Inkstone Platform Making Skills
Inkstone production skills, Liaoning Province Benxi City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Yinchuan City, Hebei Province Yi County, Shanxi Province Xinjiang County, Gansu Province Zhuoni County, Min County, traditional handicraft, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
As early as the Tang Dynasty, Xichao's father and son inherited Zumin's pine smoke ink making technology of the Tang Dynasty, and found "Xichao" in Jinshuiyu, Zhongnanshan, Yishui, which is now "Yiyan". In the Five Dynasties, Xi Tinggui, the son of Xi Chao, was appointed "Mohist Officer" by the Emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty and was given the surname of Li. He moved from Yizhou to Hezhong and became the founder of "Hui Mo" and "She Inkstone". Later, the technology of making inkstone in Yizhou was transferred to Zhaoqing, Guangdong Province, which led to the development of Duan Inkstone.
On June 7, 2008, inkstone production techniques were approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China and included in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list, heritage number_-133.
The production of inkstones began in the Warring States Period, flourished in the Tang and Song Dynasties, and gradually matured in the Ming Dynasty. According to historical records, Xichao's father and son in Yizhou inherited Zumin's pine smoke ink making technology, and found the inkstone in the water bath of Zhongnanjin in Yishui. From then on, Xi's father and son both made ink and inkstone. Mohist is called "easy water method". Inkstone is called "Easy Inkstone", which is the best product at that time. By the end of the Tang Dynasty, Xijia's father and son fled to Shezhou (Shexian County, Anhui Province today) and reopened, becoming the founder of "Hui Mo" and "She Mo", spreading the skills of inkstone to the south.
It was not until the reign of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty that Yishui Inkstone began to revive, which was directly related to the establishment of Qingxi Ling. Emperor Yongzheng built the imperial mausoleum in Xuanyi County, where he was buried after his death. His son Qianlong came here every year to pay a memorial service, and Yi Shui Inkstone was recommended to Qianlong by local officials. Qianlong's relentless love made local craftsmen sculpt 50 awards to close ministers and listed Yi Inkstone as a tribute, which greatly developed Yi Inkstone and improved its status in the Inkstone altar. According to Mr. Yan Jiaxian, a well-known collector of ancient inkstones in China, among the more than 200 ancient inkstones he has collected, there are five inkstones of Yi Shui, which are imperial articles of Kangxi and Qianlong periods.
The real rebirth of Yi Shuiyan was after the founding of New China. Especially since the reform and opening up, the stability of the country, economic development, cultural prosperity, coupled with the attention of governments at all levels, Yishui Inkstone Carver master emancipates the mind, pioneering and enterprising, so that the quality of Yishui Inkstone continues to improve, the output continues to increase, and the popularity of Yishui Inkstone is increasing. Ancient inkstones compose new songs.
Chengni Inkstone originated from bricks and tiles in Qin and Han Dynasties. Its firing technology was gradually improved by later generations and developed into a famous inkstone in Song Dynasty. Throughout the long history, Chengni Inkstone developed in Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, and under the influence of the change of the ruling class and cultural differences, Chengni Inkstone showed different technological characteristics in each period.
During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties
According to the handed down and unearthed data, Chengni Inkstone can be traced back to the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. There is such a record in the report of "Cultural Relics": In 1955, the tomb of Tang Dynasty at Guojiatan construction site in the eastern suburb of Xi'an unearthed a year-old Chengmu Inkstone. Now, the Capital Museum has a collection of "Tang Xijing Cheng Mud Inkstone". The inscription on it is as follows: "The Record of Luotucheng Mud Inkstone in the Southern Gate of Xijing History". These are the early Chengmu Inkstone, the most obvious feature is the ceramic texture.
The Tang Dynasty
There are many views about the origin of Chengni Inkstone in history, but it should be no later than Tang Dynasty. Liu Gongquan, a famous calligrapher in Tang Dynasty, clearly named Chengni Inkstone and Duan Inkstone, She Inkstone and Tao Inkstone as "Four Great Inkstones", which is the earliest record of Chengni Inkstone as a formal member of "Four Great Inkstones". From this we can know that as early as the Han and Tang Dynasties, Chengni Inkstone has become a popular trend. By the Tang Dynasty, the production technology of Chengmu Inkstone had developed very mature and had a certain scale.
The Song and Liao Dynasties
The Chengni Inkstone in Song Dynasty showed more and richer changes. It was simple but atmospheric. It was full of refinement from the inside to the outside. It revealed its strength in its gentleness, so it had the reputation of "Song Shape". Compared with Tang Dynasty, Chengni Inkstone in Song Dynasty has more literati flavor. Therefore, the key to distinguish Chengni Inkstone in Song Dynasty lies in this. Among them, "Cheng Nihu Fu Inkstone" and "Banana Leaf Inkstone" which are treasured in "Taipei Palace Museum" are very representative inkstone works, which are more refreshing than the Tang Dynasty's Cheng Nifu Inkstone. The production technology of Chengmu Inkstone in Song Dynasty was mature, and there were many skilled inkstone craftsmen. Lu Dao Ren of Zezhou, Shanxi Province, was one of the outstanding ones, whose production of Chengmu Inkstone had the greatest reputation. In this regard, Su Shi has such a record in "Dongpo Tieba": "Zezhou Lu Taoist mud inkstone, mostly for pot casting, the first word is Lu, not portrayed, firm can try gold. Inkstones are becoming rare when Taoists are dead. On March 7, 2005, when I came to the Huang's family in Shahu, I saw one. Huang didn't know how expensive it was at first, but took it."
The Tang Dynasty
Liu Gongquan, a great calligrapher in the Tang Dynasty, wrote in the book On Inkstone: "Qingzhou is the first place to store inkstone, followed by Jiangzhou, and the first place to store inkstone is Duan, She and Lintao." This is the first time Tao Inkstone appeared in the written records. The development of famous stone inkstones in the Tang Dynasty was relatively mature. Duan, She, Tao and Chengmu inkstones gained the reputation of "China's four famous inkstones" from this time, making the Tang Dynasty a landmark era in which stone inkstones dominated the world. Later. Tao Inkstone, Duan Inkstone and She Inkstone have gradually replaced the famous inkstones of various materials, and their status has continued to this day and can not be shaken.
- Song Dynasty
During the reign of Song Shenzong, Wang Shao was appointed as the Chief Envoy of Qinfeng Road, who led the army to recover Helong and built Guweibao as the Tongyuan Army. When the class teacher returned to the dynasty, Wang Shao chose Tao Inkstone, a local specialty, as a tribute to the imperial palace, and presented it to the great literati. It was immediately favored by many literati and ink-writers such as Su Shi, Huang Tingjian, Lu You, Zhang Yi and so on. Tao Inkstone became an exotic commodity to live in. It is no exaggeration to say that Wang Shao plays an important role in the development history of Tao Inkstone. Su Shi once wrote in the inscription on the stone inkstone of Huitao River in Lu Zhi's place: "The washing inkstone is made of gold and iron. It's hard and lustrous. Taomin County, to China. Abandon spears and swords, refer to ink. Bin Yin, Dou Nan, Dou Nan. To those who give, Huang Luzhi. Huang Tingjian's "Liu Huishu Xutaohe Greenstone Inkstone" has a cloud: "I have long heard that Minshi (or Minyou) duck head green, can grind Guixi Dragon Sword. Don't dissuade literary officials who don't know how to fight, but try to be full of frost and autumn rabbits."
The Jin Dynasty
Jin Dading began 14 years ago (22 years in Chunxi of Southern Song Dynasty, 5 years in Qianxie of Western Xia Dynasty and 1175 A.D.). Taozhou territory was governed by the eighteen tribes of Jin, Xixia and Taozhou Pan. Inter-tribal wars have been raging for years. Old Osh (now Chaozhou) is a remote area with no one to ask, and the small leaders of the local tribes have become their real masters. At this time, the war continued, trading channels were interrupted, and the mining and production of Taoyan Stone Mine were almost stagnated. Nevertheless, the love and longing of Tao Inkstone by many literati and Tibetans have never diminished.
Ming and Qing Dynasties
In the 21st year of Hongwu Ming Dynasty (1378 AD), Xiangnxiu Festival, the tribal leader of Zibao in Taozhou, bowed to the court. Li Wenzhong, the general soldier, declared to the court, and Xiangnan Xiufestival was granted to a thousand families in Taozhou. Under the leadership of Xiangnan Show Festival, the people near Laohushi began to mine and make Tao inkstones. In the early years of Zhengde in Ming Dynasty, Tusi Wangxiu entered the capital and was named "Yang Hong", after which Tao Inkstone became "Yang Jia Tao Inkstone".
The Republic of China
In the late period of the Republic of China, Tao Inkstone Carving has formed three major schools: Wang's Tao Inkstone is very famous in the local area, and the techniques of air permeability, semi-circular carving and high relief cover have been spread and basically popularized. Xu's inkstone (Xu Dengxian's father) has a vivid and vivid feeling. Bao's flowers and plants are most famous in Tao Inkstone.
Since 1983, Zhuoni County and Tao Inkstone Township have established Tao Inkstone Craft Factory successively to produce various ethnic crafts with Tao Inkstone as the main material. Driven by Tao Inkstone, the village near Rigou where Inkstone Township is located was excavated. Individual inkstone workers engaged in Tao Inkstone carving grew rapidly.
Yishui Inkstone is composed of hydrogenetic rocks of Xiyu Mountain in Taihang Mountains. Some are soft purple-gray, some are decorated with natural green or yellowish markings, and others are dark purple and green, which are overlapped with leaves. They are commonly known as "purple emerald stone" and "jade-daisy stone". The stone surface is lustrous and fine as jade, which is most suitable for inkstone making. Yishui Inkstone is exquisite in workmanship, simple in shape, elegant and generous. It has high ornamental and collection value. It is cherished by collectors and has been awarded as a national top-grade inkstone for many times. From the application point of view, this inkstone is exquisite in texture, moderate in hardness, fast in inkstone hair, no brush damage, and the ink stored in the inkstone pool is moist and not easy to evaporate. It is an ideal tool for calligraphers and painters to create.
Chengmu inkstone is characterized by its firm and lustrous quality, vigorous breath, childlike skin, varied texture, elegant color, glittering and delicate application, no damage to the pen, no drying of water, no ice, very fast ink, ink flooding. Chengni Inkstone can be divided into many varieties according to its color. Among them, "eel yellow", "mung bean sand", "rose purple" and "cinnabar red" are rare and excellent products, which are deeply loved by emperors and scholars of all dynasties.
Taohe mining belt is surrounded by water on three sides. Inkstone is nourished by moist air for a long time. The stone is firm and fine. The light green contains dark green stripes, forming natural textures such as flowing water, clouds, clear ripples and haze. Making inkstone with it, because of the wet stone, it can be made into beads. The ink is fast and fine. It gives out light and shines. It can be stored in inkstone, and its menstruation is not dry and rotten.
The process of making easy inkstone is mainly divided into seven steps: material sorting, blanking, design, sculpture, grinding, waxing and brightening.
Material selection. The stone will be picked out with a chisel tapping gently, pronunciation like copper sound is the top grade, followed by low pronunciation, pronunciation like tile is stone disease, it is not appropriate to ponder inkstone. Inkstone hardness should be moderate, the difference between section hardness and layout hardness should not be greater than one level, and the basic hardness of minerals and inkstone surface which constitute inkstone decoration should not exceed five levels. The selected stone is washed with water and enters the next process.
Billet making. Sawing and grinding are two steps. The stone after drawing line is divided into three kinds: round, square and irregular. When sawing, the cross section should be perpendicular to the inkstone surface. Inkstone platform with cover should first be shaped into round, square or conformal shape with steel file, then grind with coarse sand on the slab, then grind with grindstone powder and water, finally make it flat on all sides. Inkstone billets are made of fine veins of minerals which can not see joints and fissures or secondary fillings.
Design. Different patterns are given according to the size, quality and shape of inkstone blanks. The drawings are drawn on the inkstone blanks and carved according to the drawings.
Sculpture. Sculpture is an artistic creation, the same as calligraphy and painting. Steps are chisel, grab flat, piece light, walk thin, knife carving, round carving, shallow carving, micro-carving, hollow, Yin carving, Yin carving, Yin carving, Yin carving and soft. The patterns are well laid out and closely spaced.
Polish. After the carving is finished, inkstone surface and pattern must be polished. First grind the inkstone with fine stone, then grind it with fine sand paper. The pattern part can be sprinkled with fine grinding stone powder and polished with toothbrush, with the exception of those who need to show knife marks intentionally.
Wax. Wash the carved inkstone table and put it in the arranged big iron pot. Steam the boiling water for half an hour to about one hour. Watch the fire to make the inkstone heat permeable and take it out again, so as to make the inkstone clean and clean. Then melt beeswax or white wax in the inkstone pool, brush the whole inkstone body evenly with a brush, and then solidify the wax on the inkstone as paint when the temperature drops.
Bright light. Wrap the finger with thin linen cloth, rub or rub on the inkstone platform with good wax. The finger grasps the strength flexibly and rubs the brightness of the inkstone platform to the best effect.
Chengni inkstone in Shaanzhou is a tribute inkstone in Tang and Song dynasties, and also an important inkstone in Ming and Qing dynasties. Chengmu inkstone has a very complex process, 48 large and small processes, of which Chengmu, compacted inkstone billet, firewood kiln fire is the most important. In the forty-eight processing procedures, the first "clear mud" is very important. The clay used to make Chengmu Inkstone was taken from Huoshuoyanggou, Shaanzhou, because only the mud here is exquisite and unusual, and there are few impurities. The recovered clay blocks are exposed to the sun and wind for two or three years. The clay blocks are hammered into powder and then removed by screen.
From a handful of miscellaneous soil to a group of "tendons" of fine mud, I do not know how many times to rub and wrestle before it can be used, in the process of Chengmu inkstone processing, especially the details can not tolerate sloppy. A mass of fine mud with good texture is the basis and key of making clear mud inkstone. A piece of clay is basically shaped by repeated beatings by Mr. Wang Chi. It looks smooth, delicate and sticky from the outside. Real good mud, delicate texture, such as baby skin as smooth and oily, made inkstone, water storage is not dry, cold is not ice, luster moisturizing, ink without loss. Only when such clay is fired into products, can it be seen as beautiful jade and hit like a bell.
The production of Chengmu Inkstone can be divided into manual kneading and mould forming. As far as moulding is concerned, according to the size of the finished product to be processed, steel wire is used to cut the needed mud on the square mud block.
The slime cut by steel wire is placed on the board, and is repeatedly rolled with a smooth stick. The slime is rolled into a slime cake. When the thickness of the slime cake reaches the required requirement, it can stop.
Put the mud cake with uniform thickness into the mould and press the mud cake with both hands to make it fully contact with the mould without any gap.
The mould that has just compacted the inkstone blank is buckled on the board, and the unnecessary part is removed at the bottom with steel wire.
After cutting the redundant part of the steel wire, press repeatedly with hands to ensure uniformity of force, so that the inkstone blank inside smooth and delicate without cracks. This step seems simple, but it is an important part of the three most important links. If the press between the inkstone blank and the die is not real and there are gaps, the sintered inkstone platform has many cracks or rough appearance into waste products.
After compaction, the formed inkstone billet should be slowly removed from the die by hand. This process requires patience and no excessive force. From the process of extracting the inkstone blank from the mould, we can see the importance of the initial beating and rubbing of the mud. If the mud is too soft, the inkstone blank can not be taken out. If the mud is too hard, the inkstone blank can easily be broken.
Inkstone billet taken from the mould should be put in a cool place to dry in shade. When inkstone billet is half-dry, it should be cut and trimmed around the bottom of inkstone billet with sharp knife to ensure the perfection of the process. Generally, the smaller inkstone billets need to be shaded and dried for half a month, and the larger inkstone embryos even need a month of shade-dried time. During the shade-dried period, the sun should never be exposed to the sun.
After finishing and drying, the inkstone billet is put in the sunshine for a little drying, and then put into the firewood kiln. It can be baked for seven or eight days before it can be out of the kiln. The color of Chengmu Inkstone changed from kiln to kiln. The ancients regarded black as the most beautiful. They often called it "choking kiln", which means fumigation and blackness. The burning process of black Chengmu Inkstone is particularly complicated. The temperature of the firewood kiln is generally controlled at about 1000 degrees. The color of the kiln varies with the temperature. The common colors of Shanzhou Chengmu Inkstone are cinnabar red, eel yellow, mung bean sand and sandalwood. In the firing process of Chengmu Inkstone, the control of fire is the most important, among which cinnabar red and eel yellow are the most precious.
The last technological process of Shanzhou Chengni Inkstone is Qinwax. The wax used here is not the wax common in our life, but the wax on honey. One of the functions of Qinwax is to make the inkstone surface shiny and aesthetic, and the other is to make the inkstone less permeable, so as to make ink without damaging it. Chengni Inkstone is unique in shape. Its styles include "Jinchan Inkstone", "Fu Hu Inkstone", "lying Niu Inkstone", "Lotus Leaf Inkstone" and so on. Chengni Inkstone is one of the four famous inkstones in history. It is as famous as Duan Inkstone, Xin Inkstone and Tao Inkstone. It is listed as a tribute by the imperial palace. It is the only inkstone platform made from mud.
Tao inkstone production process is more complex, the main procedures are quarrying, material selection, design, dimension, pulp making, sculpture, cover matching, polishing and so on.
1 Adoption. Mining inkstone is an important link in Tao inkstone production. Inkstone is different from pit, good or bad, old pit quality inkstone, plus inkstone production is higher than production, can produce high-quality products and treasures. Tao Inkstone is precious or not, the most basic condition is the inkstone, so it is the most important to adopt this process. Tao Inkstone pit has been manually mined since ancient times. It has a strong labor intensity. Therefore, there are "ten days quarrying nine days in the sky, one day can make up for nine days in the sky", "one kilogram of Tao stone is worth dry gold". The tools used by quarrymen should be adapted to local conditions. According to the composition and thickness of Tao Inkstone, they are chiseled mainly and divided into pointed chisels and flat chisels. These cutters vary in length, size and thickness, but each masonry worker must have thirty or forty pieces. After working every day, he has to repair and sharpen the sharpening tools. The so-called "if he wants to be good at his work, he must first sharpen his tools" is also true.
2-D material, also known as material selection. The mined inkstones are not all inkstone materials, which can be classified after screening. Particularly good, the pure and flawless is the first grade, the slightly inferior is the first grade, and the second grade is the second grade. The flawed, cracked or rotten stones, stone skin and all of them will be removed. The remaining is "stone meat", which can predict the direction of the stone pattern and cut out the large shape of the inkstone, such as natural shape, egg shape, rectangle, square, circle and golden bell. Form, Lanting style, Taishi style and so on. Chiselers must also know how to look at stones, because the best place for inkstone is reserved for Motang. The quality of Tao inkstone on one side is evaluated by the inkstone of Motang, and the pattern of inkstone is stored in the part of Motang.
3 Design. Tao inkstone design is an extremely important process in Tao inkstone production. In order to make a natural and simple inkstone a fine work, we need to seriously conceive. We should not only consider the theme, but also retain the inkstone pool. If we design it properly, it will add more flowers to the brocade. If we design it improperly, it will add to the snake, or even make it clumsy. Therefore, the carving artist should chisel the inkstone according to its aptitude, because of the stone composition.
4 Sculpture. What carving techniques and knives Tao Inkstone adopts depends on the subject matter, inkstone shape and inkstone style. If we want to show vigorous and bold, we should mainly adopt deep-knife carving, properly insert shallow-knife carving and meticulous carving; if we want to express delicate and simple, delicate and implicit, we should mainly use shallow-knife carving, line carving and meticulous carving. In a word, fine engraving and line engraving belong to the "fine" part of "exquisite craftsmanship". Fine engraving requires fine, accurate and vivid engraving. Line engraving should be delicate, tactful, smooth, complex but not disorderly, and simple and appropriate.
Cover 5. Tao Inkstone is traditionally made with a hollow cover, which is matched with the same color inkstone cover, so that the stored ink will not emit and maintain long-term use.
6 polishing. The process of inkstone polishing is usually finished by carving. Firstly, it is roughly polished with oil stone and Youhe sand. The purpose is to grind the chisel and knife path. Then it is polished repeatedly with talc and young sandpaper, preferably 1000 mesh sandpaper, so as to make the inkstone feel smooth. Finally, it is "soaked rubble" and rubbed dry afterwards. The quality of inkstone polishing is directly reflected. The quality and application effect of Xiangyinkstone.
Inheritance and Protection
Yishui Inkstone is exquisite in workmanship, simple in shape, elegant and generous. It has high ornamental and collection value. It is cherished by collectors and has been awarded as a national top-grade inkstone for many times. From the application point of view, this inkstone is exquisite in texture, moderate in hardness, fast in inkstone hair, no brush damage, and the ink stored in the inkstone pool is moist and not easy to evaporate. It is an ideal tool for calligraphers and painters to create. Tao Inkstone is manufactured by hand. Its production process includes roughly a dozen processes, such as material selection, blanking, air permeability, fine carving and polishing. The sculpture is mainly through carving and relief, supplemented by line carving, round carving and other techniques. The pattern is elegant, beautiful and generous. Tao Inkstone has rich cultural connotation and strong local characteristics, and its value of art collection is very high.
Current situation of inheritance
Due to historical reasons, the production techniques of Chengmu Inkstone in Jiangzhou were basically lost until the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty. In order to salvage this precious national cultural heritage, the descendants of Linxiangru, Linyongmao and Lintao, collected data from various sources, studied, experimented repeatedly and refined painstakingly. Finally, the production of Chengmu Inkstone was restored and the treasures of this country were rejuvenated. The newly restored production technology of Chengmu Inkstone is still in the developing stage, and it is in urgent need of government support and help.
Yan Lin, male, Han nationality, born in Yinchuan, Ningxia in November 1952. In December 2012, Intermediate Forest was selected as the representative successor of the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects, which was declared by Yinchuan City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.
Zou Hongli, male, Han nationality, born in December 1966 in Yixian County, Hebei Province. In June 2009, Zou Hongli was selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Yixian County, Hebei Province.
Lin Yongmao, male, Han nationality, born in November 1940, is a native of Xinjiang County, Shanxi Province. In June 2009, Lin Yongmao was selected as the representative heir of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Xinjiang County, Shanxi Province.
On December 27, 2016, in order to strengthen the overall planning and guidance of the four treasures industry of the study and promote the inheritance and development of the four treasures industry of the study, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China, in accordance with the Regulations and Regulations of the State Council on Promoting the Integration and Development of Cultural Creativity and Design Services and Related Industries (Guofa 10). Guidance on promoting the development of the four treasures industry in the study was given.
In October 2002, following the Documentary Exhibition "Centennial Olympic Games Chinese Dream" commemorating the first anniversary of Beijing's successful bid for the Olympic Games, the Hemei Museum displayed the ancient inkstone platform in the exhibition hall on the fourth floor of the main exhibition building. The exhibition of ancient inkstones has the following characteristics: first, since the Han Dynasty, the inkstones of all dynasties are complete; second, the materials are various, such as pottery inkstone, porcelain inkstone, clay inkstone, stone inkstone, brick inkstone, tile inkstone, etc. Third, there are many kinds of inkstones, such as piyong inkstone, hand-copying inkstone, water-heating inkstone, Carbon-heating inkstone, dustpan inkstone and so on.
On July 17, 2015, the Shanghai Museum ushered in its first exhibition with inkstone as its theme. There were 96 collections of fine inkstones, including inscriptions of literati in Ming and Qing Dynasties, records of inkstones and inkstones made by Chen Duanyou, a great artist in modern times. The exhibition lasted from July 17. By October 7.
On the one hand, the old inkstone platform has the beauty of appreciation of both natural and artificial sculpture, condenses the humanistic spirit and the splendor of ancient allusions, and contains the historical light of traditional handicraft culture. On Nov. 1, 2016, the exhibition "Yanyun Provision and Lao Yantai Exhibition" sponsored by Jinbaozhai and Anhui Heritage Store attracted the attention of many citizens in Taiyuan, the provincial capital.