Hebei Drum Music
Hebei drum and percussion music is a local traditional music mainly composed of percussion instruments and percussion instruments. It has been an important type of music in the history of Chinese national music. At the beginning, drums, horns, chords and other instruments were commonly used, and lyrics were often found in the repertoire for singing. As a kind of historical music, drumming music refers to the music compiled by Yuefu or Taichang, which has been related to honor guards, military forces and banquets in the court, military government and government since the Han and Wei Dynasties.
On May 20, 2006, Hebei Drum Music was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
Broad sense of "advocacy" can be seen in the professional advocacy of the Ming Dynasty. Since the Song and Yuan Dynasties, due to the changes in history and social and economic life, the ensemble form of advocacy music has gradually developed among the Chinese people; although there were still official settings in Ming and Qing Dynasties, the compilation and application of musical instruments had already evolved over and over again; various schools of Chinese folk music, through the innovations of professional, semi-professional artists or monasteries, have formed different styles in modern times, although they still used the name of advocacy. A new type of music.
The initial stage of drum music was not later than the early Han Dynasty. When the Ban family was dominant in the northwest, Ban Yi had used drumming music (Liu's Ding Jun Li). Its source was the immediate pleasure of the Northwest nationality. Up to Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, the "cross-wind" in advocacy music also drew creative materials from the Western Regions music "Mahaodule". In the Six Dynasties, it was also related to "Beidile" and "Northern Xiaogu".
As a kind of music developed and matured in the middle and primary period, drumming music has no relationship with the Kai music (a kind of military music) of the Pre-Qin Dynasty. From the Han Dynasty, the tradition of using Chinese folk music in the imperial court and the army was closely related to Xianghe song and Qing Shang music. The preface of "Advocating Quci" in Yuefu Poetry Collection: "Changxiao, Short Xiao," Jijilu and Yun: Sun (silk) and bamboo cooperate, executor's song"; the preface of"Huangqiu Quci"in Qing Dynasty and Shang Dynasty:"According to the title of "Huangqiao" in Han Dynasty. The relationship between drumming music and Chinese folk songs is very close. Even in military music of the Han Dynasty, the original words of folk songs with the themes of love and anti-war are unavoidable, such as "Shangxie" singing the eternity of love, and "Ziqima" singing the cross-wind song "Ziqima" singing "The fifteenth military expedition, and the eighty-first military expedition" and so on. Only from the form and content of the existing advocacy lyrics in Yuefu Poetry Collection can we see the close relationship between advocacy music and Chinese folk music since the Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties.
Drum Music Between Han and Wei Dynasties
The drum music between Han and Wei Dynasty can be divided into the following categories according to its use.
1. Huangmen Advocacy
Mastered by the Son of Heaven's close attendants, mainly listed in the palace, known as "eating and lifting music" (used for banquets and meals), also known as "Changxiao". Huangmen advocacy is also used for the special "halogen book" (honor guard) of the emperor. "Miscellaneous Records of Xijing" contains: "Ganquan and Fenyin, HanDajia Temple, equipped with thousands of rides, are preached in front and back of Huangmen. "The palaces and halogen books are quite the same as the drum music of later generations.
2. Riding and blowing
Used for halogen books, accompanied by emperors, nobles and other driving, with the pipes, pipes, drums, and other musical instruments to play on the horse and get the name.
(3) Songs of Short Xiao
It refers to military music. It is mainly used for grand activities such as community, temple, Kaile, Wuhui, suburban worship and school hunting.
When performing with the army, the imperial court often bestowed the border generals with it. Volume 21 of the Collection of Yuefu Poems explains the difference between advocacy and advocacy: "The beginning of a cross-talk is also called advocacy... The advocate is the one who has the flute and the bamboo slip.The advocate is the advocate...the advocate is the advocate of the There are drums and horns for the banner, and in the army for use, those who play immediately are also. "Jinshu Yuezhi" also said: "Hujiao people, originally in response to the voice of Hu Jian, then gradually used the cross-wind, there are two horns, that is, Hu Yue. From this, we can see that "cross-blowing" is the later, its representative work is the famous "Xinsheng 28 Jie" (Jinshu Yuezhi).
Changes of Guyu Music in Sui and Tang Dynasties
In Sui and Tang Dynasties, the drumming and percussion music was still mastered by the Emperor's near servant and the Taichang Advocacy Department. It is slightly the same as the previous generation, but its division and name are different, and its etiquette use is still the continuation of the advocacy of the Han Dynasty.
(1) Previous Huangmen advocated the use of special halogen books for banquets and emperors, which was equivalent to the Sui Dynasty "Drum Department" or the Tang Dynasty "Drum Department". "Drum" uses drums, golden bowls, big drums, small drums, long horns, secondary horns and big horns. Tang "advocacy department" does not use big horns.
(2) Previous short-hairpin songs were used in suburbs, temples and kaiyue. Equivalent to the Sui Dynasty "cymbals and drums department", with songs, drums, pipes, pipes. The Tang Dynasty is divided into "Yu Bao Department" and "Fu Blow Department". "Old Tang Shu? Music Records" contains: "When the cymbal blowing department is used for Kaile music, it does not add musical instruments such as gongs, cymbals, etc. to take the form of riding and blowing. "Advocating the leader, branch before the captives of soldiers and horses. He will enter Dumen, advocate and rejuvenate, and repeat four pieces such as "Breaking the Battle Music".
(3) Previous generations of riding and blowing, cross blowing were used for both halogen books and marching. Slightly equivalent to the Sui and Tang dynasties "big cross-blowing department" (horn, drum, flute, xiao, gong, bamboo, peach skin) and "small cross-blowing department" (big cross-blowing minus jie-drum).
Song Dynasty Court Drum Music
Song Dynasty's court advocacy music is called "Following the Army Fan Da Yue", which is used to close to the ranks of the emperor's honor guard, and is controlled by the forbidden army or the internal prison, rather than the advocacy department. According to "Old Stories of Wulin", there are clapper 2, Pangu 24, big drum 10, Zazi 9, whistle 4, dragon flute 4, Jian 2, and the band has about 50 people. Among the smaller activities, the "horse queen music" is composed of the selection of the forbidden army. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the same kind of halogen book music was mastered by Lu Yiwei. The court drumming music in Qing Dynasty is called "Zang Ge Music", which can be divided into four categories: Halogen Book Music, Front Music, Happy Triumph Music and Triumph Music. The halogen book music is used for sacrificial rites, Dynasty meetings and banquets, and is called "the cymbal song and advocacy". Front music is also called "Da Hanbo". Happiness music is not used for sacrifice, but for travel and staying. It is also often used to guide Haubu music during driving in and out, including songs such as "Mingjiao", "Zangge Dayue" and "Zangge Qingyue". Triumphal music is used for sacrificing gods and celestial rituals, such as divinity, repayment and triumphant return. Its chant songs and triumphal songs have been preserved up to the present time in the reign of Qianlong. In addition to preserving the legacy of drums and horns of drum music since the Han Dynasty, metal percussion instruments such as Sheng, Gui, Yungong and cymbal are also used.
Analysis of Drum Music in the Past Dynasties
The types, forms and uses of drumming music in the past dynasties are generally the same, without strict boundaries, and vary with the times. Generally speaking, drumming music before Song Dynasty has much in common, but after Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty, it changed a lot. The nearer the future generations are, the more different kinds of drumming music will lose their distinction and gradually mix up, which is called drumming. But even in the period of Han, Wei and Six Dynasties, the relationship between the types and uses of drumming music can not be insisted on. Chen Hou's "Northern Xiaogu" (actually "Changxiao") is not limited to the original use of Huangmen's propaganda; it is also a common tradition of portrait bricks in the Han Dynasty to use the propaganda as an accompaniment for recreational activities and even for "Baiju Opera", and to use the propaganda occasions from pavilions to buildings, boats and cars. Preface to "Advocating Songs" in Yuefu Poetry Collection: "Emperor Zhou Wudi's Yuanzheng General Assembly, with Liang case (Liang Shi advocated"Xiongquan 12 cases") in suspension (between Zhong and Kun" suspension), and ensemble with the positive music", is a popular and elegant music. The historical facts show that although all the feudal dynasties in China theoretically excluded the instruments used in the drumming music from the elegant ones, there were a lot of examples of the application of drumming music from the Western Han Dynasty to the late Qing Dynasty, from the sacred sacrificial activities of suburban temples to the grand military ceremonies.
The Development of Trumpet Music
In the early stage of advocacy music, it was collected from Chinese folk and worshipped by the government. Later, in the Northern and Southern Dynasties, as shown by the brick portraits of Deng County, it flowed into the Chinese folk and was used by the wealthy families. After the Ming and Qing dynasties, the drumming music used by the court and the government has become the aftermath of this kind of music in ancient history; on the contrary, the drumming artists and their skills flowing into the folk society have made new progress under the influence of the commercial economy. In different regions and styles, various kinds of modern Chinese folk instrumental music ensemble, each with the name of "drumming", "drumming music" and "blowing and beating", have gradually entered into the formation or development. The new stage.
Yongnian drum music is mainly inherited in the way of family. In the long-term process of transmission, five major family schools have gradually formed. Yongnian advocate music is a very distinctive traditional folk art form in Hebei Province. It is a valuable material for studying traditional Chinese folk music. Its traditional performance methods, performance skills and performance style have a great inspiration for the development and innovation of the contemporary national advocate performance art in China.