Hu Bilie Kublai Khan

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Hu Bilie Kublai Khan

Kublai was from 1215 to 1294, namely, Yuan Shi Zu, Mongolian, statesman and strategist. regent Torre Fourth sons, Yuan Xian Zong Mongo Brother. Yeke Mongghol Ulus The last generation of Khan, also at the same time. Yuan Dynasty The founding emperor. Mongolia's "Xue Zen Han".

In 1251, Mongo Kublai as prime minister Inner Mongolia The military affairs of the Han Dynasty are located in the south of the army. He has been appointed as a Confucian scholar in the Han Dynasty. Xingzhou The administration of officials and the administration of Justice Bian Liang To rectify the military administration of Henan (today's Luoyang) and to open up Tang and Deng dynasties, it has received positive results. In 1253, Beijing trillion (now Shaanxi) Xi'an The fief. In the same year, Kublai was ordered and general. Uriyangqatai Expedition Yunnan Destroy Kingdom of Dali In 1258, Montgomery began to master divisions. Southern Song Dynasty Kublai was appointed to the general East Road army. In September 1259, Montgomery was there. Ho Chau The front line dies. In March 1260, Kublai was promoted by some kings, namely Khan in Kaiping. Middle unification Kublai took the rich manpower and material resources of Han Dynasty to defeat the troops. Ari-Boke

In 1271 (to eight yuan), Book of changes The meaning of "Dazai Qian Yuan" is that the founding number is Dayuan. Mostly For the capital. 1274 (to eleven yuan), life Bayan Song Dynasty. In 1279 (sixteen yuan), exiles were finally eliminated. Yamen mountain The remnant forces of the Southern Song Dynasty completed the great reunification of the whole country.

After the unification of the country, Kublai used the Hui people. Ahmad AHMA was responsible for the central government from the early unification of the central government. The post AHMA alone is good at governing the country. Most of them occurred in 1282 (nineteen yuan). Wang-tchou , High monk The killing of AHMA incident. Since then, Kublai has successively served. Lu Shi Rong , Sanger The failure of specialized finance ended in failure. In the same period, Kublai dispatched an army expedition continuously. Japan , Annan , Zhan Cheng , Myanmar and Java They all failed. But fight back Kaidu The king of the northwest invaded and served the Northeast kings. Nai Yan Rebellion plays a positive role.

In 1294 (to thirty-one yuan), Kublai died, the temple was the ancestor.

Paul Mauriat's History

Dive years

Kublai was born in Jin Zhen you three years (1215) in September 23rd. Tie Mu Zhen Sun, tolui The fourth son, mother is Inu Rouge Kublai is still there. residence of an emperor before ascending the throne At that time, he became acquainted with the Central Plains scholars and was familiar with the situation of the Han Dynasty in the Central Plains. In his royal palace, he gathered a large number of intellectuals who were mainly Han nationality and became Kublai's staff.

As early as ogodei He has already taken refuge in sweat. Mongolia nobility Han intellectuals Mo Mo and Yao Shu Kublai was recruited for reuse. Dou Mo explains for Kublai. The three cardinal guides and the five constant virtues as specified in the feudal ethical code , Faithfulness Yao Shu explained to Kublai. Confucian Rule the country and the world. Kublai in He Lin Acquainted monks Zi Cong (later given name) Liu Bin Zhong It is a person who reads everything in the book and discusses everything in the world, such as the palm of his hand. Because he is knowledgeable and able to be good at counsel, he is deeply valued by Kublai. In the ten years (1250) of Chun Yu, the Southern Song Dynasty, he put forward ten thousand words to Kublai. He pointed out that the way to cure chaos is from heaven to man. He advocated reforming the bad policies at that time, reducing taxes and serving officers, advises farming mulberry, and prospering schools.

Chun you two years in the Southern Song Dynasty (1242), Xijing Huairen people Zhao Bi They should be summoned to Kublai. Zhao Bi studied Mongolian, and translated for Kublai. University derivation "

In the four years of Chun song in the Southern Song Dynasty (1244), Zhao Bijian cited the champion in the Jin Dynasty. Wang e To Kublai's palace, to speak for Kublai. The Book of Filial Piety "," Shang Shu "," Book of changes And Confucian politics and history, every night. In the seven years (1247) of Chun Fu, the Southern Song Dynasty, Zhang Wenlian quilt Cong recommended to Kublai's palace, and was appointed secretary of the royal palace. In the same year, Shi Tian se Aides Zhang Dehui When Kublai was summoned, he recommended a famous scholar. Yuan Hao Wen More than 20 people

Chief Southern

In the first year of the Mongolia (eleven years, 1251, July 1st), Kublai's elder brother, Mongo, became a base. Yeke Mongghol Ulus The emperor, the great imperial Khan of Mongolia, was the Yuan emperor, because Kublai was the longest and virtuous man in Montgomery's younger brother, and Kublai appointed the leader shortly after his accession to the throne. Inner Mongolia Han land affairs. During that time, Kublai employed a large number of Han officials and scholars, such as Liu Bingzhong. Xu Heng , Yao Shu , Hao Jing , Zhang Wen Qian , Mo Mo , Zhao Bi And so forth. Confucianism The proposition. Confucian scholar Yuan Hao Wen and Zhang Dehui Kublai was also asked to accept " Confucianism The title of "great master" was pleasing to Kublai. Kublai respected Confucianism, "Sheng du you Hong, Kai Bai Ping, good Confucianism, good clothes, Chongli let."

In the two years of the Mongolia constitution (twelve years, 1252, Chun song, Southern Song Dynasty), song army attacked Henan border area. Kublai asked Montgomery to set up the Department of strategic planning in Henan, Montgomery. Shi Tian se , Yang Wei Zhong Zhao Bi Wei Brief introduction In June, Kublai went to the grasslands to meet Montgomery. Yunnan

In the three years of the Mongolia constitution (the first and the first year of 1253 in the Southern Song Dynasty), Montgomery was awarded to all the kings, and Kublai was given the reward. Beijing trillion Fief. Kublai established Beijing Zhao Zhao Fu Si. Kublai led the army. Six Panshan Summer. In autumn, the army passes by. Lintao Get into The Zang or Tibetan people Area to arrive at thorn (now Sichuan) Songpan Place. In August, Kublai returned from the army. Shaanxi The attack took place in today's Yunnan and other places. Kingdom of Dali In the four years of the Mongolia constitution (two years in the Southern Song Dynasty, three days in 1254, and three days in 1254), Kublai conquered the city of Dali. Zhang Xing Zhi Surrender, Kublai destroyed Dali. The Yunnan area is incorporated into the territory of the great Mongolia.

Six years in Mongolia's constitution (four years in 1256 and Kublai in the Southern Song Dynasty) Mengzhou (located in Jiaozuo, Henan) fief. In the same summer, Montgomery officially announced the intention to attack the Southern Song on the grounds of the arrest of Mongolia envoys in the Southern Song Dynasty. The development of Kublai's power has aroused the suspicion of Mongo.

Seven years of the Mongolia constitution (five years, 1257, Southern Song Dynasty) Guanzhong Set up hook Examination Bureau to check Beijing trillion Henan's wealth. A group of officials from the Henan Department of economic planning and the chief executive of the Beijing Chao Siu Fu office organized more than a hundred charges to eliminate Kublai's credit officials and weaken his influence. In December, he went to see Montgomery in person. Montgomery saw Kublai coming to the north and sobbed down relative to him.

The eight years of the Mongolia constitution (the six years of the Southern Song Dynasty, 1258, July), the Montgomery army entered. Sichuan North, all the way. Carry the world before one To conquer most parts of northern Sichuan. In November 29th, according to monggo's will, Kublai was there. Kaiping The Northeast took the flag ceremony and formally launched the army to go south and attack the Song Dynasty. In the nine years of the Mongolia constitution (the first and the first year of the Qing Dynasty in the Southern Song Dynasty), mongkhan was in the middle of 1259. Ho Chau The attack on the city was blocked. In August 2nd, Kublai arrived in Henan. Ru'nan He continued to march to the Southern Song Dynasty and sent his life. Yang Wei Zhong , Hao Jing The Yangtze River and Huaihe River. In the nine year of the Mongolia constitution (the first and the first year of 1259 in the Southern Song Dynasty), Kublai led the Middle Route Army across Huaihe and attacked the territory of the Southern Song Dynasty. Then it went south and opened up a new battlefield in Hubei to attack the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in September 3rd. Ezhou

Accession to the throne

Nine years of the Mongolia constitution (the first and the first year of 1259 in the Southern Song Dynasty), August 11th, Mongo in Sichuan. Fishing mountain Died. In September 19th, Kublai, the messenger of the younger brother of Sichuan, sent the message to Kublai, and invited Kublai to inherit the throne in the north. Kublai thought, "I was ordered to come to the south.

How can it be done? " So he attacked the Southern Song Dynasty and won many times. Later, Kublai's real wife. Cha Bi Dispatched emissaries He Lin All ministers set up Kublai's younger brother. Ari-Boke And Ali, no elder brother, has sent Aran answer son to deploy troops near Kaiping. Peking The militia was gathered nearby, and the envoys urged Kublai to return to the north as soon as possible. In November 17th, Confucian ministers Hao Jing On the "class teacher", stated the reason for immediate withdrawal, and strengthened Kublai's determination to withdraw from the army and return north. Kublai claimed to attack the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty. Ling'an The general will continue to besieged Ezhou, increase military pressure on the Southern Song Dynasty, and the Prime Minister of the Southern Song Dynasty. Jia Shi Dao The messengers agreed to cut the land in the Southern Song Dynasty and sent the old year's money. Kublai then withdrew from the army on the same day.

In the first year of the unification (the first year of 1260 in the Southern Song Dynasty, 1260), Kublai arrived in Yanjing in January 4th and dismissed the militia recruited by Deli. Kublai, who was stationed in the suburbs of Yanjing, spent the whole winter, and actively contacted the kings to prepare for the Spring Festival in the first year of the unification of China (the first and the first year of 1260 in the Southern Song Dynasty). Curry Conference Hold the throne ceremony.

In the first year of the unification (the first year of 1260 in the Southern Song Dynasty, 1260), Kublai became the emperor of the great Mongolia Empire, the great empire of the Empire of Korea. In May 5th, Kublai issued the imperial edict "emperor Deng Bao Zhao Zhao". He called himself "Zhen" in the imperial edict, and called his brother yuan Xian Zong Mongo as "emperor". In June 29th, Kublai issued the imperial edict of the Central Plains and officially built the year. Middle unification "

In four years (four years in 1263 and May in the Southern Song Dynasty), Kublai rose to Kaiping as the upper city. Nalbo

In the first year of the Yuan Dynasty (five years in 1264 and August in the Southern Song Dynasty), Yanjing was also edict. Jin Zhong Du After the death of Jin, Yanjing was renamed as "Zhong Du" and ready for capital building. In September 7th, Kublai released "Yuan Yuan Yuan Zhao". Book of changes The meaning of "Zai Kun yuan" is changed to "five years of Chinese unification" as the "first year of Yuan Dynasty".

In eight yuan (seven years in 1271 and December 18th) in the Southern Song Dynasty, Kublai changed the title from "greater Mongolia" to " Dayuan From the emperor of the great Mongolia to the emperor of the great yuan, the official name of the Great Yuan officially appeared, and Kublai became the first emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. In nine yuan (eight years in 1272 and February in the Southern Song Dynasty, February), Liu Bingzhong was chosen as the majority.

Southern Song Dynasty

To ten yuan (nine years, 1273, Southern Song Dynasty), most of the palaces were built. Next year's first lunar new year, Kublai received a visit at the main hall. From then on, the Yuan Dynasty was established. Mostly (now Beijing). Most of them replaced Lin and became the political center of the multi-ethnic country in Yuan Dynasty. Since then, Beijing has been the capital of the Ming and Qing Dynasties for two generations.

To eleven yuan (ten years in 1274, in the Southern Song Dynasty), Kublai ordered the garrison in Korea.

Feng Zhou Shi Jing makes Xin Du. Korea There are 15000 soldiers in the army and the people in Hong Kong, 900 of them are on duty. Japan Under the resolute resistance of the Japanese army, the first battle only won a small victory and failed to go deep. Not long after the typhoon destroyed most of the warships, and the troops were exhausted, the yuan army had to withdraw hastily.

To twelve yuan (Southern Song Dynasty, 1275, February), Kublai sent the Minister of ceremony. Du Shi Zhong And so on to Japan. When Du Shizhong arrived in Japan, he was Kamakura Bakufu Execute. It was not until 1280 that the news spread to the Yuan Dynasty. So Kublai decided to go to Japan again. In the second half of the year, the Yuan Dynasty requisition the Army (including the gathering of new troops in the Southern Song Dynasty) was established. Levy on the eastern provinces (also known as the province of Japan) took charge of the cutting plan.

In thirteen yuan (two years in 1276 and February 4th in the Southern Song Dynasty), the yuan army entered. Ling'an , Emperor Gong of Song Offer imperial jade seal And down the table. Southern Song Dynasty In the Yuan Dynasty, the Yuan Dynasty grasps the national regime. In the sixteen year of the Yuan Dynasty (two years in 1279 and March 19th in the Southern Song Dynasty), the last resistance force in the Southern Song Dynasty's exiled regime was wiped out.

In the first month of eighteen (1281), Kublai ordered the yuan troops to march to Japan in two ways, but still failed.

Died of illness

Kublai's wife Cha Bi He died in eighteen yuan (1281). Five years later he personally selected the heir to the throne. Genuine gold Die early. Perhaps due to the stimulation of these personal tragedies, Kublai began to drink heavily and to drink gluttony without restraint. He gained weight rapidly, getting fatter and obese. Excessive drinking The disease is tormented. At the same time, some of his policies were also defeated. From January to January thirty-one, twenty-two (February 18, 1294), Kublai died in the majority, at the age of seventy-nine.

Political initiatives

Politics

The administrative organs restored by Kublai healed the wounds of war for a century. After the death of the Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty retained. Song dynasty The organization and all the administrative officials, and did all they could to get the personal allegiance of the officials at that time.

During his reign, Kublai paid attention to selecting talents and reusing Han Chen. Dong Wen Ping (Kublai calls it Dong Da), Liu Bingzhong, Zhang Hong Fan And so on, he appointed the Minister of color, and he was in charge of the state finance. The Han system is adopted to establish various political systems. If the province is established on the local level, the central government will set up the central Book province to create the end of our provincial system. He set up institutions such as "Si Nong Si" and "persuading the peasants" to supervise agriculture, so as to encourage the achievements of agriculture as the main criteria for assessing officials, and to edit the "mulberry digest" to promulgate the whole country in the year twenty-three. In order to strengthen the management of border areas, open up traffic at home and abroad, set up post offices everywhere, and consolidate the rule over all parts of the country.

Economics

· Issue banknotes

Kublai invented "money", that is, paper money. He introduced money into circulation and made it the foundation of finance. In 1264, he issued a decree that he used banknotes to calculate the value of major commodities. His first finance minister was Muslim Zai al Zar, who kept banknote issuance within a reasonable limit. Subsequently, several ministers began to act rashly, and the two of them imposed an unlimited inflation policy to devalue banknotes. When collecting money, they adopted many ways to exchange money and set up a method of selling heavily. He was assassinated in 1282, and he was derogatory by Kublai after his death. Sang was executed for corruption. In order to stop the decline of the original banknotes, it is necessary to issue new banknotes in order to avoid the depreciation of new currencies. This is probably the first thing Kublai used to do when he used "banknotes".

· Food relief

In order to prepare for the drought, Kublai resumed. Wang Anshi After the abolition of the state grain control policy, in the harvest year, the state buys surplus grain and stores it in the state treasury. When the price of the famine year goes up, grain is distributed free of charge. He also organized public relief to regularly distribute rice and corn to families badly needed. The 1260 decree requires local governors to provide relief to old scholars, orphans and sick people.

Nation

Kublai tried to maintain a good relationship with Confucianism. At the beginning of the great construction of 1267, he ordered the construction of the ancestral temple and the ancestral tablets required for ancestor worship, and he chose the calendar of the country, which is an essential task for the rulers of the agricultural society. The choice of his dynasty name will be the most important signal for Confucian scholars. Adopting the Chinese name with rich Han symbolizes Kublai's desire to integrate with some Chinese traditions. In 1271, under the suggestion of Liu Bingzhong, Kublai chose the "Great Yuan" as the name of the country from the book of changes. The meaning of yuan is "Qian Yuan - the origin of heaven and earth" or "original force", but most importantly, the name of the new dynasty is directly derived from one of the Han classics.

Kublai agreed with the traditional Chinese way of recording the history of Yuan Dynasty, which made him praised by scholars. Confucianism attaches importance to the past and emphasizes the use of historical experience to guide behavior, so it provides a basis for this officially recognized chronicle project. He also suggested that the imperial court set up Hanlin and the National History Institute under the Imperial Academy to collect records and write Liao history and Jin history.

Religion

Allow the Hui people to form a self governed society in order to return to their masters and to explain them by Hal. Muslim Law. Hui Hui residential areas have their own markets, hospitals and Mosque They are not prohibited from using their national language or forbidding them to follow. Islamism Will. In fact, Kublai appointed Hui Hui to hold important positions in financial institutions and grant them privileges. He exempted their regular taxes and recruited them as a few of the Chinese people who were able to serve as the chief of the group.

In 1264, Kublai established the General Assembly Institute to manage Tubo and supervise the relationship between the government and Buddhist monks. Eight, the first chief executive of the General Assembly Institute was set up. In the rebellion of the rebel faction of the hostile Buddhist faction, eight of the authority of shba was challenged in Tubo, but in 1267 Kublai deployed troops to help the young Buddhist priest regained power. After the defeat of dissidents by Kublai's army in 1268, although he restored the power of eight BASBA, he set up a Mongolian relief mission to help Tubo.

In 1258, Kublai's support for Buddhism in Buddhism and Taoism did not make him a favorite of Taoism. However, he was attracted by Taoist famous spells and admitted that they were attracted to the lower class masses. Therefore, the court provided funds for the construction of Taoist temple and provided them with the same exemption and privileges that Buddhism had obtained. Some Taoist leaders realized that they needed to co-exist with Buddhism and Mongols, and first sought reconciliation between Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in the three countries.

Kublai even sought support and assistance from a small number of Christians and foreign Christians in China. Before Kublai ascended the throne, the Christian envoys had arrived at the court of Mongolia, such as John Plano Gabini and Lu Bu Lu Chu, and several craftsmen, such as the famous craftsman William B, had served for Khan Montgomery. But Kublai is more concerned about inviting and recruiting foreign Christians.

Historical evaluation

General comment

Kublai, as a conqueror, has brought great havoc to the people in the conquered area, but he can still get a good evaluation in history. Kublai is a relatively successful new order builder. He is one of the few Mongolia rulers who can attach importance to Chinese culture and worship Confucianism. Although nomadic people, they attach great importance to the restoration and development of Central Plains agriculture. Professor, Department of history, Peking University Zhang Fan It is believed that Kublai's "historical merit" lies in his acceptance of Han culture. Marco Polo Kublai was honored as "the great monarch or emperor of all monarchs". He commended Kublai as "a powerful monarch of the people, land and goods and goods that has never been seen in the world since Adan" (Adam).

Historical book evaluation

" History of Yuan "Shi Zhe measures Hong and Guang, knows the good and the good, makes the credit Confucianism, and uses energy to transform the past by the summer, and sets up the classics. Therefore, it is a great scale for the generation.

Past appraisal

Hao Jing Today, the main purpose is to open the road, to have a brilliant and talented scholar, and to be a member of the Chongli music company. It is all about the air and its virtues, and the stream of Han Gao Di, Tang Taizong and Wei Xiaowen.

Dong Wen Yong The emperor of the world is wise, wise and wise. Then, from the latent mansion, there was a Si Si Min who was rooted in the stem, while the emperor was in charge of the emperor. When we first started in Dali, we drove the Changjiang River and lost all our lives. Its dragon flies, luanshui water, Ding Ding Dadu, leather evil policy to reformist, expand colleagues and one look. The scale is far away, Asano Sayaka. Totaka Junra was built in Taiwan Province to set up Taiwan Province, and to set up a decree. To be holy and impassable, to be bright and not to candle, to keep it simple and industrious and frugal. The right of collection is comprehensive, and rewards and punishments are public and not excessive. Wan Hui Ru, a group of male into the Internet, cut down the soil, the central state. With the righteousness and the wind, the sound will teach the south to the south. Fang also urged the school to persuade mulberry farmers to test the system and promote ritual music. It is the unification of the Kingdom and the universe. All the meritorious service will not be saved but the people will be saved. To listen to words and choose good deeds, to honor the probation. Qinfu tin people are afraid of disaster. "Hong Fan" is only the emperor's principle, and he is diligent in his political work. So that the time and the rich, civil security officials. In the days of guild, he had been transported to Guangzhou, so that he had no choice. It can be said that the text is peaceful, and Wuding is slightly chaotic. Following the first four generations of the ancestral home, it has the merit of three emperors and five emperors.

Zhu Yuanzhang (1) yuan is a mixture of the world and the beloved. In the past three hundred and ten years, the emperor of Song Dynasty in China had been in charge of heaven for more than nine years. Therefore, the emperor of Tai Yuan, who was born in Yuan Dynasty, was born in the northern part of the Yuan Dynasty. The dadaa, Hui Hui and the ruler of the various dynasties were all settled down. The grandson of Tai Zu was known as Ren De, who was Emperor of the world, mixed with the world, nine yuan and eight men. Only when God came from the earth and came to the main kingdom of China, the prosperity of public order, the prosperity of life, and the work of the people were carried out.

Yuan Ping Xiao In order to make a great plan and blend in with China and foreign countries, Dewei refers to a long way to go; to build up a number and establish a system, to hang down the mold for a generation; to worship Confucianism and to observe adultery, to spin and defeat; to be wise and to break, to use no regrets.

Bi Yuan The emperor measured the outline and knew the good of others, so he could mix the area with the universe. Only in the middle of Agha Matt, Lu Shirong and monk, can he be aware of his sin and correct it. In order to build up the discipline of Chen, the Yin and ran are also far away from Wen de.

Wei Yuan At the beginning of Yuan Dynasty, when China entered the country, there was a sudden shock, but only by killing and attacking the prisoners. And Shi Zexing began to recruit Yao Shu, Dou Mo, Liu Bingzhong, and Xu Hengzhi. He changed Han into the middle of the Han Dynasty and became a ruler of the Han Dynasty. To enjoy the country for a long time, Hang Tung business, Yi Liao, gold comparable to Han, Tang, Ho Yi Zai! And its nature is broad, and its bag is nothing. Ali no brother and hai DU, and all the king of Tuwa are all committed by Yu. Against the bloody war, the power is bent and the poor come to life. When the north and South fronts blaze a bloody battle, or leave, Zhang Tianyue will not believe in song. The Confucians in the south of the imperial order were sold as slaves and officials redeemed for the people. The song merchants and the song and song immigrants were all dispatched without punishment. The forum was held in Fancheng, through the Song Dynasty, and the ban on arms along the border. It has a long way to go. Song and his mother went to Tongzhou for ten days, ten banquets, and then went to the capital. In addition to the fact that the queen of Hong Jila does not care about the Queen's biography, her mother and son are heard in Jiangnan Zhuang Tian. After that, Wen Zong took all the Empress Dowager as the great Yat Tien monastery, and the city of Yingguo was the emperor of the great dragon temple. Until the end of Emperor Shun, he began to win the monk of the monk, Zhao and Pu Pu, and finally came to the Yuan Dynasty. The Song Emperor's chamber, such as Fu Wang and Rui, returned with the song master, and granted the plain county Gong, whose family lived in the south of the Yangtze River. In addition, there are many kinds of imperial clan. That is to say, the traitor called Zhao's insurrection, never after the Song Dynasty. It is hard for us to start our business, move the north and the green grass into the hall, so as to forget the grassland. And he kept the royal coat and brought them to Da an Ge to show his descendants. Wu Zong to Dazhong Taitai Pavilion, it is a great practice to serve. In the western region, Jia Hu repeatedly presented his teeth and big beads, worth tens of thousands of people. The palace is solemn and silent. To eight yuan, the people of Changli County of Ping Luan Road, the people's livelihood, had a light in the night or played it out. The emperor said, "how can He Xingtiansheng be a jealous person?" Life is blessed by grace. Bo Yan Fong song, earnest and sincere to Cao Bin to take the south of the Yangtze River without killing one. And so is his frugal kindness. But utilitarian learning can not be better than self. Therefore, the divisions of Java and Japan are far from the island, and the ministers of Wang, ah, sang and Lu Pouke are still at the same time.

Zeng Guofan Since ancient times, great masters of English have always been prosperous. If emperor Wuzhi of Han Dynasty, Emperor Wen of Tang Dynasty, Ren Zong of Song Dynasty, the ancestor of Yuan Dynasty, Xiao Zong of Ming Dynasty. At that time, all of them were erect.

Zeng Lian Is it not clear that it is the Ming Dynasty who worshiping Confucianism and emphasizing the word of justice? However, they do not want to strip the people. Almost think of self do, will be up and down, enough for future generations. Alas! In the light of the benevolence of the ancestors, the advantages and disadvantages of taking advantage of the founding of the country, if so, is there any word for him? In his tenure, the book is privy and heavy. The rule of the country is well known to the people.

Sun Yat-sen Qin Emperor Han Wu, Yuan Dynasty, Napoleon, or hundreds of years, decades of chopping, also can be regarded as a person of lofty ideals. In the code of emperor Napoleon, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty praised Zun, who did not speak martial arts, but also had a chronicles of millennia.

Tu Zhi The Khan has the edge, but the broad and the broad, the good and the good, the fear and the bosom. Though the north is grown up, the middle age divides the army to use the army. Therefore, after the accession to the throne, they quoted Confucian ministers and decided to govern the great political system, and changed the rule of grandfather and brothers, and gradually opened the rule of civilization. But after the Ping Song Dynasty, he did not know the interests of the people, the battle of Dongxing, Japan, the south of the city, the toad, the Burma, the Java division, the North imperial sea, the Xi Li Ji, the Naiyan rebellion. The palace was built, and the temple was built. The use of the country is not only a lack of money, but also an urgent need for financial management. In the middle, it is quite conceited by the people of AHMA, Lu Shirong and Sanger. Though they know their sin, they are suffering from it.

Ke Xiao - The prosperity of Mongolia is different from that of Hun and Turk. Is it not the so-called "scholar's empty theory" that Shi Zhe is devoted to Confucianism and learning, calling Yao Shu, Xu Heng, Dou Mo and so on? However, after the practice, it became clear that the rule of law was clear and clear. From this point of view, there is no way to rule the sun in the past and in the past. As for the battle of Japan, the one hundred thousand abandoning of the teacher was still repeated; the horse was defeated and the mulberry brother was reused; he was reformed by the grace of the world. So, we can not sigh for it.

Anecdotes

Legend and sudden invention of instant boiled mutton

Must be concerned. Kublai's military expedition was too bad to eat. Stewed Lamb The cook slaughtered. Lamb Pick lamb and prepare for it. But when the enemy suddenly attacked, the cook was in a hurry to slice the mutton and put it in the pot and stir it up. Then he got out, put some ingredients and gave it to Kublai. Kublai's stomach growled and shouted, and he finished eating and went into battle. Before long, Kublai triumphed. After returning to the court, Kublai did not forget the merits of the cook, let him do it again, and said that it was too light, and should have more ingredients. When the Minister of culture and war ate, he thumbs his thumbs. Kublai was delighted to give this new dish the name "instant boiled mutton".

Kinship members

parent

Father: Torre (1193 to 1232), Gen Gi Khan was a child of J. Jin, the fourth son of the iron wood. Gen Gi Khan, who had been separated from his parents during his lifetime, left behind his parents to inherit his father's mediation, green pasture and army. Gen Gi Khan left about 129 thousand troops, most of whom were inherited by the mine. After the death of Gen Gi Khan in 1227, the three sons were killed. ogodei Succession tolui Supervising the state. In 1232, the rate army defeated Kim Jun and died on the way back to the army. The monk took up the throne after he ascended the throne, and posthumously "emperor Ying Wu" and the temple "Ruibin". Until two yuan (AD 1265), Kublai was changed to be king Jing Xiang when he was in power. To the second year (AD 1309), add the title "Ren Sheng Jing Xiang emperor".

Mother: Inu Rouge (from 1192 to 1252), the Empress Dowager and Kreis of the great Mongolia state (Mongolia Empire) are the right wives of Torre, Montgomery, Kublai, Xu Lei Wu, and Ali's brother.

Empress

Right big ear: Great queen Tek Queen cha Queen of South , (? 1281). In 1273, the queen was named Queen. New History of Yuan The name of Jene Chutakeohiro is jilah. According to Chen The daughter of the Yuan Dynasty Kublai Khan The queen. Middle unification In early years, she became Queen. In ten yuan (1273), he was named "Zhen Yi Zhao Sheng Shun Tian Rui Wen Guang Ying Ying". In eighteen yuan (1281), he died, with the posthumous title "Zhao Rui Shun". He was intelligent and good at grasping the chance of success or failure in his career. He became the assistant of Yuan Dynasty at the beginning of Yuan Dynasty.

Right second people's ears: Queen of the sea of tower sea.

Right third people's ears: the queen of queer, the queen of Kuo Kwan Lun.

Right fourth ears; 88 rare imperial concubines

children

· Son

Eldest son: Only a few pounds

Second son: Crown Prince Hard boiled gold (1243 - January 5, 1286), Kublai's son. Yuan Cheng Chung Father of the iron ear Queen cha In 1261, he was called king of swallow, and was crown prince in 1273. In January 5, 1286, he died in 1293. In 1294, Yuan Cheng Zong ascended the throne and pursued his father's real gold as emperor. He was Emperor Yu Zong of the real Jin Dynasty and Emperor Wen Xiao Ming, a Chinese posthumous man.

The three son: Anxi King Komai In nine yuan (1272), Kublai set up his third son, called "the king of Anxi", to guard the land of Tang Wu. In the seventeen year (1280), the disease was destroyed, and Ananda answered it as king Anxi.

The four son: the king of Bei'an Khan The crown prince is really gold and his mother.

The five son: the king of Yunnan Khan In August of four, the king of Yunnan gave the camels a golden silver seal. In September, there were six departments in Dali, such as the broad belt, Svay Rieng and Shang Fu, and Wang Fu Fu Wei, Ning yuan as the servant and Sima.

The six son: the king A child of love To twenty-two yuan, give silver seal. In the twenty-four year, all of the rebellious sons were guilty of the war, and the love for their teeth came out of the tower. After the disease died. In the early days of Yuan Zhen, his son, Yan Yan and Mu Mu entered the dynasty, and gave gold and silk as examples of various kings. The place was in Barrow sea, where the land was poor and poor. The younger brother of A Mu, who lived in the days of emperor Tan, was living in ancient times with Aki Mikikoya.

The seven son: the king of Xiping Oduchi In October of six, the king of Ping Ping gave a golden silver seal to the camel. In the nine year, he was appointed to build the capital, and all the kings, aruther, Wang Tulu, and Bali, Nanping.

The eight son: Ning Wang Broad and wide In the twenty-six year of the Yuan Dynasty, the king of Ningyuan was given the title of gold and silver seal. Thirty years, from the north of Cheng's army. In the twenty-seven year of the Yuan Dynasty, Cheng Zong came into the great unification. In the three year of Dade, life Wu Zong was replaced by the army. In the eleven year, Wu Zong took the throne, Yi Yi Dai Gong, entered the king of Feng Ning, and changed the beast's gold seal. In the third year, the three treasures of the slaves were told that they were broad and wide. Ping Zhang Cha Nai iron Ge Ting Bian, its falsely interpreted, still migrate in Korea, gave the concubine to die, to conspire with the twenty-four people, such as the fear of the Wu monk iron lane, or not, and to the city. All of them were promoted to rank two, and the gift of gold was two and silver seven thousand five hundred and two. In the first year of Emperor Huang Qing, the elder brother of the emperor, the king of the sun, should return the emperor. Ren Zong. Next February. The two child; Xue Chetu, he said, "ah Du Chi". Xue Chetu, Yan you seven years in April, Wang Ning Yuan Wang, Zhi Zhi two years into the king of Ningxia. Three years in July, entered the DPRK. Please print. The British do not agree. In the first year of Tai Ding, thirteen thousand and six hundred Yongfu County in Fuzhou Road had four families, and set up Wang Fu. In February of two, he sat down with Xue Chetu in Guangzhou, Sha Ge in Leizhou. In the twenty-eight year of the Yuan Dynasty, he was repaid by Yan tie mu.

The nine son: Zhen Nan Wang. A good job In June of twenty-one, the king of the south of the town was given the new gold seal.

The ten son: Khan Son eight also did not do so. In the first year of Emperor Huang Qing, thirteen thousand and six hundred of Quanzhou's Lunan county had four households. Son eight Lu duo only.

· daughter

The princess of the Chao kingdom is very fierce, and she will marry Zhao Wuxiang.

The princess of Changguo, Lu Lu, married the flowers.

The princess of Changguo is Princess Lun.

Princess Lu Wan Ze I'm going to marry you.

Princess Lu She is really married to iron and wood barbarians.

The princess of Qi, who was lost in Korea, was married to the king of valiant. Wang Jie

Historical records

The book of Yuan history volume four to volume seventeen: the fourth to seventeenth of the discipline.

" New History of Yuan Volume seven to volume twelve: seventh seventh to twelfth

Hu-Bilie1


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