Heizhugou Scenic Area

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Heizhugou Scenic Area

Heizhugou National Forest Park, located in Heizhugou Town, Ebian Yi Autonomous County, Leshan City, Sichuan Province, spans Haqu Township, Lewu Township and Jinyan Township. The total area is 838 square kilometers, the core area is 575 square kilometers, the outer protected area is 263 square kilometers, and the altitude is between 1500 and 4288 meters. Heizhugou Forest Park is widely known as "Bermuda, China" at home and abroad. It is one of the most complete and primitive ecological communities in China.

Heizhugou Forest Park is divided into Heizhugou Secret Range Area, Pyramid Tourist Area and Rhododendron Pool Resort and Leisure Area. The Secret Landing Area includes the Sancha River Basin in the main ditch of Heizhugou, covering an area of 9129.1 hectares. Including water, forest, Canyon and other landscapes, and the mysterious black bamboo groove fog. Two scenic spots are Bifurcated River and Shimenguan.

After deliberation by the China Forest Landscape Evaluation Committee, Heizhugou was approved as a national forest park by the State Forestry Administration on February 22, 2000.

Location context

Heizhugou National Forest Park is located in Ebian County, which spans Heizhugou Town, Haqu Township and Lewu Township. The geographical coordinate of the regional center is 103 longitude east. North latitude 29. The total forest area is about 838 square kilometers, most of which are in the 611, 614 and 616 forest farms of the State-owned Southern Sichuan Forestry Bureau.

geographical environment

topographic features

The geological structure of Heizhugou belongs to Liangshan fold tract and Ebian fault zone in the northern section of Kangdian axis on the western margin of the Yangtze quasi-platform, which mainly consists of Xiaoliangshan skeleton and Emeishan fault block. Paleozoic strata are not well developed, Carboniferous and Devonian are absent in the Upper Paleozoic and Sinian are absent in the Lower Paleozoic. After the sedimentation of Shale and Limestone of Feixianguan Formation and Jialingjiang Formation in the Mesozoic, the whole earth axis uplifts into land, and nine series and 25 groups of strata emerge. This area belongs to Emeishan volcanic rock zone. Heizhugou is located in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, on the east side of Hengduan Mountains. Controlled by a series of North-South folds and deep faults, the trending of mountains and rivers extends longitudinally from north to south, forming the unique geomorphological features of Heizhugou.

Climatic characteristics

The average annual temperature in Heizhugou is 14.3 C in Sihe Town, 1054 meters above sea level, 10.8 C at the mouth of the ditch (1705 meters), 5.5 C at Shimenguan (2067 meters), 3.2 C at Ronghongde (3125 meters) and 3.0 C at Maanshan Main Peak (4288 meters). Precipitation: The average annual precipitation is between 1900-2000 mm in most areas, and heavy rains occur in summer. The average annual precipitation is 1180 mm in Sihe Town, 1700 mm in ditches, 2260 mm in Shimenguan and 2050 mm in Maanshan. The air in the region is humid, with an average annual relative humidity of more than 85%, annual fog days of more than 320 days and annual precipitation days of more than 270 days. It belongs to subtropical humid monsoon climate, and Ma'anshan is located in the demarcation zone between southeast monsoon and southwest monsoon, which traps warm and wet air from east in the valley, resulting in high temperature, abundant precipitation, more precipitation days and less sunny days in this area. Because of the great difference of terrain height, the temperature varies with altitude, and the vertical difference is obvious, forming the meteorological landscape of Xiaoliangshan Mountain, which is "one mountain divided into four seasons, ten miles in different days; snow cap on the top of the mountain, flowers at the foot of the mountain".

River system

The main stream system is Nahayimo in the upper reaches of Guancao River, a tributary of Dadu River. The tributaries are Heizhugou (Alkali Chahe River), Mother Lift Valley and Baxi Valley. The river network of the ditch system is dendritic. The flow direction of the main and tributaries is obviously controlled by the structures of NW and NE, and the average annual runoff depth is about 1700 mm. The main stream of Heizhugou originates from the north side of Fox Mountain near the main peak of Ma'anshan. It is about 20 kilometers long. Its tributary, Rosoyida, originates from the Ice Dou Lake between Fox Mountain and the main peak, which is 15 kilometers long and has an average annual flow of 9 cubic meters per second. In addition to the vertical and horizontal streams, there are glacial lakes and alpine Haizi under the main peak in Heizhugou area, the largest being nearly 100 mu. In addition, there is a karst lake about 20 meters long in Bahigozi.

Groundwater is the hotspring with the highest temperature in the southwestern margin of Sichuan Basin, as well as the karst spring, which grows in the underground river at the source of Heizhugou for several kilometers.

soil

In Heizhugou Forest Park, there are five kinds of soil: mountain yellow soil (below 1800 meters), mountain yellow brown soil (1800-2200 meters), mountain dark brown soil (2200-2700 meters), mountain brown coniferous forest soil (within dark coniferous forest above 2700 meters), sub-alpine meadow soil (above 3000 meters). There are three kinds of non-zonal soils: yellow limestone soil (below 1800 meters), purple soil and marsh soil. Zonal soil mosaics are patchy.

Resource situation

Animal

There are about 29 species of wildlife under the first and second level of state protection in the ditch, including pandas, antelopes, clouded leopards and Sichuan partridges, and 24 species of macaques and small pandas. These animals have important scientific research value and high cultural and ornamental value. It's extremely valuable.

Botany

In Heizhugou scenic spot, 60% of the mountains and valleys are natural virgin forests, 25% are shrubs and jungles, and 15% belong to alpine meadows. There are evergreen broad-leaved forest belt (below 2000 meters), coniferous-broad-leaved mixed forest belt (2000-2400 meters), dark coniferous forest belt (2400-3600 meters) and alpine shrub meadow belt (above 3600 meters) from bottom to top in the forest park. Common broad-leaved species are Machilus macrophylla, Cinnamomum camphora, Ginger, Quercus asparagus, Chestnut, Qinggang, Schima superba and so on; deciduous species are: maple, davidia, Lianxiang, bright-leaved birch, red birch, birch, water lily, Chinese maple, Chinese fir, and so on; coniferous species are: hemlock, spruce, fir, rhododendron, arrow and so on.

The vegetation in Heizhugou area is distributed vertically. Among them, the Davidia involucrata var. involucrata var. involucrata var. involucrata var. involucrata var. involucrata var. involucrata var. involucrata var. involucrata var. involucrata var. involucrata var. invol There are also 19 species of rare or unique precious plants in China.

Rhododendron in Heizhugou area has gorgeous and colorful flowers with more than 40 species and an area of tens of thousands of mu, which is the world's top. Two of them are newly discovered varieties in China.

mineral

Most of the rocks in Heizhugou are volcanic rocks, which contain a large number of iron, manganese, magnesium, silicon and so on, thus producing a very different magnetic field zone in Heizhugou. In this magnetic field band, the clock will stop, the compass and compass can not read accurately, and the local deviation is about 30 degrees

Main scenic spots

Sancha River Scenic Area

Sancha River scenic spot is located in the middle and lower reaches of Heizhugou. It is characterized by staggered faulted rocks and steep canyons. It is the most spectacular and concentrated scenic spot of the canyon water landscape in the park.

Now the main scenic spots are Davidia involucrata, Bottomless Cave, Panda ridge, carp back, Lian Xianglin, Spruce Dam, Spruce King, Sancha River Grand Canyon, Bailong Cave, Chaotic Stone Surge, Pearl Beach, Shuanglong Pengjiang, Upper Stone Dragon, Longtan Fall, Triassic Waterfall, etc.

Shimenguan Scenic Area

Shimenguan scenic spot is located above Shimenguan in the upper reaches of Sancha River. This is a primitive Canyon forest belt with an area of about 20 square kilometers. There have been many mysterious and strange incidents of human and animal entering the ditch. Its three major dangers are the canyon fog, the Uygur throwing dangerous road (there is a local Yijia proverb: "On the Uygur throwing, life and death are hard to predict") and the Shimen Pass. (There used to be a folk proverb of "Stone Gate Pass, Stone Gate Pass, Dark Mist River with Deep Pond, Swertia monkey is so sad to climb, Heroes are sad to survive".

The characteristic of the scenic spot is that the original natural landscape and the ecological community of animals and plants are preserved most completely. It is a mysterious place in the heart of Heizhugou groove, which few people dare to step into so far. In addition, many magical legends circulated in the area make the whole scenic spot have a terrible and mysterious atmosphere.

Fox Mountain Scenic Area

Fox Mountain is located in the central scenic spot of Heizhugou. Its characteristic is that the sky scenery is peculiar and charming, with all kinds of wildlife, precious medicinal materials distribution. The scenic spot has the most primitive natural scenery and alpine scenery.

Scenic spots include: Rhododendron Forest Sea, Fox Mountain, Pyramid, Natural Root Carving Bonsai Garden, Maanshan Main Peak, Tian Eye, Boat Lake, Glacier Site, Rhododendron Jade, Shentao Forest, Yeren Valley, Foguang, Yunhai, Rizhao Jinshan, Alpine Meadow, Fox Flat, Xiaoshilin, Yinyang Boundary, Rhododendron Waterfall, Tian Eye Waterfall, etc.

Ghost Pusher Scenic Spot

Ghost Pumo Scenic Area is located in the central part of Fox Mountain. It is characterized by complex terrain, steep mountains, towering ancient trees, open meadows and dense moss, which are the key scenic spots of the park.

Scenic spots include ghost mill, fairy forest, ancient moss forest, natural golf course, Oolong ridge, red rock, azalea cliff, wild boar mountain and so on. To enjoy the natural landscape, appropriate recreational activities.

"Ghost Pushing Mill" is famous for its "labyrinth". It has a hundred years of moss and huge ice gravel. Shentao Forest can see the meteorological wonders. A ridge divides the blue sky into two parts: the West bright and the East dark along the north and South direction. We can watch the sunrise and sunset, the sea of clouds and the rainbow of Buddha's light in the trench.

Mujugou Scenic Area

The scenic spot is located in the area of 611 forest farm. The scenic area is flat and open, quiet environment, pleasant climate, a variety of vegetation, constituting the beautiful scenery of the natural gallery. Now the main attractions are Shenfrog Spring, Shenquan, Pearl Curtain Jade Drop, Tiannu Sanhua, Red Leaf Ornamental Garden, Natural Gallery, White Pigeon Wing Spreading, General Tree, Lin Yin Waterfall, etc.

The scenic spot is centered on enjoying the primitive natural scenery and carrying out activities such as vacation, leisure, entertainment and popular science.

Rhododendron Pool Resort

The recreational area of Rhododendron Pool includes the upper basin of South Sichuan Forestry Bureau in Baxigou, covering an area of 6679.3 hectares. In 614 forest farm located in the eastern part of the park, the large and small azalea ponds in the scenic area are the main natural alpine lakes, including alpine haizi, artificial forest sea, azalea garden and other landscapes, to carry out vacation and leisure, forest recreation, water entertainment and experience the customs of the Yi people.

The main scenic spots in the scenic area are: big azalea pond, azalea garden, larch forest sea, pheasant flat, five trees of the same tree and so on. The scenic spot is centered on leisure and recreational activities.

Heizhugou Hot Spring

Heizhugou Hot Spring is located in Jinyan Township, Ebian County. It belongs to the typical pure Yi nationality area. It is only 40 kilometers away from Ebian County Town and about 10 kilometers away from Heizhugou Town. Heizhugou hot spring Heizhugou official river. The water temperature is kept between 48 and 62 degrees Celsius all the year round. The geotechnical water quality testing center of Sichuan Geological Survey Bureau has detected and analyzed more than 8 kinds of minerals such as strontium, lithium and boron in hot spring water.

Development and construction

Heizhugou is a national nature reserve, National Forest Park and national AAAA tourist attraction.

On June 5, 1996, the People's Government of Sichuan Province approved Heizhugou as a provincial scenic spot.

In March 1997, the People's Government of Sichuan Province approved Heizhugou Scenic Area as a provincial nature reserve.

On March 24, 2000, Sichuan Forestry Department approved Heizhugou as a national forest park.

In 2012, it became a national nature reserve.

In 2014, Heizhugou Scenic Spot was awarded National Water Conservancy Scenic Spot and Provincial Ecotourism Demonstration Zone.

In 2015, it won the first batch of "China Forest Oxygen Bar" title.

Historical culture

Origin of Heizhugou Name

There are two ways of saying the name of Heizhugou. One is that Heizhugou is called "Malolada", because there are many dark green arrows growing in the legend ditch. In Yi, "Malo" means bamboo, and "Lada" means valley. Another way of saying is: Heizhugou is called "Hezulada", "Hey" means "fog", "Zu" means "place to live and stay for a long time", "Lada" also means valley, which means that Heizhugou is a valley where fog stays for a long time. The core scenic spot of Heizhugou is located in Heizhugou Town, formerly known as Sikuo Town, which used to be called Yijirada. Local villagers used spring water to grow rice. Somehow, there were often cold and hot strange diseases, people and livestock died, so they had to change their place name to Siyu. In Yi language, "Si" means "death", "Huo" means "swinging", and "Si" means "swinging to death". Because of the need of tourism development, the name of Sikuo Town was changed to Heizhugou Town.

The Mysterious Event of Heizhugou

Mysterious disappearance mystery - people and animals often disappear and die when they enter Heizhugou, which has been reported for a long time. Many media have also disclosed how people disappear after they enter. Many reasons are still a mystery. According to incomplete statistics, since 1951, exploration teams of South Sichuan Forestry Bureau and Sichuan Forestry Department, army surveying and mapping teams and Yi compatriots have been in danger many times in Heizhugou, three of them were killed and three injured, and two of them were missing. According to the local elders of the Yi nationality, in 1950, more than 30 remnants of Hu Zongnan of the Kuomintang crossed the Heizhu ditch with sophisticated weapons. No one survived after entering the ditch. Therefore, there was a saying of "death valley of terror".

The Mystery of Yi Nationality's Ancestral Place

This is a riddle worthy of textual research. Now the original name of Sihe Town is Shihuo, and the Yi language means "to die by swinging". Local Yi compatriots are widely circulated: in the most dangerous area of Death Valley, the open valley above Shimen is where their ancestors lived, and "ancestral training" can not enter, otherwise disaster will occur. Shimenguan is the hinterland of Heizhugou. Many expeditions have gone through a lot of hardships, and ultimately failed to penetrate the dangerous area of Shimenguan. There is a local legend of "no trace of the Orion, no return of the hero once gone".

Latitude puzzle

The latitude of Heizhugou is similar to that of Bermuda Triangle and Egyptian Pyramid. Explorers call it the "latitude line of death". On the east side of Maanshan main peak in Heizhugou, there is a peak at 3998 meters above sea level. The pyramid is the watershed of Heizhugou's two major water systems. It originates from the Sancha River in the north and the Rosoyida River in the south, just like the two jade arms of the "pyramid" extending out to the whole. The hinterland of Heizhugou area is tightly encircled. Heizhugou "pyramid" not only has a very high value of scientific research, but also is a very rare viewing platform.

Mystery of savages

It is also a mystery that there are savages in Heizhugou. It is said that in October 1974 Ran Qianbugan, a rural resident in Lewu, witnessed the savage, a male giant about 2 meters tall, with the same face and human body, covered with yellowish-brown fur. Later, the local people found the traces of the savage. The local people's reverence for the savage exceeded their reverence for the mountain god, calling it "Noshen Loap", meaning "Grandpa of the mountain god". Many people have spoken of the savage so far. Still palpitating, there is a place named "Savage Valley" in Heizhugou.

The Mystery of the Wonderful Fog in the Valley

Heizhugou is often foggy because of its unique terrain and lush vegetation. According to the local Yi people, entering the ditch should not be loud and noisy, otherwise it will alarm the mountain gods. The mountain gods will spit out the green mist when they are angry and take away people and animals. The investigators analyzed the causes of death and disappearance of people and animals in the ditch. The possibility of fog is very high. It is difficult for people to escape from the trap of the death valley because of the unfamiliar terrain when entering the deep mountain valley. There is a local saying: "Shimen Pass, Shimen Pass, mist ditch with Baotan; apes so sad to climb, heroes sad this pass." Once in it, it will surround you and swallow you up. Why is the fog here so unpredictable? Why does it cause casualties? Whether the fog contains other ingredients remains to be studied.

The Mystery of Animals and Plants

There are many rare animals in the world in Heizhugou. Among them, the black-and-white striped giant panda and another kind of black-and-white striped "flower bears" are rare. When visiting the science team, they often see all kinds of wild animals. When they are sleeping at night, they have to take close precautions. But the bears here often go to the Yi Shan cottage to eat cattle, sheep and pigs. The eating habits of giant pandas need to be studied by experts. There have been black leopard caught here. It is said that it is also the first time that a panther has been found in Asia, and there are many activities and rare things that have not been found in the ditch. Wildlife, animal experts have to reveal.

In a word, Heizhugou scenic spot is a "geomantic treasure" left by nature to human beings, a natural museum, a kingdom of animals and plants, especially in the middle and high mountains, which is basically free from human interference and destruction. It is a well-preserved natural gene bank. If we want to study it deeply and uncover its secrets, we must deal with geology, landform and meteorology. Hydrology, biology, culture and history and other disciplines.

Legend of Rhododendron Pond

The local Yi people said that the two Rhododendron ponds separated from each other and could only look at each other from afar, but could not approach each other. If you want to hear both male and female cuckoo ponds whine, no matter how fine the weather is at first, it will start to cloudy immediately, and then it will rain. People will begin to speculate that this is not a couple forced to separate from each other or a couple, the hearts of countless feelings of nostalgia, grievances have no place to tell, so Xiangtou this natural wind and rain? However, whenever people ask the local people what happened to the male and female cuckoo ponds, they always shake their heads and say they don't know. Is it true that you don't know the inside story, or are you afraid of some mysterious force of nature and dare not say a word? We don't know.

Traffic and routes

traffic

Heizhugou Scenic Area is 246 kilometers from Chengdu, 144 kilometers from Leshan, 114 kilometers from Emei Mountain and 63 kilometers from Ebian County Town.

Self-driving: From Chengdu to Leshan City along Chengdu Chengle Expressway, then along the hills for more than 50 kilometers to Ebian County, and then along Chengdu-Xichang Highway to Heizhugou Town Hill into Heizhugou Scenic Area, the whole journey is about 300 kilometers, the road ahead is better, after entering Heizhugou Town Hill Road is currently gravel road (2003), which is more difficult to drive.

Car ride: You can transfer to Heizhugou Town from Xinnanmen Station in Chengdu to Ebian County. There is no bus to go up the hill. You can only take a charter or a hitchhike.

Tickets: 50 yuan for Heizhugou scenic spot.

Hiking route

On the first day, Chengdu-Leshan-Ebian-611 Forest Farm (about 308 km).

From Chengdu to Leshan along the expressway, then to Ebian to Heizhugou Town, living in Heizhugou Town.

The next day, Heizhugou Town - 611 Forest Farm - End of Highway (28 - 32 kilometers on foot).

On the third day, the end of 611 Highway - Shentaolin - 2 Camp HB3650M.

This section is along the simple trestle road, which has been built for tourism in recent years. In the forest, cold, fog and humidity hit at any time. Camp 2 is about 10 kilometers away from the end of the forest road. Camp 2 is a simple wooden shed built in Quaternary Ice Valley. It is easy to camp here. It travels 20 kilometers on the same day. (Remind: Don't take off your clothes easily or stop to rest too long when you sweat on foot in case of a cold.)

Camp 2 - Rhododendron Sea - Maanshan Main Peak - Camp 2 starts from Camp 2, passes through a primitive forest and arrives at the lawn, then enters the Rhododendron Forest. After crossing the Rhododendron Sea, it rushes to the top along the South Ridge of Maanshan Mountain. The main peak is 4288 meters above sea level, and the journey is about 20 kilometers on the same day.

Camp No. 2 on the fifth day - Yinyang boundary - Guji estuary - above Shimenguan (about 22 kilometers on foot, down to Guji estuary through fox flat drilling dense forest).

On the sixth day, above Shimen Gate - Shimen Gate - Chuan Waterfall - Camping Site above Shimen Gate - Second Section of 616 Forest Farm - Heizhugou Town (about 30 kilometers on foot).

"Shimen Pass is also the most horrible and dangerous place that many expeditions are afraid of.

The Guji River Estuary has been crossed by forest roads, but here is the end of the road. From below is a deep valley of nearly a kilometer. It can only circuitously advance in the valley of rapids. Sometimes there will be a puff of dense fog inexplicably pouring out in the valley. (Note: The vapour of bravado combined with previous legends is often an important reason for the retreat of explorers.)

On the seventh day, Heizhugou Town - Ebian - Chengdu.

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