old Man's Advice to the World" are well-known both at home and abroad and are famous works in the history of Tibetan literature. The second Amang Gongqu insisted on praise (17641 1853). He was knowledgeable and known as Amang Banzhida. He wrote 10 letters, including Records of Labrang Monastery, A Brief History of Mongolia in Indo-Tibetan Hall, and A Biography of Gong Tang Dynasty III. Zhigongba Danbaranji (1801-18666), the third generation, traveled through Ando Tibetan area and wrote a great book, History of Ando's Religion and Politics, which is well known all over the world. Gongtang Luozhuo Jiatuo (1851-1930), a famous Buddhist scholar of Labrang Monastery in modern times, has 10 letters in his collection, and has made extensive discussions on the five major theories. Lakocang Jiumeicheng Le Jiatuo is a master of the Ninth and Tenth Panchen, the Fifth Jiamu Sample and the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. He has written Medium View and Wide Break Recognition Record and Biography of the Fifth Jiamu Sample. In addition, there are still many scholars left behind in the Labrang Temple, which can be described as a group of high-ranking monks and academic crown Anduo.

Famous contemporary scholars, such as Langcang Huo Fok Zhi Gelejia, wrote plays and poems such as "Princess Wencheng Burst", "Daba Danbao", "King Gemana". The late Danbacha wrote "Several Problems in Tibetan Grammar", "The Key to Poetics Rhetoric", "An Introduction to Tibetan Grammar", "A Brief History of Tibetan Culture Development" and "A Contrast of Sanskrit and Tibetan Nomenclature". And so on. Nowadays, there are also Dagexi and scholars who are proficient in the Labrang Temple, such as the famous Tibetan scholar Sanzhibu, who have contributed to the inheritance and development of Tibetan culture.

There is a band organization called Jiamu Band in Labrang Monastery. The band absorbed the court music of the Qing Dynasty and the temple music of the mainland during the 4th Jiamu Sample. The musical instruments are Yungong 2, Di 2, Guan 2, Sheng 2 and Drum 1. The music is composed of 10 pieces such as Wannianhuan, which is unique in Tibetan Buddhist monasteries.

Before liberation, only Songzan Ganbu and Princess Wencheng were performed. After liberation, performances such as Zhimei Gengden, Zhuo Wasam, Prince Nossan and Chisong Dezan were performed.

The paintings of Labran Monastery include murals and Tangka paintings. The murals include Buddha Bensheng, Buddhist stories, Buddha statues, historical figures, medical illustrations and so on. They are bright in color and full of life flavor. Thangka painting is scroll painting, painted on cloth, very delicate. The embroidery art of Labrang Monastery is also excellent. It is cut into various shapes with various colors of silk and satin, such as Buddha statues, figures, birds and animals, landscapes, flowers and grass, insects and fishes, etc. It is embroidered on the cloth mantle, with wool at the bottom, and has a strong sense of three-dimensional. The plastic arts altar city, sculpture and butter flower of Labrang Temple all have strong religious and national characteristics.

Labrang Temple also preserves the seal of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty to the fourth Jiamu Samucha living Buddha, the seal of the Kuomintang government to praise the fifth Jiamu Samucha living Buddha, the seal of Qingdaoguang to the third Jiamu Sample, the seal of the fifth Jiamu Sample, and the seal of the fifth Jiamu Samu Sample issued by the government of the Republic of China, as well as 21 seals of gold, silver, copper, ivory, stone and wood.

There are a vast number of ancient Tibetan books in the Tibetan Sutra Building of Labrang Temple. Before 1958, there were more than 228,000 books in Labrang Temple. Later, they were seriously damaged. Existing scriptures account for only 39.6% of the original collection, totaling more than 65,000 books and more than 18,200 kinds (except compound books and Ganzhul and Danzhul), including medicines, declarations, crafts, astronomical calendar, rhetoric, letters, history, biography, complete collection and various Buddhist scriptures. Recently, Gansu Province established the "Gansu Labrang Temple Collection Research Institute", which was changed to the "Gansu Tibetology Research Institute" in 1988, and carried out research on the Labrang Temple.

Labrang Monastery can be said to be a treasure house of culture and art in Anduo Tibetan Area. Nowadays, people pay more and more attention to it, and it gives out unprecedented splendor.

The current master of Labrang Temple, Jiamu Sample, Lausanne Jiumei Tudan, was born in Gangcha County, Qinghai Province in 1948. He was identified by the 10th Panchen Master in 1951 and sat in bed on February 11, 1952. Since 1957, he has served as the president of the Buddhist Association of Gansu Province, and later as the vice-president of the Chinese Buddhist Association, the vice-chairman of the National Youth Federation, the vice-chairman of the Gansu Provincial Government Association, the vice-chairman of the Gansu Provincial People's Congress, the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth standing members of the CPPCC, and the ninth NPC Standing Committee. Dewacang Jiayang Tujia, the current director of the Management Committee of Labrang Monastery, was born in September 1944, one of the four red colours of Labrang Monastery. He has studied in Northwest Institute for Nationalities and Beijing Advanced Buddhist College of Tibetan Language Department. Since 1979, he has served as Vice-Chairman of the CPPCC of Xiahe County, Vice-Chairman of Xiahe County, Vice-Chairman of Xiahe County People's Congress, Vice-Chairman of Gannan Prefecture People's Congress, Vice-Chairman of Gansu Buddhist Association and Eighth and Ninth Representatives of the National People's Congress.

protective measures

Labrang Temple is one of the six main monasteries of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. In 1982, Labrang Temple was listed as one of the key cultural relics protection units in China. Located in the western suburb of Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province. At the foot of Fengling Mountain.