Juyong Pass of Great Wall of China

Home Scenery 2018-12-10

Juyongguan Great Wall is a famous ancient city along the Great Wall of Beijing and a national cultural relic protection unit. It is a national AAAA scenic spot assessed by Beijing Tourism Bureau. Located in the canyon 20 kilometers north of Changping County.

It is 60 kilometers away from Beijing and 20 kilometers away from Badaling Great Wall. The terrain is dangerous and it is an important pass of the Great Wall. In February 2013, two stigma beasts of Han Baiyu were stolen from Pangong archway in Juyongguan scenic spot. In May 2013, four people, including Zhao Mou, were arrested on suspicion of theft.

The Great Wall of Juyongguan was built in a valley 15 kilometers long, with overlapping hills, lush trees, rich flowers and magnificent scenery. It was listed as one of the eight sceneries of Yanjing in the Jin Dynasty 800 years ago, called Juyongguan verdant. Juyongguan is the gateway to Beijing from the north. It has the momentum of "one man should be the gateway, ten thousand men should not be opened". In the center of Juyongguan, there is also a well-carved "Yuntai" of Han Baiyutai. During the Yuan Dynasty, three stone pagodas were built on the platform, which were destroyed in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty. After the three towers were destroyed, another "Tai'an Temple" was built on this platform, which was burned by fire during the reign of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, leaving only this base - Yuntai. Inside the coupon door of Yuntai, there are four statues of heavenly kings carved on the stone wall, which are vivid in posture. There are also Buddhist sutras carved in Sanskrit, Tibetan, Mongolian, Uygur, Xixia and Chinese.

Guancheng is a closed circular city with a length of 4142 meters. There are not only Pangong and Yicui Academy for learning, but also shopping streets for businessmen to walk in. There are not only Chenghuang Temple for visiting, but also a palace for ushering in.

Existing Juyongguan City also has a variety of related buildings, such as government offices, temples, Confucianism and so on.

After the late Qing Dynasty, the buildings of Juyong Guancheng were gradually abandoned. In 1992, in order to protect cultural relics, the office of the Shisanling Special Zone in Changping County carried out a comprehensive restoration of the Guancheng building, reproducing the grandeur of the past.

geographical environment

As early as Jin Mingchang's reign (1190-1195 AD), the name "Juyong emerald" has been listed.

One of the Eight Sceneries of Yanshan Mountain. In 1982, Juyongguan was classified as Badaling-Ming Tombs Scenic and Scenic Reserve and became one of the most important scenic spots because of its important value of human and natural landscape.

Juyongguan Great Wall is located in Changping County, Beijing, 60 kilometers away from Beijing. It is an important gateway to the Great Wall. It is an important barrier to the northwest of ancient Beijing and the situation is critical. However, the opening set up at the beginning of the Han Dynasty has gone through vicissitudes of life, suffered serious damage and gradually lost the public's attention. The renovation project of Juyongguan Great Wall, which lasted four years and cost hundreds of millions of yuan, has been completed. The Great Wall of Juyongguan was officially opened to tourists in March 1998.

Tour Juyongguan is mainly to see the tall and magnificent Guancheng and the continuous ups and downs of the stacks, as well as Yuntai exquisite stone carvings.

Guancheng: In Ming Dynasty, Juyong had two peripheral gateways, the South was called Nankou, and the North was Badaling Pass. Guancheng was located in the canyon (Guanjuan) on the north of Nankou. The city has a north-south gate, and the south gate has a urn city. A trapped throat passage goes through the North-South gate. High mountains stand on both sides of Guancheng, which is mainly due to the overlapping of cockroaches and lush forests. As early as the Jin Dynasty more than 800 years ago, it was listed as one of the eight sceneries in Yanjing, known as "Juyong Duicui".

Yuntai: In the center of Guancheng, there is a beautifully carved white marble terrace called Yuntai, which was built from Yuan Dynasty to the fifth year of Zhengzheng (1345 A.D.). It was the base of the building. There were Street towers and Tai'an Temple on the terrace successively. There are only constellations left. The sculpture of the platform is concentrated in the coupon door and the coupon hole. On the rainside of the coupon gate, there are reliefs of diamond pestles and various mammals, with King of Golden-winged Birds carved in the middle; on the inner wall of the coupon hole, there are reliefs of Kings of the Four or Six Heavens and "Dharani Sutra Mantra" and "Gong De Ji of Making Towers" in the six languages of Han, Tibet, Hui, Mongolia, Sanskrit and Xixia. The top of the voucher is covered with mandalas and statues of Buddhas, which are exquisitely carved.

Original name

Changping County Juyongguan from Beijing in the urban areas of more than 50 kilometers. According to legend, the emperor built the the Great Wall, the prisoners, soldiers and forced to turn to move on this, after taking "Ju Yong believers", named juyongguan. Along the Han Dynasty, since then each generation is still called the Juyongguan mouth mountains Yu Mao verdant trees and flowers here, like ocean waves Tsui, so it is called "green pass". Juyongguan since ancient times as a dangerous situation, a hotly contested spot, it has both north and South Pass, "south south", called "north of juyongguan". Pass on both sides of the magnificent mountains, there are 18 km Valley intermediate, commonly known as "guangou". Here, the book clean lingering overlap, Kaki Ikumo, Merle contend, is listed as "Yanjing eight" of.

Juyongguan the Great Wall where the Taihang Mountains are in the canyon, mountain terrain is extremely important. As early as the Warring States period, the Yan state to control the mouth, said "pass plug". The Han Dynasty, the Juyongguan city has a considerable size. The northern and Southern Dynasties, and building off the city and the Great Wall together. After Li Tang, Liao, Jin and Yuan Dynasties, the city of Juyong canyon.

Architectural characteristics

1. a circular shaped building closed form;

2. width, height changes, the width of 16.7 meters, 1.2 meters narrowest. Dongshan the Great Wall the Great Wall is 370 meters higher than the left. The inner wall is low, lateral, lateral wall is called, called crownnatural or inside the space wall, can effectively fight against the enemy;

3. structural forms, is the essence of the whole building in the Great Wall, found a clean base of granite boulders, crushed stones, brick, its construction of different age;

4. military defense wide, around the area of more than 50 hectares, the ticket city about 850 meters apart, Dongshan top to the top of the hills straight line distance of 1150 meters, defense facilities of the South and North ticket city, tower, Watergate, gates, watchtowers, shop room, tunnel Fung, turrets, battery etc.. The Great Wall on the watchtowers, Fengsui, shop room, as the dwelling place of ancient bunkers and soldiers during the war, a total of 25 fixed seat, according to the regulation of the Ming Dynasty these burning bricks, are relying on the artificial livestock, delivery of materials to. Tall and stately towers, North and South have a floor, three style chongyanxieshan green glazed tile cutting edge, 21 meters high, 10 meters below the city of Taiwan high. The tower is the command center, so the construction of tall. Stand in the upstairs, can at a glance, to view the enemy. The city of Taiwan under the gate Wengcheng coupons. Wengcheng is outside the city of the city, to strengthen the city's defenses.

In the Yuan Dynasty, Juyongguan was an important transportation road from Beijing to Shangdu (now Inner Mongolia). Because the emperor often passed by, there were palaces, monasteries, gardens and other buildings in the customs. The existing Yuntai is the base of the cross-street tower built in the Yuan Dynasty. There were three Lama pagodas built on it, which were destroyed in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty. Four years of Ming orthodoxy (1439) in the above re-built Buddhist temple, Tai'an Temple, the temple burned in Kangxi, after which only Yuntai remained so far. The Buddhist images carved on the coupon cave and the Scriptures in the six languages of Sanskrit, Tibet, Xixia, Uygur, Basiba and Han are of academic value. They are important historical materials for studying the history of Buddhism in the Yuan Dynasty, ancient scripts and cultural exchanges among different nationalities. They are also exquisite masterpieces of the existing Yuan Dynasty sculpture art.

By the Ming Dynasty, Juyongguan had become an important military town. The reason is: after Zhu Yuanzhang destroyed the Yuan Dynasty, Emperor Shun of the Yuan Dynasty was expelled from the metropolis, but he still wanted to return to earth, recover lost land and restore the rule of the Yuan Dynasty. Juyongguan is the only way for him to go south, so it is necessary to strengthen the defense facilities of Juyongguan. In the early years of Hongwu, the Imperial General Xu Da and the deputy general often met Chun to build Juyongguan City: "Crossing two mountains, 13 miles on Monday, four feet high". Since then, all dynasties have been built, especially in Jingtai period, the city has been expanded and strengthened. There are two water and land gates. There are Wengcheng outside the north and South gates. The plaque on the ticket gate of the north and South gates is the real sign of Yongguan (Ming Jingtai Decade) in that year. Therefore, in the Ming Dynasty, the construction facilities of Juyong Guancheng reached the most complete level. From north to south, the defense system of Guancheng consists of five defense lines, namely, turnout city, Juyong Wai town (Badaling), Shangguan city, Zhongguancheng city (Juyongguan city), and Nankou, while Juyongguan is the command center. Longqingwei is responsible for guarding the city, equipped with armor, armor, lances, bows, arrows and other weapons and firearms. Not only is Guancheng well-built, but it also has a variety of related facilities such as government offices, warehouses, libraries, Shenmai hangars, temples, Confucianism and so on. Its cultural connotation is very profound. The emperors of Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties passed through this period. As a political position and military fortress, they are unique and unparalleled. Juyongguan is not only dangerous in terrain, but also pleasant in scenery. After entering Guangou from Nankou, hills overlap on both sides, streams run long, vegetation is flourishing in spring, summer and autumn, flowers and weeds are lush and lush, and it is like green waves. It was listed as one of the eight scenic spots in Yanjing in the Jin Dynasty. Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty wrote the four words "Juyong Duicui" and built a monument of imperial writing. The folk also spread the saying of 72 sceneries in Guangou. The humanistic and natural sceneries complement each other.

In 1961, Juyongguan Yuntai was declared the first batch of cultural relics protection units by the State Council. Following the policy of "effective protection, scientific management and rational utilization" of cultural relics, the Great Wall of Juyongguan has been repaired with an investment of 100 million yuan since 1993. It is designed and manufactured by the world's largest Buddhist height , the inheritor of national intangible cultural heritage, the vice president of Fujian Arts and Crafts Masters Association, and Putianxing. Lin Shengbiao, a master of traditional Chinese arts and crafts, re-sculpted the statues of temples. After more than four years of hard work, it was basically completed in 1997. A total of 4142 meters of the Great Wall was restored, and 28 enemy buildings, pavilions and beacon tunnels were restored. In Guannei, 30 buildings with an area of more than 7000 square meters have been restored, including temples, pavilions, warehouses, Shenji hangars, permanent residence offices and library buildings.

In 2013, preparations have been completed. Visitors from home and abroad can visit the Great Wall, Shangguan Tower, enjoy the magnificent scenery of Juyongguan, appreciate the exquisite stone carving art of Yuntai, and visit various temples. Tourist service facilities include restaurants, handicraft shops, etc. There is a Yuntai in Juyongguan Center, built in 1345 (from Yuan to Zhengzhou). There were three Lama Pagodas on the platform, which were destroyed successively in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty. In 1439 (Ming orthodox four years), Tai'an Temple was repaired on the stage, and burned in 1702 (Kangxi 41 years of the Qing Dynasty).

The existing platform is rectangular in plane, nearly 27 meters long at the bottom, 17 meters and a half deep in the north and south, 24 meters long at the top, and nearly 15 meters deep in the north and south. Stone fences and drainage faucets are installed around the top of the platform. A coupon door is opened in the middle of the pedestal, which is more than 6 meters wide and 7 meters high. It is a five-sided folded corner coupon, especially an arch coupon. It can open to traffic and horses. The exquisite stone carvings of Yuan Dynasty on the coupon doors and caves are precious materials for studying Buddhist scriptures and ancient scriptures. It is located in Changping District, more than 50 kilometers away from Beijing. Juyongguan got its name from the Qin Dynasty. It is said that when Qin Shihuang built the Great Wall, he moved prisoners, soldiers and forcibly recruited civilian husbands here, taking the meaning of "migrating to the mediocre". The Han Dynasty was called Juyongguan, the Three Kingdoms was named Xiguan, the Northern Qi Dynasty was changed into Qianguan, and the Tang Dynasty was named Juyongguan, Jimenguan and Jundu Guan.

Juyongguan is a dangerous situation, and it has been a must for military strategists since ancient times. It has two passes, the south is called "Nankou" and the north is called "Juyong Pass". The existing Guancheng was built by Zhu Yuanzhang, the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, who sent General Xu Da to supervise it. It is the gateway of Northwest Beijing. On both sides of Juyongguan, there are magnificent mountains with 18 kilometers of valleys in the middle, commonly known as "Guangou". Here the clear flow lingers, the Cuifeng overlaps, the flowers and trees are lush, the mountain birds contend. The beautiful scenery, known as "Juyong emerald", is listed as one of the "Eight Sceneries of Yanjing".

As early as the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the Yan Kingdom would control this mouth. During the Han Dynasty, Juyong Guancheng was also known as Juansai and Jundu Guan in the history of scale. The cockroach, also known as the bumblebee, closes the earth building room to wait for, such as the cockroach's earthwork as the house, hence its name.

When Genghis Khan destroyed his gold, he entered the customs. The existing Guancheng was built in the first year of Hongwu in the Ming Dynasty (1368 AD). It was planned by General Xu Da and Deputy General Chang Yuchun. It was renovated in the early years of Jingtai in the Ming Dynasty (1450-1454 AD) and later. Chengyuan east to Cuiping ridge, West to the top of the Golden Cabinet, more than 4000 meters in circumference, North and South Yuecheng and city buildings, enemy buildings and other supporting facilities are complete. Inside and outside Guancheng, there are also various related building facilities, such as government offices, temples, Confucianism and so on.

After the late Qing Dynasty, the Guancheng architecture of Juyong was gradually abandoned, but the magnificent Guancheng and numerous historical relics opened a window for people to understand the ancient Chinese military culture.

Culture

Juyongguan has a long history and beautiful scenery. Based on its profound cultural connotation and beautiful natural environment, as early as 1961, Yuntai, located in Guannei, was declared the first batch of national scenic spots by the State Council; in 1987, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) listed it as a world cultural heritage. Juyongguan has a long history and beautiful scenery. Literati poets and dignitaries wrote a large number of poems, inscriptions and stone inscriptions describing Juyongguan. Among them, there are about 170 ancient poems and lyrics, nearly 13,000 words. There are nearly 20 stone tablets in Juyongguan, of which 14 are relatively intact.

Main attractions

City Wall and Guancheng Architecture

The winding walls above the eastern and Western ridges were restored on the original site after 1993, totaling 4142 meters. Standing on the newly restored Juyongguan tower, you can see all around: the towering Great Wall is like a giant hand stretching out from the north and South passes 850 meters apart, winding, winding, high and low in the east of Cuiping Mountain and the west of Jinfangshan Peak, the straight distance between the two peaks reaches 1150 meters, forming a closed circle. Cuiping Mountain is 150 meters high and the Great Wall is 1500 meters long. Jinark Mountain is 351 meters high and the Great Wall is 2100 meters long. There are 57 meters of Great Wall on the river set connecting the two mountains. The construction of the Great Wall with double insurance on such a steep mountain shows the importance of being a Yongguan fortress.

Yamen

This group of buildings is the Hucao administrative department, which is the permanent Juyongguan administrative department of the Ming Dynasty household department. Zhengde 10 years (AD 1515) was rebuilt. Its regulation, in the hall, front for the heavy door, back for the dormitory, left and right for the literary migration officials living room. After the death of Ming Dynasty, it will be abolished.

private school

This group of buildings is called the Diancui Library, which is named after the Diancui Peak Pingzhi in front of it. In the twentieth year of Jiajing in Ming Dynasty (1514 AD), the monastery of Tai'an Temple was renovated and renovated, with 16 rooms. In the middle is a paradise hall, where the Confucian scholars practise their lessons day and night, and the rest are teachers'and students' living rooms. There were 54 books in the library for reading.

Storage

Founded in the first year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty (1403 AD), Fengyuan Granary was the granary of Longqing Zuowei, the guard of Juyong at that time. In addition, there are 1 Yongfeng Warehouse and 3 Round Warehouses.

God's hangar (ordnance depot)

It was built in the 14th year of Ming orthodoxy (A.D. 1449), because it contained not only cold weapons such as armor and knives and guns, but also various kinds of firearms such as magic guns, god's majesty and artillery, so it was called "magic hangar".

Horse Temple (Restored in 1996)

This small group of temples is dedicated to the God of horses, called the temple of horses. It was built in the seventeenth year of Hongzhi in the Ming Dynasty (1504) and rebuilt in the fifty-seventh year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1792). Battle requires war horses, worship the God of horses, is for the health of horses, thriving, combat effectiveness. In Sui, Tang, Song and Liao dynasties, there were official systems of sacrificing horse gods. Zhu Yuanzhang, the Taizu ancestor of the Ming Dynasty, offered sacrifices to the gods of Mazu and presided over the Taipu Temple in Nanjing. The restored Temple of the horse is made of statues of Mazu, Mawang, Aquatic God and Grass God.

Zhenwu Temple (Restored in 1996)

It was built in the first year of Hongxi Ming Dynasty (1425). Zhenwu Temple worships Zhenwu Emperor as its main god. Zhenwu, or basalt, is the God of the north in ancient Chinese mythology and the god worshipped by Taoism. Legend has it that the crown prince of King Jingle was born with great strength. He traveled across the East China Sea, conferred a sword by the gods, and went to Wudang Mountain in Hubei Province for practice. After 42 years, he succeeded in his work. He rose in the daytime, and was named Xuanwu Jun in the north of Weizhen. The emperor of Song Dynasty changed Xuanlang's name to Zhenwu because he avoided his ancestor's taboo. Song Zhenzong respected "Zhenzhen Wuling should be the Saint Emperor", referred to as "Zhenwu Emperor". In the Yuan Dynasty, Zhenwu was added as the "Emperor of Heaven of Renwei and Xuantian of the Yuan Sage" and became the supreme god of the North. The belief in Zhenwu reached its peak in the Ming Dynasty. After Zhu Di called him Emperor, he named Zhenwu "the Innocent Emperor of the Arctic Town of Wuxuan Heaven", and named Wudang Mountain as "Taihe Mountain of Dayue". According to legend, General Xu Dabei of Hongwuchu "often had the help of genuine Wuling", so he built this temple in Guannei. The restored temple contains eight marshals of Taoist Zhenwu God, six Dingliujia God, two generals of water and fire, and statues of Qinglong and Baihu.

Town God Temple

This group of temples is large in scale. The City God is the God who guards the city pool preached by Taoism. Ancient China called the watery City cutting "pond" and the waterless City cutting "chi". It is said that in the Zhou Dynasty more than 3,000 years ago, eight kinds of gods were sacrificed on New Year's Eve, including city gods and gods. Later, when the two gods became one, they became the gods of the city. Taoism believes that the City God is the God of shearing evil and killing evil, moat and people's peace. He can meet people's needs, rain in drought and clear in flood, so as to keep the grain abundant and the people peaceful.

At the earliest time, when the Three Kingdoms were in the Eastern Wu Dynasty, a city god temple was built in Wuhu, Anhui Province, for worship and sacrifice. By the Tang Dynasty, the worship of city gods was becoming more and more popular. After the death of some enlightened people who had made great achievements in the local areas, they were regarded as city gods. They hoped that he could continue to bless the local areas and protect the people. In the Song Dynasty, worship to the city gods was spread all over the countryside. In the Ming Dynasty, soon after the emperor Yuanzhang took office, he ordered the construction of a large-scale Chenghuang Temple in Nanjing, the capital city, and promulgated the title of Chenghuang God as noble, the capital city as emperor, Kaifeng Linhao and other places as king king King; the prefecture-level city as Weiling Gong, the second grade of official residence, the prefecture-level city god as prominent uncle, four grades of official residence, and in accordance with the rank. No, make up clothes. In addition, the City God is in charge of the dead. Zhu Yuanzhang also organized a set of institutions for Chenghuang, with judges and government corvees. Taoism took the opportunity to claim that "Lord Chenghuang" had the right to arrest the living to the underworld, and the ghosts of the dead first went to Chenghuang Temple for interrogation. When new officials take office, they must fasting and bathing to worship the Chenghuang Temple before they can enter the Ya Board. They also have to go to worship on the first and fifteenth day of each month.

Zhu Yuanzhang attached great importance to the City God for his own purpose. Zhu Yuanzhang once told Song Lian, a Bachelor of the university, what he said in his heart: "To erect the City God is to make people fear, and people are afraid, but they dare not act in vain". To put it bluntly, advocating the power of gods and ghosts is only a deterrent to the subjects in order to consolidate feudal rule. The Chenghuang Temple of Juyongguan was built in Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty (1368-1397). Thirty years of Qianlong reinvention in the Qing Dynasty (1765). In addition to protecting Guancheng, Chenghuang Temple was built here to restrain the army and the people. This restoration is in 1996, the temple is sculpted with city gods, Yan Wang, mountain gods, earth gods and other gods.

Guan Yu Temple

During the reign of Zhengde in the Ming Dynasty (1506-1521 A.D.), it was built as a temple dedicated to Guan Yu, a general of Shu and Han dynasties of the Three Kingdoms. Guanyu, the word Yunchang, is from Hedong Jiexian County (now southwest of Linyi, Shanxi Province). Famous for loyalty, righteousness, benevolence and courage, he was deified after death. In the Song Dynasty, the emperor was appointed king, in the Ming Wanli Decade (1582 AD), and in the thirty-third year (1605 AD), he was renamed "Saint Emperor of Tianzungguan, the Three Kingdoms of Voldemort" in Weiyuan Town. He was the God of the three religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. The statues in the temple are Emperor Guan, Mrs. Hu, and Guan Yu's father, grandfather and great-grandfather. Guanwang Temple: Built during the Orthodox Ming Dynasty (1436-1449 A.D.), the statues in the temple are Guanwang and Huangzhong, Ma Chao, Zhao Yun, Zhang Fei and other famous Shuhan generals. Guan Gong is a typical example of loyal ministers and brave generals in the feudal era. When the city of Beijing was built in the early Ming Dynasty, the temples of Guan Di were built at the same time in the cities of Weng, hoping that God and the city would bless the country and bless the people together. The Guanwang Temple and Guandi Temple built in Juyongguan are bound by feudal etiquette to Guard officers and soldiers. They should be loyal, righteous, benevolent and brave like Guanyu. At the same time, it implies that Yu is a strong guardian in this city and is not easy to break through.

Table loyalty Temple

During the reign of Hongzhi in the Ming Dynasty (1488-1505), it was built to commemorate the right deputy capital of the Ming Dynasty, Shi Luotong. Luo Tong, an ancient philologist, a native of Jishui, Jiangxi Province, was ordered to live in Yongguan in 1449 years of orthodoxy. In October of the same year, more than 30,000 people of the Mongolian Wahao Ministry attacked this Pass. It was urgent for Luo Tong to defend Shicheng personally, defeat Wahao under the command of Luo Tong, and maintain Juyongguan. At the same time, the Beijing Normal University was preserved. Later, Prince Shijia Taibao, the capital of Jinyou, won the award of the emperor. During the reign of Hongzhi, Pan Zhaoming, an old man of Qi Dynasty, drew up ancestral halls to show his loyalty.

Lv Zu Temple (Restored in 1994)

The date of its establishment is unknown, and it is an ancient Taoist temple. In the temple there is a statue of Lu Dongbin, one of the eight immortals of Taoism.

Pavilion Pavilion

Eight pavilions have been built, including the Half Hill Pavilion, Ying Enfang, Guo Jifang, Peishan Pavilion, Long and Short Pavilion, Resting Pavilion, Jing Pai Pavilion and Arbor Pavilion.

Yuntai

In the center of Juyongguan, there is a pedestal of "street-crossing tower", named "Yuntai", which means "far-sighted as in the clouds". Yuntai was founded in the second to fifth years (1342-1345) from Yuan to Zhengzheng. It is made of white marble from the Han Dynasty. Its height is 9.5 meters, its top is 25.21 meters wide from east to west, its north-south length is 12.9 meters, and its base is 26.84 meters wide from east to west. The length of North and south is 15.57 meters, the upper part is small and the lower part is large, and the plane is rectangular. The stone balustrades, watchposts, balustrades and dripping faucets around the top of the platform all maintain the artistic style of the Yuan Dynasty. There is a door hole in the center of the platform, which can pass pedestrians, cars and horses. The ticket door and hole are engraved with ROC golden-winged birds, whales, elephants, dragons, mandalas and Buddha statues. The two sides of the cave wall are carved with four great heavenly kings'relief statues and the Dharani scriptures and the records of merits and virtues of pagoda-making in six languages: Sanskrit, Tibet, Mongolia, Uygur, Xixia and Han. Yuntai is a large stone carving art of the Yuan Dynasty. Three white Lama Pagodas were built on Yuntai, but they were destroyed in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty. Thereafter, Tai'an Temple was built on the platform. In the forty-first year of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty (1702), the temple was burned and only Yuntai was left. The Pillar Foundation on the top of the platform is the relic of the character of Tai'an Temple in Ming Dynasty.

What is it for? It turned out to be the base of a street tower. It is a platform built of white marble. There are three Lama Pagodas on the base. Under the base, there are ticket doors and pedestrians. According to Buddhist sutras, passers-by passing under the pagoda is tantamount to worshipping Buddha. The purpose of building the pagoda is to make the people who come and go through the pagoda "convert to Buddhism and practice Dharma universally", accept religious anesthesia and consolidate feudal rule. The crossing pagoda was completely destroyed at the turn of Yuan and Ming dynasties. In the early Ming Dynasty, on the base of the pagoda, a Buddhist temple was built with three Buddha statues. The middle is Pilujana, the left is Manjusri Bodhisattva, and the right is Samantha Bodhisattva. In the thirteenth year of orthodoxy, the number of Qin-chi temples was "Tai'an". Today, the Buddha Hall only has pillars on the Yuntai. The coupon door is half octagonal, which is a special method in ancient brick arch in China. In addition to the special architectural structure, the most important thing is the exquisite relief carvings and six ancient characters in the coupon cave. The carvings of Sanskrit, Tibetan, Basi Bameng, Uygur, Chinese and Xixia are the first to be found in ancient Chinese stone carvings, which have high artistic value and scientific research value.

The sculptures of Yuntai are mainly concentrated in the coupon gate and the coupon cave, where the two emperors symmetrically engrave the pattern of Cross Diamond pestles; elephants, strange lions, leaf rollers and dragon gods, the golden-winged bird king in the middle, and four heavenly kings engraved at the four ends of the inner walls of the coupon cave (the Eastern King holding the kingdom, the Southern King of Growth, the Western King of Guangmu and the North). It is especially precious that there are six kinds of inscriptions in the middle of the two stone walls in the cave, which is the first in ancient Chinese stone inscriptions. The arrangement of the six kinds of characters is as follows: the upper is Sanskrit (ancient Indian), the middle and the lower are Tibetan, and the Tibetan is divided into two parts (Gagar and Tubo). The lower is vertical writing, from both ends to the middle, and from left to right is Basiba Mongolian (used in the official language of Yuan Dynasty). Mongolian, abandoned after the Yuan Dynasty, Uygur; from right to left row is the Chinese, Xixia (ancient Xixia Kingdom party Xiangzu used a redundant imitation of Chinese characters). The arrangement of the two sides of the cave is the same, the content of the text is the same, engraved with the Tathagata Heart Sutra, the Buddha's top respecting the Dharani Sutra and incantations, and with the records of the merits and virtues of pagoda-building and the Year of the Yuan Dynasty. It is an important reference for the study of Buddhism, ancient scripts and the history of cultural exchanges among different nationalities in the Yuan Dynasty.

In addition to the two walls of the coupon cave, there are many small Buddha statues carved on the top and two sloping roofs. Five patterns of "Mancha Luo" are engraved in the middle of the top of the voucher. Ten Buddhas are engraved on the top of the voucher, and small Buddha statues are engraved all over between the big Buddha statues, and the whole voucher top is covered. The voucher cave is decorated with various flower patterns. These idols are exquisite, flowing, powerful and exquisite. They are excellent works of carving art in the Yuan Dynasty.

Bronze Statue of Zhan Tianyou

It's near Qinglongqiao Station. Zhan Tianyou (1861-1919) devoted all his life to China's railway industry, completed the first self-designed and built Beijing-Zhangjiakou railway in China, and was one of the most respected engineers in modern China. After his death in 1919, bronze statues and monuments were erected here to commemorate his deeds.

Juyonguan Great Wall

In Ming Dynasty, Juyongguan city system reached the most complete level. From the north to the south, the defense system of the Guancheng is composed of five lines of defense: turnout city, Juyong town (Badaling), Shangguan city, Zhongguancheng city (Juyongguan) and Nankou. Juyongguan is the command center, which is responsible for defending the Guancheng. It is equipped with armor, armor, lance, bow, arrow and other weapons and firearms. Juyong Guancheng is a well-built city with a variety of related facilities such as government offices, warehouses, libraries, Shenmai hangars, temples, Confucianism and so on. Its cultural connotation is very profound.

Juyongguan is not only dangerous terrain, but also pleasant scenery. There are overlapping mountains, long streams, lush vegetation and pleasant scenery. In the Jin Dynasty, "Eight Sceneries of Yanshan", "Eight Sceneries of Beijing" in the Ming Dynasty and "Eight Sceneries of Yanjing" in the Qing Dynasty, the reputation of "Juyong Pingcui" has been spreading to the present day. Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty inscribed the four words "Juyong Duicui" and set up a monument here.

A survey of the changes of Juyongguan in the past two thousand years shows us a magnificent picture of the development of ancient politics, economy, culture and art. However, most of the buildings were destroyed due to repeated fires and smoke. Encouraged by the spirit of Deng Xiaoping's inscription "Love China, Build My Great Wall", under the leadership of Party committees and people's governments at all levels in cities and districts, and under the leadership of the State Administration of Cultural Relics, Beijing Municipal Bureau of Cultural Relics, and the Institute of Cultural Relics Protection of the State Administration of Cultural Relics, etc. Under the specific guidance, the office of the 13th Mausoleum Special Zone has completed the first phase of the renovation of the Great Wall of Juyongguan, which consists of 4142 metres of Great Wall, enemy buildings, pavilions, beacons, temples, granaries, archways and libraries inside and outside Guancheng, in accordance with the principle of "effective protection, scientific management and rational utilization" since 1992. It shows the relatively complete construction facilities of Guancheng in ancient China. Since the Great Wall of Juyongguan was officially opened on March 28, 1998, it has welcomed guests from all over the world with its majestic ancient Guan posture and unique cultural connotation of the Great Wall, beautiful and magnificent natural landscape.

From August 2000 to April 2002, the office of the Ming Tombs Special Administrative Region implemented the second phase of the restoration project for the Great Wall of Juyongguan, mainly rebuilding Juyong Ancient Road and Antique Street between Yuntai and Beicheng Building, improving the parking lot, Cuiping Lake, accommodation, catering, shopping and fitness facilities. Among them, the ancient Juyongguan Road, 412 meters long and 10.3 meters wide, was paved with blue and white stone; the Great Wall Ancient Inn of Juyongguan, with a building area of 12600 square meters, was rebuilt; power facilities such as sewage treatment plant, environment-friendly water source air-conditioning, oil-fired boiler were newly built; and the original electric power equipment was reformed; at the same time, fire-equipped buildings were established and perfected. Fire fighting system of automatic danger alarm and sprinkler fire extinguishing device.

Practical information

Opening hours of scenic spots:

Off season: 8:30-16:00, peak season: 8:00-17:00

Admission ticket:

Peak season: 45 yuan for adults / 25 yuan for students / person

Off season: 40 yuan for adults / 22.5 yuan for students / person

Ticket discount:

Children under 1.2 meters are free of tickets.

2. Retired persons shall be exempted from tickets on the basis of their leave certificates.

3. Half-price discount for elderly people over 60 years old with old age card or blue preferential card.

4. Elderly people over 65 years old with household registration in this city are free of tickets with red preferential card (except during large-scale activities).

5. Half-price discount (excluding adult education and graduate students) for primary and secondary school students with valid certificates.

6. Half-price discount on certificates of persons holding social security benefits.

7. Persons with disabilities are exempted from tickets with valid certificates.

Best time to visit: May to October

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