Han Feizi

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Han Feizi

Han Feizi is a collection of works of famous thinkers and Legalists Han Fei during the Warring States period. Han Feizi was compiled by posterity after Han Fei's death. According to hanshuyiwenzhi "Han Feizi" is the fifty-five. suishujingjizhi Twenty volumes, Zhang Shijie "Shi Ji justice" cited Xiao Xu Rong Seven records (or thought) Liu Xiang "Seven records" also said "Han Feizi" twenty volume. The number of papers and volumes is consistent with the present version.

Many of the folklore and fable stories at that time also became the source of idioms and allusions.

Summary of contents

Han Feizi is the representative work of the legalist school, with twenty volumes. Han Fei (about 280~233 BC), during the Warring States period, Koreans were The Republic of Korea Childe, with Liz Fellow students a pre-Qin philosopher The study of punishments is the representative of Legalist school.

The book is composed of fifty-five independent essays. Most of the allusions are from Han Fei. The core of his theory is the idea of combining law, practice and power based on autocratic monarchy. He holds the historical view of evolutionism and advocates extreme utilitarianism. He believes that the relationship between people is mainly stakes and benevolence and education is supplemented. It emphasizes that ruling the country by law and taking advantage of people has a great influence on the establishment of the feudal system in China after the Qin and Han Dynasties. The book has a unique style in the pre Qin philosophers, with sharp thoughts, sharp words, strict logic, and good use of allegory. Its fables are compiled into various fable collections after finishing, such as "internal and external storage theory", "Lin Lin", "Yu Lao", "ten passes" and so on.

Shi Han, Han Fei stuttering, is not good at speaking, and is good at writing books. When Qin was attacked, he was harbored by slanders such as classmate Li Si. Sima Qian said, "Han Fei is trapped in Qin," "difficult to speak". Lonely anger Although Han Fei is not good at argument, his pen is bold and bold, and his language is concise and lively. When Han is not speaking much, he will have more time and opportunity to make a cold and sharp observation on the society when he is plotted against his classmates. To read this book, to understand the meaning of Sima, to know Han Zizhi's text, to be "ruthless" in the rule of law.

In Han Feizi's annotation, there are important examples of the Qing Dynasty's "Han Feizi Ji Jie", Liang Qixiong's han zi Jie Jie and Chen Qiyou's Han Feizi's release. This is a collection of four chapters.

Literary characteristics

Han Fei's essays are precise and precise. Penetrating It is the key to deduce the truth.

Han Fei's essays are ingenious, bold and humorous, and are wonderful in reality. They are thought-provoking and alert to the world. artistic effect Han Fei Tzu is also good at using a lot of simple allegory stories and rich historical knowledge as argument materials, explaining abstract truth, and visualizing his legalist thought and his profound understanding of social life. Many fable stories appearing in his articles become rich stories and vivid stories. Win universal praise Idioms and allusions have been widely used nowadays.

Version introduction

Han Feizi is a collection of later generations after Han Fei's death. According to hanshuyiwenzhi "Hanzi" is catalogued in fifty-five. suishujingjizhi Twenty volumes, Zhang Shijie "Shi Ji justice" cited Xiao Xu Rong Seven records (or thought) Liu Xiang "Seven records" also said "Han Feizi" twenty volume. The number of papers and volumes is consistent with the present version.

Han Non child The editions have been divided into two parts since Song Dynasty. The first line is the Southern Song Dynasty. natural law The block printed edition of Fujian in the first year of the Song Dynasty has not been preserved, but there are several books handed down in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. There are two branches from this system. The first one is Ming Wanli. Zhao Yong Xian Guan Han's engraving system, Zhao Ben on the basis of edition printed in the Song dynasty For the purpose of correcting the original version and correcting it according to his own book, and having the difference between the original printed edition and the later printed edition, this one is also published by Zhou Kongjiao Huang CE, published by Wanli. Wu Miao Xue Printed edition, ling mengchu The printed edition of the journal, Shen Jinglin's edition, the block printed edition of the king's School of Zhao Ruyuan, and the printed edition of Ge Ding are all disturbed by the following second series of "Hanzi roundabout", and the other is the Qing Dynasty. Wu Wu Copy the song block printed edition, this book is directly inscribed by Song Qiandao's umbra. There are twenty-two sons, which are inscribed by Wu Ben.

The second family should also be a song edition. This book was divided into two branches in the Yuan Dynasty. The first one was the Ming and orthodox Taoist Scriptures, which were first carved out of the Song Dynasty. After that, there were Ming and Jiajing Zhang Ding Wen's block printed edition and Ming Zheng de Yan Shitai's block printed edition. The difference between the second and the first is to delete all the first small notes, originally the school of the Yuan Dynasty, but the yuan block printed edition has not been saved. The expenditure is from the seven years of the Ming Wanli, the eleven year patten of Wanzi and Wanli, and the number of the two editions.

Han Feizi also has an abridged version in the Ming Dynasty.

Since the Qing Dynasty Lu Wen Jie , Gu Guang Hu , Wang Nian sun , Yu Yu Sun Yirang collated the book, in the late Qing Dynasty. Wang Xian Shen Summing up Qing Dynasty's achievements in Han Fei Zi Ji Jie, 20s Chi-Tian Chen The interpretation of Han Feizi (after the two revision in Taiwan after 50s, and then transferred to the essence). Chen Qi you Han Fei Zi has been released in recent years. In recent years, "Han Fei Zi's new school note" has been criticized by Chen Qitian. Michael Leung There is "Han Fei shallow solution", 2009. Zhang Jue Published by Han Feizi.

Main points

Historical progress theory

Han Fei pays attention to studying history and thinks that history is constantly developing and progresses. Moreover, he thought that if the world today praises "Yao, Shun, Tang and Wu Dao", he will smile for the new saint. So he advocated " Not get into a rut , Dare to innovate " Different things happen but different things happen. It is necessary to formulate policies according to today's reality. His Historical view It provided a theoretical basis for the reform of rulers at that time.

"Five pests" divides historical development into three stages: ancient, medieval and ancient.

For the public, he absorbed his teacher. a pre-Qin philosopher The theory of "sexual corruption" holds that the nature of the people is "evil labor and good leisure". Only by binding the masses with the law and punting the people, can we prohibit the rape of the immature. Therefore, he believes that the implementation of criminal law is just the expression of loving the people. (Han Fei Zi Xin DU). It is easy to ignore that Han Fei advocated reducing the taxes and duties of the people. He believed that serious military service and taxes would only make the litige strong and not conducive to the rule of kings.

Autocratic monarchy

Han Fei inherited and summarized the thought and practice of the Legalists in the Warring States period. Autocratic monarchy Centralization theory.

For the monarch, he advocated that "in the Quartet, we must be in the central government; the saints must hold the Quartet, and the Quartet will come to effect". For this reason, the monarch should use all kinds of means to eliminate the hereditary slave owners aristocracy, "scattered party" and "seize its auxiliary" (Han Fei Zi main road); at the same time, select a group of feudal officials who have been practising to replace them, "the prime minister must rise in the State Department, and the fierce will be sent to the army" (Han Fei Zi). Prominent school )

Reform and rule of law

For politics, Han Fei advocated reform and implementation of the rule of law, requiring "Abolishing the doctrine of the former king" ("Han Fei Zi Tian Tian"). Educate by law (Han Fei Zi Wu Ke). He stressed that the "law" must be strictly enforced and no one should be exceptions. The law does not protect the powerful persons "The punishment is not to avoid the minister, but to reward the good without leaving a single man".

For his subordinate, he thought he should go to "five pests" and guard against "eight traitors". (Han Fei Zi, eight traitors, "Han Fei Zi Wu Wu") the so-called five pests, that is: 1, scholars (referring to Confucianism); 2, speakers Strategists ); 3, the swords (refers to Rangers); 4, the victim (refers to the aristocracy and evade military service); 5, the people of Commerce and industry. He believes that these people will disturb the rule of law, which is useless for farming, and must be eradicated. The so-called "eight crafty" refers to: 1, "the same bed", refers to the emperor's wife and concubines; 2, "beside the" means. Comedian 3, "father and brother", refers to the brother of the emperor's nephew; 4, "to raise calamity" means the person who wants to curry favor with the monarch; 5, "Meng Meng" means privately distributing. Public wealth Pleasing the people's courtiers; 6, "popularity" means searching for lobbyists to buy people's hearts and making public opinion; 7, "Wei Qiang" refers to those who support the outlaws and show off their prestige; 8, the "four sides" refers to those who use the State Treasury to make great efforts to cultivate their own forces. These people have good conditions to threaten the security of the country and guard against them as a thief.

Naive Dialectics

Han Fei Naive Dialectics His thought is also outstanding. He first put forward the theory of contradiction, using the fable of spear and shield to explain the truth that "the shield that can not be trapped and the spear without being trapped can not be established in the same world". It is worth mentioning that in the book Han Feizi, there are a lot of fable stories that are popular. Wait every day under the tree, in the hope that a hare would kill itself by crashing into a tree trunk "," Hide one's troubles and take no remedial measures "," Pretend to play the Yu "," An old hand is a good guide And so on. These vivid fable stories contain profound philosophies. With their perfect combination of ideology and artistry, they inspire people with wisdom and have high literary value. Han Fei's article is precise and precise. Wen Feng is sharp, and his argument is thorough. For example, a piece of "death penalty", it is rare to analyze the number of 47 countries that can be killed. " Unspeakable "," Talk hard "Two articles, meticulously try to figure out the psychology of the speaker, and how to avoid making up, meticulous and meticulous.

Han Fei uses the population theory that population growth is faster than the growth rate of the means of living to explain "today's struggle for strength", that population is increased by geometric progression. Five sons, twenty-five sons There are not five sons, five sons, and twenty-five great grandfathers. It is for the masses of the people that the goods and money are few, and the labour is hard to support. Accumulated penalty And not from chaos.

Famous quotes in books

The 1. law is not obvious, but the technique is not to be seen. (the law must be clear, and the operation must not be perceived).

2., the deficiency knows the truth, while the quiet knows the positive. Only when we are out of sight can we see the truth and keep calm before we can formulate the principle of action.

3. empty and quiet, no darkness. (maintaining a state of being quiet and inactive will often reveal a loophole in others' behavior from a hidden perspective).

4. therefore, he is willing to go bad, and he is modest in thinking of Tao. (therefore, we should discard intimacy, disgust and other emotions before we can successfully use tactics.

5. the king did not see what he wanted. A monarch should not show his preference.

6., to go to evil, ministers to see elements; to go old to wisdom, ministers are self provided. (the emperor concealment his own likes and dislikes, only then can he see the true colors of his subjects; throw away his old prejudices, and do not reveal his wisdom, so that he can keep his duties.

The 7. masters are virtuous, while the ministers' decorations are for the purpose of inviting the king. (the monarch likes to appoint a virtuous man, then he will self polish and cater to the monarch).

The 8. ministers saw the prime minister. The appearance of the ministers will not be deceived.

The 9. is to be wise and wise, to be virtuous and meritorious, and to be brave and strong. (without wisdom, we can see clearly, do not show that virtuous deeds can accomplish great cause, but do not brag or brave is still strong).

10. see and disappear, smell but do not smell, know and do not know (see as if not see, hear do not seem to hear, I do not seem to know)

11., when a gentleman sees evil, he will hide the end. If the monarch hates it, the ministers will hide it. If the king likes it, then the ministers will falsification to cater for it.

12., to say something contrary is to be doubtful. (deliberate remarks or counter actions to test subjects)

The 13. system is important in itself. Heavy can make light, quiet can make impetuous. ( authority In hand, what is said is important. A heavy man can control a Lightman, a quiet man can restrain impetuosity.

The 14. thing is in the Quartet. The saints must obey the Quartet. (specific affairs should be carried out by the heads of all levels, and the monarch should ensure the consolidation of the central authority. So long as the monarch can grasp the overall situation accurately, the subjects of the four sides will serve.

15. all men help their strength, while those close to them accomplish their goals. (people will try their best to help him, and people around him will be happy to make friends with him. Sincerely Praise him, and those with high rights will praise him.

16., if the ruler of a gentleman explains his punishment and makes his minister use it, he is opposed to his minister. (the monarch will obey his or her own punishment, so that he will be controlled by his subordinate).

17., the killing of the machine must be captured at the minister, if the person invades. The power of killing and killing falls in the hands of the Liege, so that the sovereign will have the risk of losing power.

18. when love is many, the law does not stand. It is difficult to establish laws if they indulge too much. Without authority, they will be bullied by their subjects.

19. AI Chen is too pro, but his body is too strong. Too much trust in the Lord will endanger the monarch himself; if his authority is too heavy, he must have the heart of usurpation.

The 20. person has no authority but focuses on the left and right sides. The monarch lost his majesty and depended on his courtiers.

21., love is not to be hated, nor to hate. (pretending to love, one can no longer hate it; pretend to hate it, and then it can no longer give grace to it).

22., the trees and pomelo are sweet and fragrant, while the tree is the thorn. Therefore, a gentleman is careful to plant trees. (orange pomelo is sweet and smells sweet; growing thorns, growing up will stab people.) (Note: be careful when cultivating people)

The 23. way is chaos, and Taoism is the rule.

24. do not blow wool and ask for minor flaws. -- Han Fei Zi general.

25. win without pride, lose without complaint. "Shang Jun Shu" tactics.

26. the nature of the people, hunger for food, labor for quick, pain for pleasure, shame for honour, life for profit, death for name. Shang Jun Shu

The 27 thousand mile embankment is destroyed by ants. ( Han Fei Zi Yu Lao )

28., shield the child with the spear of the child. (Han Fei Zi, hard one)

Twenty-nine More haste, less speed. Han Fei Zi Yu Chu Zuo Zuo Shang

30 good at dancing. Han Fei Zi Wu Wu TSE

31. good faith is better than honesty, but honesty can win the hearts of the people. Han Fei Zi says Lin Shang.

32. gingerbread, empty and useless. Han Fei Zi is hard to say.

33. winning is better than winning. A man who can conquer himself is a strong man.

34. it is self evident. It is wise to recognize your talents.

35., there is a way of life in the world, and we must take account of it.

36., if we want to be successful, we will lose things first. If you want to do this, you may first encounter failure.

37. words are not two, but not two. In addition to the orders of the monarch, there are no second noble statements, and the State decrees do not cater for both public and private alike.

38., the shin Gong of the Jin Dynasty, with its hangs on its spine, is a false doctor. Gong Zhi Qi "No," he admonished. The lips are cold while the teeth are cold. If we die today, we will die tomorrow. Yu Jun did not listen to him, but he was affected by the way of Bi. The Jin Dynasty has already taken the opportunity to fight against extinction.

Partial allusion

Song Dynasty wine

Song people have Spirits The price of the wine was very high, and the wine was very beautiful. Blame it for asking the elderly. Yang Qian Qian said, "you dog is fierce?" He said, "why do dogs sell wine without reason?" He said, "people fear. Or let the children sell their money to the pot and sell them to the dogs, but the dogs will not sell them.

There are dogs in the country. There is a wise man who wants to take the master of Ming and ten thousand masters. The reason why this man is so vulnerable is that there are no wise people.

In Song Dynasty, there was a fair sale of liquor, which was very fair. The guests were very respectful, and the wine was very fragrant. A lot of wine was stored, but no one came to buy it. (for a long time), the wine became sour. (selling wine) was puzzled and puzzled. He asked Yang Qian, the old man who lived in the lane and knew it. Yang Qian said, "is your dog evil?" The wine seller said, "dogs are evil. Why can't they sell wine?" Yang Qian said, "people are afraid of your dog! Some people send their children, carry money and take a pot to drink. But your dog comes out and bites people. (who dares to buy wine?) that's why your wine doesn't sell.

There are also such dogs in the country. A man of ability wants to govern his country with the power of running a country. Those ministers came out and bitten out like a bad dog, which made the monarch be deceived and possessed, so those capable people could not be reused.

Stultify oneself

Chu people have shields and spears, the reputation of the saying: "I shield the solid, things can not sink." He also praised his spear and said, "the benefit of my spear is not to sink in everything." Or "what is the shield of the son with the spear of the son?" His man can also be.

Chu has a spear and a shield. He boasts his shield first and says, "nothing can pierce it." Then he boasted of his spear and said, "my spear is so sharp that everything can be worn away." Some people asked him: "if you use your spear to stab your shield, what will happen?" The people of Chu were speechless, unable to answer.

Hide one's troubles and take no remedial measures

Bian Que once went to see him. Marquis Huan of Cai He stood for a while and said to Huan Hou: "you are sick, and now the disease is still in the skin. If you do not hurry up, you will get worse." Huan Hou listened and laughed and said, "I am not sick." stay Bian Que After leaving, Huan Hou said to the people, "these doctors like to treat people who are not sick to brag about their skills." Ten days later, Bian Que went to see Huan Hou. He said that his disease had developed to the muscles. If he did not treat it, he would also aggravate it. Huan Hou ignored him. After Bian Que left, Huan Hou was very unhappy. Ten days later, Bian Que went to see Huan Hou again. He said that his illness had been transferred to the stomach and intestines. Huan Hou still ignored him. Ten days later, when Bian Que went to see Huan Hou, he looked at him and turned away. Huan Hou felt very strange, so he sent an envoy to ask Bian Que. Bian Que said to the messenger, "sickness is healed in the skin, in the muscles, in the intestines and stomach, whether acupuncture or medication. If the disease is in the bone marrow, what else can be done? Now that Huan Hou's disease is already deep in bone marrow, I can not cure him." Five days later, Huan Hou was aching all over. He rushed to send for Bian Que. Bian Que had fled to Qin state. Huan Hou died shortly afterwards.

Three people spreading reports of a tiger make you believe there is one around

Wei was defeated by Zhao state, and therefore the prince and Minister of Wei Dynasty. Peng Gong It will be delivered to the capital of Zhao state. Handan They act as hostages. Before leaving, Pang Gong pairs King of Wei He said, "if anyone comes to tell you that a tiger is running out in the street, will the king believe it?" Wei shook his head and said, "I don't believe it." Where did the tiger come from on the street? "If second people came running to report that the tiger was found in the street, do you believe it?" Wei hesitated for a moment, still shaking his head and saying no. Pang Gong asked again, "if there are third more people running to report that there is a tiger on the street, do you believe it?" Wei Wang nodded and said, "I believe it. Three people say so, there must be no false. " Pang Gong rose and said, "everyone knows that there are no tigers in the street, but when three people say they have, the king believes it. Now that Handan is far from the Wei kingdom from here, the street is far from the street, and there are more than three people who speak ill of me before the king. Sure enough, as Pang Gong had expected, many people went to Wei Wang to create rumors before he left. Even when he came back from Handan, Wei Wang never wanted to call him again.

Wise neighbor

There are rich people in Song Dynasty. Confucius said: "no building, there will be robber." The father of his neighbour is also cloud. Twilight and fruit lose their wealth. His family is very wise, but he doubts the father of the neighbour.

There was a rich man in the Song Dynasty. Because of the heavy rain, his wall collapsed. His son said, "if there is no rush to build it, there must be thieves in." The old man next door said so. But the rich do not listen to what they say. That night, a great deal of property was lost. The family admired the wisdom of their son, but he suspected that the old man next door was stealing.

It tells people to consider the relationship between oneself and the listener when giving correct opinions, otherwise it will cause unnecessary trouble. Or: listen to opinions only by listening to the right ones, rather than looking at what the opinion is put forward. Main thrust: it warns people that if we do not respect the facts, we should only use the intimacy and emotion as the criteria for judging the right and wrong. Then we will guess the wrong conclusion and we may hurt ourselves. From the elderly in the neighborhood, tell us to give advice to others, and try to use the way that others can readily accept. It is not right to have the same things but to treat different people differently. We must be fair and realistic.

The man who rather trusted his measurements than placing any confidence in his own feet when buying shoes

People who want to buy their shoes will first sit on their feet. To the market, and forget to exercise. It has been fulfilled, and it is said, "I forget to hold degrees!" Return to it. And if the market is closed, it will not be allowed to perform. The man said, "why not try it on foot?" Yue said, "I believe in confidence and I am not confident."

Zheng Guo has a man who wants to buy shoes. First he took a rope at home and measured the size of his foot, then he put the measured size on his seat. He went to the fair but forgot to bring in the right size. He had already selected a pair of shoes and wanted to compare the size. He found that the size of the rope was forgotten, so he hurried home to fetch it. When he ran back with the rope, the market was scattered, and he finally failed to buy shoes. When someone else knew, he said to him, "why not try it on your own feet?" He said stubbornly, "I would rather believe in a good size than a foot."

Appreciation of works

" Han Fei Zi's indignation eleventh "

(1)

A wise man must be far sighted and well aware, unable to observe and cannot be candled. People's ministers are engaged in following orders. Those who emphasize others should be good at doing nothing. They will benefit the country and the family, and gain the power of their own. A wise man can see clearly, listen to and use the candle to weigh the human feelings. Therefore, a wise man can be used by a lawyer, but a valuable official must be outside the rope. It is a wise man and a man of Dengtu. He must not have two remaining enemies.

(1) wise people: wisdom, understanding, understanding and understanding. A person skilled in magic.

Candles: candles, discerning, discerning. Know the secret.

(3) case law: according to the case, "press". In accordance with the law.

4. Heavy men: those who hold power in the court are the ministers of power.

Yin: love and conspiracy.

Beyond the rope: the ink is straight, and the part outside the rope will be cut. Here the analogy between the dignitary and the hero must be punished.

The person in charge of Dang Tu is the one in which the court occupies the key position and the power.

Those who are well versed in treatment must be visionary and able to understand the secret. Those who are good at law must be strong, resolute and very honest. As a minister, he deals with government affairs according to decrees, and governs officials at all levels according to law, which can not be called power ministers. The so-called "powerful ministers" are those who do not have the orders of the monarch, but act arbitrarily, harm the law to seek personal gain, and consume the state's financial resources to facilitate their own home. His power allows the monarch to obey himself, which is the real power minister. Those who are well versed in the law will be able to see clearly. Once they are appointed, they will uncover the hidden secrets of the power ministers. Those who are good at law are strong and honest, and once they are appointed, they must correct their evil deeds. Therefore, those who are skilled in law and who are good at law are appointed, so the powerful and powerful ministers will be punished. Therefore, those who know the law and those powerful officials can not coexist with the enemies of the court.

If the person in charge of Tu Tu is good at doing things, he must use it in the second place. It is because the princes are not supposed to do things because they are not supposed to, so the enemy is a lawsuit. These four helpers are also self decorating. A heavy person can not be loyal to the Lord and enter into his enemies. The man can not help four more. All those who are in the right place do not believe in love. If the husband and the Lord are alike in love and evil, they will consolidate themselves and advance themselves. The crown is valuable, the clique is numerous, and a country is a lawsuit. However, if the wizard wants to do the upper part, he will not have the relationship of love and love, nor will he be accustomed to learning. They are humble and have no party. The number of people who fight against alienation and love is too numerous, and the number of contending with the new brigade is much greater than that. The masters of the spell are five masters of the age, and no one can see them in age; those who are in charge of the tu do take advantage of the five wins and say they are alone. Therefore, the people of the magic arts can only get into the way, while the people will have to understand them. Therefore, there must be a lot of money left behind. It can be punished by public law, and it can not be punished by the private sword. It is the Ming rule that goes against the Lord and the superior, but not the officials, must die in private sword.

One thing: authority.

Part II: refers to the countries of the princes. Internal: refers to the officials.

Because: rely on.

Lawsuit: praise the song.

The official name.

Bachelor: ordinary scholar.

Talk about: singing praises and praises.

XI: through "sparse", scarce.

Learn to be so close.

Ah Fu: evil is wrong.

Number: refers to reason.

New brigade: recent guests from abroad.

Age: according to age, figurative long term.

L (a) is executed by officials. They were killed by officials.

The powerful and powerful officials should exercise their authority, so all the countries of the princes and the officials and officials at all levels must use it for him. Therefore, if the princes do not rely on him to work, they will have no result, so the enemy will actively praise him; officials at all levels will not get promoted without relying on him, so the ministers are willing to work for him; he can not get close to the monarch without relying on him, so the close ministers of the monarch will hide the evil for him; the bachelor will not be courteous because he does not rely on him, so the bachelor will sing praises for him. These four kinds of assistance are the means of decorations for the evil and evil ministers. The powerful officials can not be loyal to the monarch and raise their enemies. The monarch can not understand his minister beyond the four aid. The result is that the monarch is blinded even more, and the power of the minister is more serious. The princes are seldom respected and trusted by the powerful officials, and are often close to the monarch. As for his desire to cater to the sovereign, good princes are good and evil kings are evil, which is their way of entering. He also has high weight and a large number of Party members, all over the country to praise him. Then, those who want to see the monarch's appointed spells are neither favored nor trusted. Enze, who does not often approach the monarch, intends to rectify the evil mind of the monarch with the words of magic. Being in a humble position and being alone, there is a lack of support from the clique. Let the monarch alienate the person and the king's favorite person win the battle, that must not be able to win; let the newly arrived guests from the field and the emperors for many years win the battle, it must be impossible to win; let the person who violates the monarch's mind and win the favor of the king will never win; if the person who gives up the humble and the lowly person wins the battle, he must be unable to win. In the face of these five kinds of situations that cannot be won, the spells of the spell have not seen the opportunity of the monarch for a long time. The powerful and powerful ministers occupy five conditions that can be won, and can be discussed at any time before the monarch. In this way, what are the ways for the spells to be used? And when will the monarch wake up? Since there is no capital to win, the situation can not be two. How can a wizard be free from danger? Those who can be framed by fabricating accusations will be killed and killed by the law of the state. Those who can not be charged will be allowed to take their lives by assassins. Therefore, those who are skilled in spells but are rebellious against the monarch are not killed by officials, but will surely die under the sword of assassins.

A friend is better than a week. He who takes advantage of disadvantages and speaks for himself will be more important than others. Therefore, those who can work hard to borrow will be highly valued by officials. It is a person who tends to be private on the basis of disadvantages, but does not manifest himself in official titles. Today, the Lord does not agree with the experience, but he does not wait for his merit. He is able to say that the man of the spell can be killed by death. The more humble the owner, the better the private door. Although Fuyue is rich and powerful, China knows that it is no good for itself. Although there are many people in the country today, the people are in charge of it and the ministers are in power. Wisdom does not consist in wisdom, but not wisdom. Therefore, it is said that the "dead" people are not the same as the cities, but also the Lu family. Therefore, it is said that the dead in Jin Dynasty is not the same as the city, but Ji Ji does not make it, and the six Qing is also specialized. Today, the minister is dictatorial, but he knows not what he knows. Those who are sick with the dead must not be born, nor can they live with those who are subjugated. It is now in the Qi and Jin Dynasties.

1. To say something unfair.

External power: external power, which refers to the power of the princes.

3. Profit seeking: pursuing interests.

China: refers to the Central Plains country.

Six Qing: refers to the fan family, Zhi Xing, Zhi, Han, Wei and Zhao's six families in the spring and Autumn period.

Those who collude together to deceive the monarch and use unjust words to provide convenience for those who seek personal gain will be trusted by the powerful ministers. Therefore, those who can fake good deeds will give them dignitaries. Those who do not rely on their good name to honor them will take advantage of the power of the princes to elevate their status. Therefore, those who deceive the monarch and run on the private side are not the official ones who have been honored, but they will certainly see them by the power of the princes. Now that the monarch does not carry out tests on the basis of facts and punish them, he does not wait for the establishment of meritorious service to give him credit. How can the evil and evil minister return to leave in pursuit of interests? Therefore, the lower the status of the monarch, the more dignified the private dignitaries will become. Even when the country was rich and powerful, the monarchs of the Central Plains knew that they were not good for themselves. They said, "that's not what I can rule." In some countries, though the land is vast and the population is large, the monarch is deceived by the people, and the minister is in charge of the state affairs. This is to transform his country into a state of Yue. Knowing that his country is different from other countries, he does not know that his country is not like his own country because he does not understand their reasons. The monarch said that Qi had been destroyed, not that the land and city of Qi were destroyed, but that Lu was no longer in charge of power, but was ruled by Tian. To say that the destruction of the Jin State does not mean that the land and the city have been destroyed, but that Ji is no longer ruling the state of Jin, and that the regime is controlled by six ministers. Now the minister is in charge of the regime and dictatorship, but the monarch does not know that he should take back the regime. This is the unwise performance of the monarch. The same disease as a dead man can not be saved; the state can not be saved from doing the same thing with a dead country. It is impossible for us to repeat the mistakes of Qi and Jin and let the country live in peace.

The difficulty of every spell is not only ten thousand, but also thousands of times. There is no need for wisdom either in the right or the left, or in the mind of man. There is no need to be virtuous in the right and the left, but in the sense of propriety and propriety. Wise men make decisions in fools, but in wise men do not succeed. The ministers of the people want to get the officials, and their friar is refined and clean, and their wise men are engaged in the debate. The monks can not take things as goods and rely on them for their purity and cleanliness, but they should not treat them with wrong methods. No matter what happens to a man or his master, he may not seek to do so, but if he fails to do so, he will be able to defend himself, and destroy the false accuser. The system of ruling and arguing is based on the practice of learning, and the fine and clean conduct is determined by reputation. If we do not judge by deeds, we will not judge by reason, but when we listen to the words of the right and near, then the incompetent will be in the court, and the foolish officials will be in office.

Listen: listen and accept.

Boyi: the son of the king of the bamboo kingdom in the last years of Shang Dynasty.

Magic is hard to enforce, not just in the big ten thousand countries, but also in thousands of small countries. The near ministers of the monarch are not always very clever. The monarch thinks that a person is intelligent and listens to his words, so he talks about what he has heard with the neighboring ministers. This is a wise man who commits a fool with a fool. The near ministers of the monarch are not always good and virtuous. The monarch thinks that a person is virtuous and courteous, so he also discusses his conduct with the near and near ministers. This is to commend the virtuous person with the unworthy people. A wise man's strategy is to be determined by a foolish man. The virtues of virtuous men should be judged by unworthy people. This makes shame and wise men ashamed, and the judgment of the monarch is contrary to his original intention. Those who want to be officials, if they are noble in their conduct, strengthen their self-cultivation with essence and purity. If they have wisdom and strategy, they will correctly handle affairs and develop their deeds. Those who are noble in behavior can not afford to bribe and serve others with their possessions. They also rely on their purity and purity, and are even less likely to violate the law to govern their affairs. Therefore, these virtuous and intelligent people will not serve the close relatives of the monarch, nor will they accept their requests. The people of the monarchy do not have the high line of Boyi, the demands can not be satisfied, and no property is delivered. Thus, the virtues of virtuous deeds and the achievements of governing affairs have all disappeared, and the rumours of slander and framing have been followed. The achievements of governing the political affairs are restricted by the sovereign's favor of the trusted people, and the pure and virtuous virtue is decided by the words of praise and disgrace. Then, the officials with high intelligence and intelligence are abandoned, and the wisdom of the monarch will be choked. Judging from the merits and faults of the intellect, not judging the fault of the crime according to the verification, but by listening to the words of the trusted ones, then the incompetent will be in the court.

In the case of ten thousand passengers, the chancellor is too heavy; the thousands of passengers suffer too much. And there are great sins of the ministers, and the great loss of the people. Why is it so clear? He said: the Lord and the right are the officials of the power and the officials, but the officials are incompetent and they get things; the main interests are in labor, but in the elites, the interests of the officials are not good and the rich. It is for the country to cut the private wealth, the main and the inferior. When the Lord loses his power and his country wins, the Lord calls him a minister. Therefore, when the important ministers of the world are changed, the ten are not two or three. Why is it so? The crime of man is too great. If a minister has a serious crime, his actions will deceive the Lord. A wise man is far sighted and afraid of death. A wise man is a good man, but a shy and a dishonest official deceives his Lord. It is the disciples of the Tu Tu, who are not ignorant, but do not know the patients. The minister takes the fool to deceive the Lord, and to take advantage of it to catch up with the fish, to make friends with the fish, to make friends with each other, to deceive the Lord and to defeat the people, to make the country dangerous and to humiliate the people. The prime minister has a great crime and the Lord prohibits it. If there is a great loss of his Lord, he will have a great sin.

Phase room: Xiang Xiang and prime minister.

Cheat: cheat.

Third, the change of power means the change of the throne's power, that is, to die before the king.

4. Honesty: honesty.

Suo: ask.

The scourge of the great power is that the power of the ministers is too heavy. The scourge of thousands of small countries depends on their close relatives. This is a common worry of the monarch. Those ministers who committed serious crimes have great faults, and the interests of kings and ministers are different. Where do I know that? It can be said that the interests of the monarch are those who have the ability to take office. The interest of the minister lies in the lack of ability but the principal. The interests of the monarch lie in those who are meritorious, but the interest of the minister lies in the fact that they can enjoy wealth without merit. The interests of the monarch lie in letting the heroes of the great power develop their talents, and the interests of the ministers lie in colluding with each other to gain personal gain. Therefore, the land of the country was cut, the aristocrats were richer, the monarch's status was lower, and the power of the minister was even more serious. Therefore, when the monarch loses power, the minister can take charge of the state affairs, and the monarch changes his status and gives himself up to the other. Therefore, today's ruling ministers in the world can still get the favor of the new sovereign after the change of the power of the monarch, less than two or three of the ten. What is the reason? Because the minister's crime is too heavy. The reason why the minister has a felony is that he deceives the monarch. His crime should be executed. A wise man is far sighted. He is afraid of being put to death. He must not be dependent on the powerful and powerful ministers. If a virtuous person is honest and honest, he is ashamed to work with a treacherous court to deceive the monarch. He must not be dependent on the powerful and powerful ministers. Therefore, the apostles of powerful officials are not those stupid people who do not know calamity, or those dirty people who do not shun evil and evil. Dignitaries and heavy ministers led this group of stupid, dirty little men, and they bullied the monarch together and invaded the people's wealth together. They colluded together and formed into a clique, and they all deceived the monarch with one word, corrupted the law and discipline, disturbed the people, made the country face the crisis, and the land was cut, so that the emperor could be painstakingly humiliated and humiliated. This is a great evil. It is a great mistake for the minister to commit a serious crime but not to stop the monarch. If a country's monarch committed a great mistake, the minister committed a felony and wanted the country to be eliminated.

Lonely anger is loneliness and resentment. The "solitary", who refers to the art of law, is isolated and helpless when fighting with the aristocracy, and the so-called "indignation" refers to the resentment of the Minister of law in the face of minister's monopoly, confusion and defeat. The whole article revolves around the interests of the powerful officials and the lawyers, and the attitude of the monarch to the powerful officials and the spells, and expresses the author's loneliness and resentment in the face of the reality that "the intellectuals of the law and the law and the people of Dang Tu can not survive two."

Han-Feizi1


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