Huang Daopo (1245 - 1330), also known as Huang Po , Yellow mother , Songjiang prefecture Wu Najing town (now Xuhui District, Shanghai) Huajing town People, famous at the end of Song Dynasty and early Yuan Dynasty Cotton spinning Home technology reformer Because of the promotion of textile technology and textile tools, it is respected by the people. In Qing Dynasty, he was regarded as the ancestor of cloth industry.
Huang Daopo was born poor, and the boy was oppressed by the feudal family in Hainan Island. Taoist Temple For home, labor, learn to use cotton making tools and weave state quilt method.
Huang Daopo was born poor, and the boy was oppressed by the feudal family. He lived in the cliff state (now Hainan Island). He used Taoism as his home and worked and lived in the Li nationality sisters. He learned how to use the cotton making tools and the method of weaving the cliff state.
Yuan Zhen (from 1295 to 1296) returned to his native place to teach cotton making in the town of Wu Jing Jing, east of Songjiang, to teach and popularize weaving techniques such as "defending (stirring cars, rolling cotton mills), projectiles (cotton spinning bows), spinning (spinning machines), weaving (looms)" and "matching yarn with wrong yarns". The quilt belt she knitted, "on the top of the branch, the words of the chess game, if it is written". Because of Wu Hejing and Songjiang People in the area quickly grasped the advanced weaving technology. At that time Taicang Shanghai and other counties are imitated. Cotton textile has many colors and presents an unprecedented grand occasion. After Huang Daopo's death, Songjiang prefecture It has become the largest cotton textile center in the country. Songjiang cloth There is " Clothes and quilts A good name.
1330 pawn. Songjiang The people thought of her kindness, and in the two year (1336) of Shun emperor to yuan, she set up a shrine for her. After the war, the shrine was destroyed. Twenty-two years (1362), villagers Zhang Zhong Zhong Rebuild and invite Wang Feng Poetry commemoration.
Then Tianqi Emperor Apocalyptic six years (1626). Zhang Zhi Xiang It is like Ningguo temple. During the Qing Jiaqing year, there was a small temple in the northwest lane of the crossing of Crane Tower in Shanghai. Tomb of Huang Dao Po stay Shanghai County Huajing town North Tung Wan Village The stone tablets were rebuilt in 1957. Shanghai Southern urban area Once there was the first cotton temple, and the Huang Dao Po Zen house was built. There is clear in Shanghai Yu Yuan. Xianfeng Huang Daopo served as the ancestor of the cloth industry hall. In the hometown of Huang Di Po, Wu Najing and Shanghai, there are still praises: Huang Po Po, Huang Po Po, taught me yarn, taught me cloth, two pieces of two pieces of cloth ballads.
Paul Mauriat's History
Huang Daopo was sold to be a child bride when he was 12 years old. In the daytime she went down to the ground. work ,
In the evening, she went to textile cloth. late at night It also suffers from the inhuman abuse of parents in law. Heavy suffering devastated her, and also trained her. Once, Huang Daopo was beaten by his wife in law and her husband. woodshed No eating, no food. Sleep? She could no longer endure such inhuman torture, determined to escape and find another way out. In the middle of the night, she got out of the roof and escaped, hiding in a sea boat anchored by the Huangpu River. Then he arrived with the boat. Hainan Island Southern tip Ya Zhou That is now Hainan Ya county. In feudal society, a young woman who had never traveled far away was left alone in a strange land. however Simplicity Enthusiastic Li Nationality The compatriots sympathized with the misfortune of Huang Dao Po and accepted her. She gave her shelter and taught her textile technology in the common labor life.
At that time Li people made Li Dan, Li decoration and saddle towers famous inside and outside. Huang Daopo was intelligent and diligent. Modest mind Learning textile technology, and integrating the advantages of textile technology of the two people of Li and Han, Zhejiang Province has become an excellent textile expert, and has been very popular in the region and has established a deep friendship with the Li people. stay Li Nationality The area has lived for nearly thirty years. But Huang Daopo always missed his hometown.
Yuan Zhen in the Yuan Dynasty, about 1295, she came from Ya Zhou Back to my hometown, I returned to Wu Najing. Huang Po Po returns Hometown Cotton planting has been widely popularized in the Yangtze River Basin, but textile technology is still lagging behind. After she came back, she devoted herself to reforming the backward cotton textile production tools in her hometown. According to her decades of rich textile experience, she unreservedly passed on her exquisite weaving skills to her native people. Teach one side
Native women's Association Li Nationality On the other hand, the cotton textile technology has begun to reform a set of tools for catching, spinning, spinning and weaving: seed stirring, cotton spinning, and three spindles. Although she died a few years after returning home, her hard work promoted the rapid development of the local cotton textile industry.
In the spinning process, Huang Po Po has also created a new style. Spinning wheel At that time, Songjiang area used all the old single spindle hand-operated spinning wheel, the effect was very low, it was necessary for three or four people to spin to provide one. Loom Needs. Huang Daopo and woodworking division together, after repeated tests, the spinning spun spinning wheel for spinning linen was changed to three spindles cotton spinning machine, so that the spinning efficiency increased two or three times at a time, and the operation was also very labor-saving. Therefore, this new spinning wheel is easy to be accepted by everyone, and it will soon be popularized in Songjiang area.
In addition to making important contributions to the reform of cotton spinning tools, Huang Daopo Li Nationality The weaving technology learned by the people, combined with their own practical experience, summed up a set of advanced weaving technology, such as "wrong yarn, color matching, heald line, flower" and so on. Therefore, at that time, the cotton fabrics produced by Wu Jing Jing were quilt, mattress, ribbon and cotton fabric, with beautiful designs such as sticks, regiment Phoenix, chess board and words. For a while, "Wu Jing Jing" was spreading like wildfire, near Shanghai. Taicang Compete and emulate. These textiles are popular everywhere, and soon the Songjiang area has become the national cotton textile industry center. In the early sixteenth Century, there were tens of thousands of cloth woven by local farmers. In eighteenth Century and nineteenth Century, Songjiang cloth was exported to Europe and the United States and gained a high reputation. At that time, the so-called "Songjiang cloth" was "dressed by the world". This great achievement, of course, embodies Huang Daopo's great efforts.
Shanghai County port town of hi Thai Road West, there is a three two incoming. Huang Mu Temple Its second
In the middle of the room, there was a statue of a rural woman with cotton in her hand and a cloth napkin on her head. The figure is wrinkled before the forehead, and its face is kind and determined. It shows the old age of Huang Daopo, who has been honored, and shows her kindness and strong character. It makes people look very kindly and respect.
About five years in the Southern Song Dynasty, Chun Po was born in a poor family in Shanghai, Xuhui District. At that time, it was the replacement of song and Yuan Dynasties and the turmoil of war. The Mongolia army is pointing at the enemy. Ling'an In the Southern Song Dynasty where the mountains and rivers were broken, the kings and ministers were corrupt. They betrayed the national interests. The rich and the rich were all dressed up in gold and jade, and they still ate their brains in a big way. However, the laboring people in the south, including the family of the Yellow Emperor, were not only squeezed by the Han landlord class, but also subjected to the Mongolia aristocratic iron hoof. Ravaged The threat has also been attacked by natural disasters for years. Jiangnan area It turned out to be a downfall of "a broken temple, ten empty rooms".
However, in the blood and fire of soldiers and bandits, the labor people who inherited their ancestors' industrious courage and glorious tradition are still planting cucumbers and sowing seeds. Sangzhi Cotton, men's ploughing and weaving, constantly create social wealth and develop social production. In such a mass soil, Huang Daopo sprouted, rooted and grew up.
Before and after Huang Daopo's birth, her hometown came from cotton planting in Fujian and Guangdong provinces. In the first place called "eight thousand Mu", Wu Hejing first sowed cotton seeds. By the time Mrs. Huang wrote the story, cotton cultivation has been popularized in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Hunan and many other places, and many women learned cotton textile technology. Because of the difficult world and poor family, Huang Daopo lost all his flesh and blood relatives when he was very young. Chop wood, cook, wash, rinse and rinse. Take the thread of the needle and make up for it. Everything is her own rush. She is ingenious and clever, so she can learn to ask questions well, and is willing to use her brains and be good at pondering. When she looks at it, she can draw inferences about it and quickly access the road. Local people often wear cotton clothes and weeding ploughing fields. The women who spin their neighbours have told Huang Daopo that the cotton cloth is thick, soft, durable and works well. Huang Daopo always listened with great attention and lost his mind. Then he would learn from spinning cotton grown-ups. At first, she would not dry, slash her cotton wool, and play it in an unclean manner; the sliver would be unevenly tighten, and the spun cotton yarn would be spun out in a thick and thin section as if the snake had eaten the egg. However, she was not discouraged, persisted in her exercises, and tried to learn how to operate.
However, in that particular year, the adult laborers could not afford to have enough food and clothing. Life forced her to be a child bride in a field.
From now on, she has been waiting for the whole family to eat and drink for a long time, and she has been working with the cattle and horses in the four seasons. Although she is very young, she has rich experience in labour. Her rich experience made her smarter. Every day she was exhausted from her family life, and she still pushed herself to continue her textile practice. It was not long before she had mastered all the operations: cotton seed stripping, Minte Leigh Alfonso, cotton wool, fluffy and clean, cotton sliver, elastic, cotton yarn, thin and hurried, and cotton knitted fabric with straight edges. In her life, she did not enjoy the love, did not get warm, bitter tears, and buried her lively childhood too early. Only this cotton spinning labor gave her great relief. Whenever she saw the cotton claw like cotton and snow like cotton in the cotton field, she felt an indescribable pleasure whenever she sat in the cotton spinning scroll of "spinning the light to the autumn and spinning the snow, bending the half moon and playing the clouds".
Cotton can be spun and cloth will be knitted. The yellow lady, who is so eager to learn, has discovered the problem: cotton seeds are stripped one by one with one finger, which is too slow; and the small bow with cotton wool can only be longer than a foot or a half, or string, and must be stirred with fingers. The bow is small, there is no strength, the string is easy to break, and the string string is easily broken. She often wondered: could there be any new way to improve work efficiency?
An early morning in the four years of the Southern Song Dynasty (AD 1263), a merchant ship along the Huangpu River.
Ready to anchor and go out to sea. Suddenly, a dirty young woman on the bottom of the cabin knelt before the owner and begged to bring her to Fujian Hainan.
It turned out that this is the eighteen year old Huang Po Po. Over the years, she has had an indissoluble bond with the cotton textile industry. Her hands were tied to cotton yarn, and her heart was woven into cotton cloth. One day, she saw cotton cloth from Fujian and Guangzhou, with beautiful color and close texture. Hainan Island Of Li Nationality , Yunnan Plateau The "Yi Ji Bei" produced by the Yi people and the white and delicate "slow Jimmy", narrow and sparse, and dark and thick "coarse Jimmy" can not help but feel fascinated by those areas.
There had already been such a ambition to travel to the south, and the bad situation had pushed her to speed up. Her hometown, Wu mud trail, was a key area in the Southern Song Dynasty ruling group. Two West Zhejiang Road Territoriality. In the past few years, many people have been very poor, and they have thrown away their businesses, wandering around the world, finding other places to live. Huang Daopo's husband's family did not go bankrupt, but she could not continue to live. Even though she was more diligent than bees, she was more likely to be beaten than sworn. On the day before the boat, Huang Daopo was at home, and when the sun was shining, he went down to the ground and went home after the sun went down. The fiercely public servant did not ask questions, but was abused. The yellow lady struggled to get up and resolved a few words. She was dragged out of bed to poison her husband. Not only did she not dissuade her husband, but she whip up a stick to help her. After that, she locked her in the wood room and refused to let her eat or sleep. The lofty ambition of Huang Po Po was extremely painful, and no longer tolerating the torture of this feudal prison, determined to break away from feudal ritual shackles and leave the dark family. She knows. Yangtze River Without her way of life, the bank decided to abandon the countryside and visit advanced textile technology to achieve her long cherished wish. In the middle of the night, she dug through the four room roof and fled to the Huangpu River to hide into the merchant's cabin.
The old ship owner listened to Huang Dao Po's desire to visit her art, cried out the pain and sufferings, and watched her tattered and tattered shirt with blood and tears. She couldn't help but respect and sympathize, and nodded her promise. So Huang Daopo went up to the bow and looked at the dirt path, weeping goodbye to his dear birthplace and sailing south. At that time, the transportation was primitive, the navigation technology was poor, and the yellow lady did not avoid the risk. She suffered from bumpy hunger and cold, and rushed through the stormy waves. Ya Zhou She saw the local cotton textile industry really flourishing and thanked the boatman for falling in Hainan.
The kapok and textile technology of Ya Zhou are strongly attracted to Huang Daopo. Li Nationality The people welcomed her and entertained her warmly. She has formed a deep friendship with these class brothers and sisters. "She also fell in love with the mountains and broad-leaved forests here. Picked up the famous Li curtain, saddle, flower, and unadorned cloth, and looked at the bright and bright Li Dan and colorful coloured ornaments. Huang Daopo could not help but admire them. In order to master Li Jia's skills at an early date, she painstakingly learned the language of Li nationality, listened to her ears, remembered her heart, and practiced herself in her mouth. She tried to blend in with the Li people, and worshiped them as teachers. She studied Li's cotton spinning tools, studied spinning and weaving technology, forgot all about food and time, and fought against time and time, as if she was fascinated and addicted. Every time she learned a working procedure and used a tool, her heart seemed to blossom and eat honey. The brilliant flower of friendship has yielded rich fruits of technology. Li Nationality The people not only took care of Huang Daopo in life, but also imparted their skills to her without reservation. Clever Huang Daopo devoted all his energies to the cause of cotton weaving, and with such selfless help, he soon became familiar with all the weaving tools of Li family, and learned their advanced technology. Despite the brain drain, the labour cost of Huang Daopo's head was exhausted. Green silk With all the white hair, the deep and dense wrinkles were carved on her rich face, but she was still vigorous, deep drilling, diligent, persevering, and painstaking practice. In the past thirty years, she became a skilled cotton knit family.
Time is like weaving fast, in the twinkling of an eye, to the end of thirteenth Century. Mongolia conquerors early
The whole Southern Song Dynasty has been destroyed for more than 20 years. In order to alleviate the resistance of the people of all nationalities, the rulers of the Yuan Dynasty slowly changed the slaughtering and looting policy they had done before, and implemented some measures to restore and develop production, and the economy of the south of the Yangtze River began to improve. Huang Daopo spent years in the areas where ethnic minorities were inhabited by the rule of law in the Yuan Dynasty. After hearing of the stability and vitality of the native place, I can not help thinking of the backward situation of the cotton weaving industry, and revived the original ambition of changing the technical aspect of Jiangnan, and raised an uncontrollable homesickness. She spoke to her fellow countrymen in Hainan. Li Nationality The sisters could not bear to leave her, but they understood her and had to support her in a mood of parting.
One day in 1295, Huang Daopo reluctantly left his second hometown and left the beautiful boat. Ya Zhou To return to her shore for more than thirty years. After the war of dynastic change, Huang's wife and husband had already died. She had no intention of hanging on to the good wishes of the people, regardless of her physical strength and loneliness. The villagers kindly welcomed her to return home with all her heart. Eager to tell the villagers about the fine cotton making techniques of Li nationality, women gathered around her all the time. She gave her lessons from Hainan. At the same time, we combine the advanced experience of Li family with Shanghai's production practice, and strive to give full play to our talent and wisdom, and actively invent and create. The cotton textile tools and technologies have been comprehensively reformed. New tools such as rolling, spinning, spinning and weaving have been made to refresh the old appearance of Shanghai's cotton spinning industry. The first step is to reform the seed production process. She first inquired about how her hometown had gone to seed cotton in recent years, and the women told her with anguish that they should peel them one by one. Huang Daopo said, from now on, let's switch to the new seed rolling method. We taught everyone to hold a smooth little iron bar, put the seed cotton on the hard and flat pounding stones, and rolled the cotton seeds with iron rods. After the experiment, the women shouted happily: "you can roll out five or six or seven or eight seeds at once, no more finger counts!"
Huang Daopo was happy and pleased to see everyone, but he was not satisfied. She felt that it was still harder to roll her hand on the iron bar, and she continued to search for new ways. Suddenly, she thought of it. Li Nationality The principle of bicycle is very bright. I will discuss this principle with my partner and make cotton gin. Finally, four wooden boards were used to form wooden frames, with two wooden columns above them, with a stigma embedded under a square wood, and two rows of wooden iron with crank in the middle of the column. Huang Daopo and two sisters, one to feed the seed cotton between the two axes of iron wood, two people shake the crank, as a result, the cotton seeds quickly divide the two axes inside and outside the two sides. "It's great, save energy and work!" The women gathered around the new mixer, and the Xiangshan finches were glad to celebrate their success.
At the same time, Huang Daopo changed his bow from one foot to a half for four years.
How long is the bow string changed from string to string, turning finger string into rod string. This strong powerful bow, the cotton popping up, earned a clear rhythm, as if a pleasant labor song was heard, and the cotton was loose, hurried, fast and clean. Next, in the spinning process, Huang Daopo created three spindles. Spinning wheel Instead of the past single spindle handwheel. The strength of the pedal is great, and it is also a great technological revolution in the world to spin off three cotton yarns, speed and output. On the weaving process, Huang Daopo also made some reforms to the loom. She learned from traditional silk weaving technology in China. Li Nationality People weave " Ya Zhou By virtue of the advantages, he studied with the villagers about the cotton weaving technology, such as yarn matching, yarn harness, flower weaving, quilt, mattress, belt, and towel. The Yuan Dynasty poets enthusiastically praised them:
The cloth of the cliff state is reeled in five colors, and mist and clouds are covered with flowers.
A piece of whale and a draught.
After Huang Daopo returned home for a few years, Songjiang , Taicang And Suzhou and Hangzhou, and so on, all of them used her new law, so that there was a flourishing reputation of "loose county cotton cloth, clothes and quilts". The cotton making industry is thriving, and even more than 1000 residents living near the mud path earn more water than they did in the past. Huang Daopo's hard study and hard work throughout his life strongly influenced and promoted the development of cotton textile industry in China. Her achievements are shining brilliantly in the history of textile industry in China. The people loved her and adored her. When she died, everyone was saddened with grief and donated money to bury her in Cao Xing Township, Shanghai county. The masses of Shanghai had continuously set up ancestral temples for her. Among them, a large scale first cotton temple, every April, the birth of Huang Po Po, came to the sacrifice. For many years, people have been thinking about Huang Daopo's ballads. Huang Po Po, Huang mother-in-law, taught me yarn, taught me cloth, two bobbins two cloth.
Huang Daopo, a pioneer of China's cotton textile industry, was an outstanding textile technology innovator in thirteenth Century.
She has the spirit of innovation and courage. She brought back cotton textile technology learnt in Hainan to her hometown in Shanghai. Songjiang Promotion and dissemination. And through reform, we have created a set of advanced cotton spinning tools and textile technology, which not only benefits our country but also promotes our cotton spinning industry. In order to carry forward the great achievements and inspiring successors of the textile innovator Huang Daopo in the Yuan Dynasty, the people's Government of the Xuhui District Cultural Bureau and the waking town jointly invested in the cemetery in 2003. Huang Daopo Memorial Hall More than 300 exhibits were displayed, showing her contributions in her life.
After liberation, the party and the people's government organized manpower to rebuild the tomb monument for Huang Dao Po, and planted the pine and cypress. Huang Daopo's spirit of struggle will always inspire people to climb to the heights of science.
Derivative folk songs
Qing Dynasty people Qin Rong Guang A bamboo branch poem chanting Huang Daopo: Wu Ni Jing Temple Huang Po ,
There are more than three forests.
Food and clothing are my mother.
Thousand autumn play String song
Folk songs also extolled Huang Daopo's Folk Songs:
Teach me yarn.
Teach me cloth.
Two bobbins and two pieces of cloth.
The mystery of learning technology
Liang Min, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, thinks that Huang Daopo, a cotton textile artist, is learning textile skills from Lingao people rather than Li people. After many field visits, Liang Min found that Li's "looms" were very crude, and only a few tapeplates and pieces of wood and bamboo sticks were very difficult to call "textile machines". This is very difficult to reconcile with the story of Huang Dao Po's return to Songjiang's Wu Ni Jing Town (now Longhua town of Shanghai), the story of local women's teaching of yarn technology, such as yarn faults, color matching, heald lines and flowers. Second, as early as the emperor of Han Dynasty, the ancestors of the high men had woven tribute and wide cloth, and were deeply appreciated by the Han Emperor. From Han to song and Yuan Dynasties, Lingao textile technology should be higher. Third, the local chronicles have taken the mistake of being a real Li people, and mistakenly assumed that Hainan Island was not only Han, but also Li people. In addition, it is considered that there is no evidence to support the fact that Huang is learning textile technology from Minnan people. Minnan people brought about business civilization rather than textile technology. At the end of the Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, Quanzhou once replaced Guangzhou as China's maritime trade center. The expansion of marine commerce forced Minnan people to come to Hainan to find a way out. As for textile technology, it is not a long term term. Until the two dynasties in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Southern Fujian still imported cotton cloth mainly from Songjiang. The Lingao language group weaving the Han Dynasty wide cloth woven with cotton thread and the plaques of the Tang Dynasty, came from the same strain with the Song Dynasty's so-called "exquisite work", "ancient so-called white cloth" and Su Dongpo's "Ji Bei bu". The superb textile skills are related to the advanced weaving and dyeing techniques of Lok Yue people and the earliest spread of cotton to Hainan. Cotton appeared in the India River Basin four thousand or five thousand years ago, and there are three main ways of spreading to China: from India to South Island, then to Fujian, Guangdong and Sichuan, when it was in Qin and Han Dynasties; after Burma into Yunnan, also in Qin and Han Dynasties, it seemed to be a little later than Hainan; via Western Asia into Xinjiang and Hexi Corridor, it was in the northern and Southern Dynasties. It was the Lingao language group who first benefited when they were introduced to Hainan.
In November 20, 1980, China issued J58 ancient Chinese scientists.
(third groups), four stamps, fourth are Huang Daopo.
There is a kind of ignorance and contempt for science and technology in feudal history, and a stubborn prejudice against the lower working people. Therefore, there is no record of history in Huang Daopo's great textile innovator and his outstanding contributions. This is a universal regret of the history of our country. But the people are fair. " Huang Po Po, Huang mother-in-law, teach me yarn, teach me cloth, two pieces of two cloth. This is a song from generation to generation handed down by the working people in Shanghai. This song praises people's gratitude for Huang Daopo's outstanding contribution to China's cotton textile technology. Huang Daopo's great contribution to cotton textile technology has won the deep love and eternal memory of the local laboring people.
After Huang Daopo's death, a solemn public burial was held. Wu Najing town The ancestral hall for her is called the first cotton temple. In many other places, ancestral halls were built for her. Huang Mu Temple It expresses the gratitude and remembrance of the broad masses of working people to the pioneers of the cotton textile industry. After liberation, the people of Shanghai commemorated this outstanding working woman. After the founding of new China, the Jiangsu provincial cultural relics administration committee rebuilt Huang Daopo's tomb, planted trees and built a cemetery. Beijing's National Museum also displays her statues and Songjiang cloth for future generations. Huang Daopo is an outstanding example of the diligent, intelligent, loving and selfless working women in ancient China. Her name and achievements will always remain in the memory of the vast majority of the people.