Hua Tuo (about 145 ad - 208 AD), the character is changed into one. Pei country Qiao County People, Eastern Han Dynasty The famous medical scientist at the end of the year.
Hua Tuo and Dong Feng , Zhang Zhongjing Also known as " Three doctors of Jianan " Once in a while Study tour The practice of medicine is all over. Anhui , Henan , Shandong , Jiangsu And so on, studying medicine instead of official career. He has comprehensive medical skills, especially in surgery, and is skilled in surgery. And proficient in internal, gynecology, pediatrics, acupuncture and moxibustion. In old age Cao Cao Suspicion Imprison Be tortured to death.
Hua Tuo was called the surgeon's saint by later generations. "Surgical ancestor". Used by future generations Dr. Hua Tuo He called him "doctor Hua Tuo" and "Yuan Hua Sheng".
Paul Mauriat's History
Hua Tuo, character, Pei Guo Qiao (now Anhui province) Bozhou City People. According to textual research, he was born in the first year of Han Yongjia (AD 145) and died in Jianan thirteen years (208 AD). Famous medical scientists from three countries. When he was young, he studied abroad, studied medicine instead of official career, and traveled extensively in Anhui, Shandong, Henan and Jiangsu. Hua Tuo has been famous for his medical practice all his life, and has achieved many achievements in medicine. He is proficient in various subjects, including internal, external, wife, child and acupuncture. Later, the medical books were lost because he refused to be killed by Cao Cao. Today, there are relics such as "Hua Tuo's house" in Bozhou.
Practice of Medicine
In Hua Tuo's medical practice for many years, he is very good at differentiating different diseases and viscera diseases, and symptomatic treatment. One day, two officers and soldiers were suffering from fever and headache. Their symptoms were the same. But Hua Tuo's prescriptions were very different. One was sweating medicine, the other was diarrhea, but the two were quite surprised, but they recovered after taking medicine. After Hua Tuo's diagnosis, he was known to have a superficial syndrome and could be solved by sweating.
Mr. Hua, a government official, has a headache and a fever. Treating Li Yan's headache and body heat, the sweat is in fact. Cover up outside the real taboo, inside the real under the secret. In the same way, when the inside is in fact, the damp fire is rushing upward. The truth is that the water in the mountains is left behind. They suffer from headaches and body heat, while those who have different methods of treatment have the same sense of truth. I have tried many times, and the results have been effective.
There was also a post of "xunton". After seeing the doctor, he had recovered from his illness, but Hua Tuo warned him, "although the king's disease is more, it will not recover, but when it is completely restored to health, it must be avoided. At that time, his wife realized that her husband had recovered from his illness and came to see him from a hundred miles away. On that night, some of them failed to take care of the house, and died three days later. Another patient, Xu, was lying in bed because of illness. Hua Tuo went to investigate.
According to Xu, "since yesterday, after asking for acupuncture, the stomach has been coughing." After Hua Tuo examined, he said, "if it is wrong, if the needle is not in the stomach tube, it will be mistaken for the liver. If there is less food in the future, it will be unpredictable after five days." The consequences are as follows.
Hua Tuo used to replace Guangling Prefect Chen Deng The treatment of the disease, when Chen Deng was red and red, was irritable, and subordinates said Hua Tuo was in this place. Later, he sent for Hua Tuo to be treated for him. Hua Tuo first asked him to prepare more than a dozen washbasins, and then he made a diagnosis and treatment for him. Chen Deng threw out dozens of red headed insects and prescribed medicine for him, saying that Chen Deng was the disease that he had eaten. He told him that the disease would relapse after three years. When he was asked to take this medicine again, the disease could be cured. Chen Deng At the age of 36, Chen Deng eventually recovered after three years, and sent for an address. But Hua Tuo's drug boy told Chen Deng's messenger that Hua Tuo had not come back to the mountain and did not know when he would be back, and that Chen Deng died. (see " Romance of the Three Kingdoms Chen Deng Chuan "
stay Zhou Tai Hua Tuo was healed when he was seriously injured, so when someone later recommended Cao Cao to Hua Tuo, he said, "Jiang Dong's medicine is Zhou Taizhe?"
It took Hua Tuo three years to spread jaundice. Capillaris The efficacy of Artemisia annua has been repeatedly tested and decided to use spring March. Artemisia capillaris Many young patients have been treated by young leaves. A folk song has thus been circulated: "March. Capillaris In April, Artemisia was handed down in later generations. In March, Artemisia capillaris was able to cure diseases, and in May June it became firewood. Hua Tuo also used hot compress to treat scorpion sting and moss to treat swelling and pain after wasp sting. And so on, it is easy and effective.
The government official Ni Xi and Li Yan came to the hospital at the same time, all of them were suffering from headache and fever, and the symptoms were similar. Hua Tuo said, "Ni Xu should bring down the disease. Li Yan should sweat and drive away the disease." There are questions about the two different therapies. Hua Tuo replied, "Ni search is a real disease, and Li Yan is a real disease, so treating them should also use different methods." After that, they immediately took medicine for two people. On the two day of the day, two people got sick together.
Mystery of death
Hua Tuo is often regretful in his work as a medical profession. medical practice "Is regarded as" cheap business ". Later, Cao Cao personally dealt with state affairs and became ill. Head wind Heavy, let Hua Tuo treat him specially. Hua Tuo said: "this disease is difficult to cure in a short time. Even long term treatment can only prolong life." Hua Tuo wanted to go back because he had been away from home for too long, so he said, "I received a letter from my family and I went back for a while. "When I got home, I said my wife was ill, and I asked for a longer holiday instead of returning. After that, Cao Cao wrote letters repeatedly to let Hua Tuo return, and then ordered the county authorities to send and send them. Hua Tuo was able to maintain his own ability, and was disgusted with serving people for food. Cao Cao was very angry and sent someone to check it out. If his wife was really ill, he would give adzuki bean four thousand liters to relax the vacation time; if he deceived, he would arrest the escort. As a result, Hua Tuo lied, so he delivered Hua Tuo to Xuchang prison with a passing car. After questioning, Hua Tuo confessed to pleading guilty (Han Law: 1. deceit of the king); 2. no offense. Emperor Xu Asking Cao Cao for help, he said, "Hua Tuo's medical skill is really brilliant and related to human life. He should tolerate tolerance." Cao Cao said, "don't worry, is there no such incompetent rat in the world?" Hua Tuo was finally tortured to death in prison. Before dying, Hua Tuo took out a roll of medical books to the warder and said, "this book can be used to save the living." The warder was afraid of breaking the law and could not accept it. Hua Tuo reluctantly took the fire and burned the book.
One of them is: Romance of the Three Kingdoms In Cao Cao Let once Zhou Tai Hua Tuo, a famous doctor of healing, came to treat him for many years. But Hua Tuo believed that Cao Cao's cause needed to split her head, to make anesthesia with Maibo San, and to perform a major operation. Cao Cao suspected that Hua Tuo wanted to kill him by chance and killed him by torture.
After decades of medical practice, Hua Tuo has skillfully mastered health care, prescriptions, acupuncture and surgery and other means of treatment, proficient in internal, external, maternal and child branches, clinical treatment, accurate diagnosis, simple method, rapid curative effect, known as "God doctor". In this regard, Romance of the Three Kingdoms "," Post Han script Health care ("Xiao Yang nature of the operation, when people think that the year and a hundred years old and strong appearance"), (refined prescription medicine, its treatment of disease, but a few kinds of soup, heart dissolving agent, no weight, boiled and drinking, its language of its node, to spare more often), acupuncture is simple ("if the needle, but also one or two," the needle, "when a certain, if the language," the patient said "have arrived", "should pull the needle, the disease is also bad"), the operation is magical ("cut the back of the abdomen, cut back, cut accumulation", "heartbroken drop wash"). There is a commentary in the same way that he is good at it. Medical records left, Romance of the Three Kingdoms "There are sixteen," Hua Tuo biography "five, five other documents, a total of twenty-six, in the pre Qin and Han doctors are more. From the scope of its treatment, medical diseases include fever, visceral disease, mental illness, obesity and parasitic diseases. Gynaecology The diseases include trauma, intestinal abscess, tumor. fracture Needle, mistake, avoid milk, stillbirth, diarrhea and so on. He invented it. Ma boiling powder It created a precedent for narcotic drugs worldwide. European and American general anesthesia surgery began in the early eighteenth Century, more than one thousand and six hundred years later than Hua Tuo. The history of world pharmacy points out the use of Arabs Anesthetic It may be passed from China because "China" Famous doctor Hua Tuo is the best. " Book of Sui · Chronicles "Hua Tuo's pillow Moxibustion" has been lost. " Yixin Fang "Hua Tuo's acupuncture classics" may be the lost text of the book. Taiping Sheng Hui Fang There is a text of "Hua Tuo Ming Tang". From the extant lost texts, the names and locations of acupoints contained in Hua Tuo's acupuncture and moxibustion are related to the name and location of the acupoints. Huangdi Ming Tang Jing There are great differences.
Ma boiling powder
Hua Tuo pioneered the use of general anesthesia for surgery and was later respected as the "surgical ancestor". Not only is he proficient in prescriptions, but his attainments in acupuncture and moxibustion are also admirable. Hua Tuo visited many doctors and collected some anesthetic drugs. After several different formulations, the anesthetic was successfully prepared. He made the anesthetic and hot wine to make the patient fall and lose consciousness. Then he opened the abdominal cavity, cut out the ulcer, washed the rotten dirt, and stitched it with mulberry thread. Divine paste Four or five days in addition to pain, one month recovery. Therefore, Hua Tuo gave it a name -- Ma boiling.
According to the textual research of Japanese surgeon Huagang Qingzhou, the composition of Ma boiling powder is Datura flower One liter, raw Aconitum and whole Chinses Angelica Radix Angelicae dahuricae, Rhizome of Chuanxiong Four yuan each, fry a Southern Star.
If you need moxibustion, there are only one or two points. If the patient is concentrated in the body, the curative effect of taking the needle and taking medicine can not be effective. It is necessary to cut off the cut and drink the "Ma boiling powder" prepared by him. After a while, the patient is unconscious like drunk, so he cuts the affected area and takes out the accumulation. If the patient is in the intestine, he will remove the intestinal lesion, wash the wound and part of the infection, then sew the abdominal knife edge and apply the ointment. After four or five days, the disease will be fine and no longer painful. During the operation, the patient did not feel pain. Within a month, the wound healed and healed.
The "Ma boiling powder" used by him is the earliest anaesthetic in world history. Hua Tuo used the liquor clothing "Ma boiling powder" to perform abdominal surgery, and initiated a general anesthesia operation precedent. This kind of general anesthesia operation is unprecedented in the history of Chinese medicine. It is also a rare pioneering work in the history of world medicine.
Hua Tuo was also one of the founders of ancient Chinese medical sports. He is not only good at curing diseases, but also advocates health preservation. He once said to his disciple Wu Pu: "the human body wants to work, but it does not make the ear extremely strong, but it is vulgar to be shaken." Hua Tuo inherited and developed the prevention theory of "saints not treating themselves and treating diseases", and compiled a set of Aerobics for the aged and the weak in imitation of five animal gestures such as apes, deer, bears, tigers and so on. Five animal show "
Hua Tuo in Medical Sports It also made an important contribution. Hua Tuo created a training method called " Five animal show "A tiger drama, two called deer play, three called bear drama, four called ape play, five called bird play, can also be used to prevent diseases, and at the same time make the legs light and agile, used as" Qigong " When the body is not well, get up and do one of the plays. After sweating the clothes, then put on the powder, then the body feels relaxed and convenient, and wants to eat in the stomach. His student Wu Pu With this method of exercise, at the age of more than 90, hearing and eyesight are good and the teeth are intact. The five animal show is a set of medical gymnastics that stretches the muscles and joints of the whole body. Hua Tuo believed that "the human body wants to work. Blood circulation, disease can not be born, such as household pivot, eventually immortal. " The action of the five animal show is to imitate the tiger's flapping forelimb, the deer's head and neck, the bear's collapse, the ape's toe jumping, and the bird's flying wings. According to legend, Hua Tuo is in. Xuchang Every day, I guide many thin and weak people to do gymnastics on the open ground. He said: "we can exercise regularly to eliminate diseases and promote foot and foot. The body is unhappy, and it plays a role in a bird's play. It is pleasant and sweaty, because the body is light and wants to eat with powder.
Hua Tuo is the first expert to create surgery in Chinese history. He is also the first inventor and founder of the world's first anesthetic "Ma Po San" and the invention of acupuncture and moxibustion diseases. " Ma boiling powder "Opened up a new research field for the development and development of surgical medicine. His invention has been successful more than 1600 years earlier than the American dentist Morton (1846) who invented ether anesthesia.
At that time, Hua Tuo had been able to perform surgical procedures such as tumor removal and gastrointestinal suture. His surgery has been praised by all generations. the Ming dynasty Chen Jia Mo " Materia medica Mongolia "A collection of famous poems in the past dynasties," is summarized in the poem: "Wei has Hua Tuo, set up sores, bone treatment, and many effects." It can be seen that later generations respected Hua Tuo as "the originator of surgery", which is worthy of the name.
Hua Tuo lived in the early days of the Eastern Han Dynasty. At that time, the warlords were in chaos, floods and droughts, epidemics, and the people were in dire straits. A famous poet at that time Wang can In his poems of seven sorrow, he wrote two sentences: "go out without seeing, white bones cover the Plains". Witnessing this situation, Hua Tuo hated the evil and tyrannical tyrannies, and sympathized with the oppressed and exploited working people. For this reason, he did not want to be an official. He would rather defend the golden bell, run around and release the pain for the people.
Hua Tuo was not puzzled by symptoms. He was concise in medication and well versed in body and mind interaction. Hua Tuo did not abuse drugs. Hua Tuo attaches great importance to preventive health care, "treating people in the absence of disease", observing natural ecology, and teaching people to adjust their lives in harmony. But for patients who are seriously ill, they do not add acupuncture drugs.
Hua Tuo did not seek fame and wealth, but did not admire wealth and wealth, so that he could concentrate on the research of medicine. " Post Han script ·
Biography of Hua Tuo "He said that he was" able to pass the number of classics and understand the art of raising nature ", especially" good at Prescriptions ". People call him a "miracle doctor". He has compiled his rich medical experience into a medical book. Green cysts Unfortunately, it can not be handed down. But it can not be said that his medical experience was completely annihilated. Because many of his students, such as acupuncture Famous Fan a He wrote " Wu Pubencao " Wu Pu In the book of Materia Medica. Li Ting Zhi He inherited part of his experience. As for the existing Hua Tuo Chung Chung Sutra "That's the Song Dynasty's work. It was published in his name. But it may also include some of the contents of Hua Tuo's works left in fashion.
Hua Tuo can critically inherit the academic achievements of his predecessors and establish a new theory on the basis of summing up his predecessors' experience. Chinese medicine has arrived. spring and autumn The times have made brilliant achievements. Bian Que For physiological and pathological elucidation, it can be described as its success. Hua Tuo's knowledge is likely to develop from Bian Que's theory. Meanwhile, Hua Tuo's contemporaries Zhang Zhongjing Theory has also been studied in depth. He read Zhang Zhongjing In the tenth volume of the treatise on febrile diseases, he said cheerfully, "this is really a living book," which shows that Zhang Zhongjing's theory has great influence on Hua Tuo. Hua Tuo follows the path of predecessors to create a new world. For example, he discovered the method of squeezing the heart and mouth to mouth in vitro. The most prominent should be numbered anesthesia, the invention of the liquor and Ma Bo San and the creation of the "five birds play" in sports therapy.
Some narcotic drugs were used as anesthetics before being used by Hua Tuo. However, they are either used for war, or used for assassination, or for manipulation. Hua Tuo summed up the experience in this field, and observed the sleeping state of drunken people. He invented the anesthetic technique of alcohol drink and Ma boiling powder, which was used in medicine, thus greatly improving the surgical technique and curative effect, and expanding the scope of surgical treatment.
" Romance of the Three Kingdoms Commenting: "Hua Tuo's medical diagnosis. Du Gu Vocal music, Jian Ping Zhu The art of photography, Zhou Xu Phase dream
Guan The art of divination is very skillful and extremely skillful. Migration of past history Bian Que , Cang Gong , soothsayer It is widely known that it is widely known. It is recorded in Yun er. " ( Romance of the Three Kingdoms Comment)
" Post Han script Record Emperor Xu He said, "we should add all of our skills to our workers." ( Post Han script Comment)
Hua Tuo is China History of Medicine Among the few outstanding surgeons, he is good at using anaesthesia, acupuncture, moxibustion and other methods, and is good at open chest surgery. The surgical procedure is not based on " Respecting Confucianism On the cultural basis of traditional Chinese medicine, the mainstream therapy of traditional Chinese medicine has not been developed extensively in traditional Chinese medicine under the advocating of "the body and skin, the parents". Some medical historians have verified that the treatment methods used by Hua Tuo are recorded in India medicine. Ma boiling powder The main drug "vine" is also. India Produced, so they suggested that Hua Tuo traveled throughout his life. Central Plains Everywhere, he is probably from India. Tianzhu Doctor. This statement is of some reference value. (China Internet review)
TCM surgery has reached a fairly high level in the Han Dynasty, but with the passage of time and the continuous progress of TCM in theory and practice.
Step by step, most diseases can be cured by acupuncture, medicine and other treatments. These surgical methods, which are painful, heavy, and broken, are gradually replaced by more "civilized" and "simple" internal therapies. Under these conditions, Chinese medicine has also made considerable progress. Many other medical sciences have to admit its transcendence and its profound and profound theory.
Although Hua Tuo's medical books were all burned down, his academic thoughts did not completely die out, especially in Hua Tuo's research on Chinese medicine. His disciples Wu Pu It is a famous pharmacist. Wu Pubencao Many of the contents can be seen in later medical books. (Phoenix, Sina review)
Hua Tuo is good at applying psychotherapy to cure diseases. magistrate of a prefecture Seriously ill, Hua Tuo went to see him. The sheriff asked Hua Tuo to treat him, and Hua Tuo said to his son, "your father's illness is different from his general illness. There are blood stasis in his abdomen. He is angry and angry, so that he can spit blood out, so that he can cure his disease, or he will die. Can you tell me all the wrong things your father did? I sent a letter to rebuke him. "The son of the sheriff said," if I can cure my father's illness, what can I say? "So he told Hua Tuo what his father had done for a long time. Hua Tuo wrote a letter denying the county official, leaving the sheriff to read the letter. He was furious. He sent a catcher to catch Hua Tuo. He didn't catch it. When the Imperial Guard was in a rage, he vomited more than a liter of black blood, and his illness was fine.
Dog leg sores
There was a very beautiful girl who had passed the age of marriage, but she still had not been married because she had a sores on her right knee and had been running out of concentrated water ever since. After seeing Hua Tuo, her father asked her daughter's illness. Hua Tuo said, "send a horse to ride and lead a chestnut dog to run thirty Li. When he came back, he picked up the dog's right foot while the dog was hot, leaning on the wound. "Not long afterwards, a red snake came out of the sore and went into the dog's foot. The girl was sick. (from " Exclusive ambition )
Gun head wine
At the end of the late Han Dynasty, there was a lump in the middle of the abdomen. When he died, he said to his son, "after I die, I can take the thing out and see what it is. "His son did not have the heart to defy his father's life, so he cut his belly and took out a copper gun head, about 1/3 litres. When Hua Tuo heard about it, he went to understand it. After reading Hua Tuo, he took the medicine from the small box and put it on the gun head, and the gun head turned into wine immediately. (from Zhi Zhi)
Ye Qing sticky paint
Hua Tuo has many disciples in his life. Pengcheng Of Fan a , Guangling Of Wu Pu and Xi'an Of Li Ting Zhi They are all famous in the world. Wu Pu wrote " Wu Pubencao " Li Ting Zhi He wrote the book "Li Tong Zhi". Fan a Happiness acupuncture The three disciples later became famous doctors.
In order to spread medical experience to posterity, Hua Tuo wrote meticulously in medical books in his later years. Green cysts It is a pity that many works, such as "moxibustion at the pillow". Wu Pu In accordance with Hua Tuo's medical treatment, many people were cured and saved. Hua Tuo said to Wu Pu: "people's body should get exercise, but it should not be excessive. After exercise, the water and Valley gas can digest, and the circulation is smooth. The disease will not happen. For example, the rotated door shaft will not decay. Therefore, those who used to cultivate the immortal and foster Tao often do " Qigong And so on, they imitate the bear to hang branches and hawks, turn around the neck, look at the waist, stretch the body, and move joints, so as to prolong life. Fan a Proficient in acupuncture therapy. All doctors said that the back and chest viscera can not be randomly shot, even if the needle can not be more than four points deep, and fan a acupuncture back point to one or two inches deep, in the chest of the great que point into five or six inches, and the disease is often cured. Fan a Hua Tuo asked Hua Tuo for a prescription that he could take and benefit from the body, and Hua Tuo taught him "paint Ye Qing sticky". The medicine used one liter of lacquer leaves. Green sticky Crumbs fourteen two, according to this ratio, said that the long-term use of this medicine can wipe out three kinds of parasites, which is beneficial to the five zang organs, so that the body is light, so that human hair will not turn white. Fan a Follow his advice and live to be more than 100 years old.
stay Luo Guanzhong " Romance of the Three Kingdoms There is a section of Hua Tuo Guan Yu Scrape the Poison Off the Bone The description is about Guan Yu. Battle of Xiangyang The right arm is the Wei army's poison arrow. Later, the wound gradually swollen, very painful, unable to move. Hua Tuo scraped the bone for Guan Yu, removing the poison on the bone, and Guan Yu's looks remained unchanged. He was still playing chess with people. This story originally celebrates Guan Yu's courage, perseverance, patience, and at the same time illustrates Hua Tuo's excellent medical skills. Win people's praise and admiration. He is the originator of our surgical medicine.
This is " Romance of the Three Kingdoms And Hubei " Xiangyang Prefecture records It is recorded in a widely publicized fictional story based on facts. Although Guan Yu had scraping and healing, Hua Tuo died a few years ago.
Cao Cao's head wind disease
Because of his scholarly scholarship, Hua Tuo's medical skills improved rapidly. Just as Hua Tuo was zealous in offering his exquisite skills to the public, he rose in the turmoil of Central Plains. Cao Cao Hear and call. It turned out that Cao Cao had a head wind disease in his early years, and became more and more serious after middle age. Each hair is dizzy and headache is unbearable. There is little curative effect of various medical treatments. When Hua Tuo came to see him, he put in the needle at the Shu Shu point of Cao Cao's thoracic vertebra, and then his brain was clear and clear. Cao Cao was very happy. But Hua Tuo truthfully declared: "your illness is a chronic disease of the brain, which is difficult to eradicate in the near future. It must be treated in a long term and gradually relieved, in order to prolong the life span." After listening to Cao Cao, he thought Hua Tuo was so mysterious that he was unhappy in his heart, but not in color. He not only left Hua Tuo in the palace, but also allowed him to cure the people.
Commemoration of future generations
Tomb of Hua Tuo in Xuchang
Henan Xuchang Tomb of Hua Tuo Located at 15 kilometers north of Xuchang City, Suqiao village, the South Bank of the West Bank, the tomb is high.
4 meters, covering 360 square meters. The tomb is ellipsoidal, with seventeen years before the Qing Emperor Qianlong (1752 AD). The cemetery is hexagonal, the green brick wall is surrounded by green cedars and pine trees. In 1985, the Henan branch of the Chinese National Medical Association held the "Hua Tuo academic seminar" in Xuchang. It engraved the stone tablet of "the tomb of Hua Tuo, an outstanding physician in Eastern Han Dynasty".
Tomb of Hua Tuo in Shenqiu
Henan Zhoukou Shenqiu Huai Dian town Southwest corner, shaying river On the south bank, there is a small hill bag.
The big mound, the local people called Hua gu tomb, also called Hua Tuo tomb. Legend has it that in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, Hua Tuo, a famous doctor, was buried here. In January 1979, the Shenqiu County Revolutionary Committee designated the tomb as a key cultural relic protection unit. In 2003, Shenqiu County The people's Government renamed the former road to Hua Tuo road. There is a village called Hua Tuo temple in the central part of the tomb. It is named after the temple of Hua Tuo in the village.
Film and television image
1983 movie Hua Tuo and Cao Cao ": Qianlong Zhen Play Hua Tuo.
1994 TV series Romance of the Three Kingdoms ": Richard Ong Play Hua Tuo.
2004 TV series Dr. Hua Tuo ": Chung Hua Tou Play Hua Tuo.
2010 TV drama "Three Kingdoms": Cai Jun plays Hua Tuo.
2017 TV drama "union of military officers": Xu Huanshan plays Hua Tuo.