Haha Opera, also known as Liuzi Opera and Drinking Opera, is a local opera originated from the folk in Hebei Province. It is the first national intangible cultural heritage formed by the evolution of folk chord tunes popular in southeastern Hebei and northwestern Shandong.
According to the investigation data of relevant cultural departments in Dezhou and Baoding areas of Shandong Province, Haha Qiang was prevalent in counties of Northwest Shandong and Cangzhou areas of Hebei Province in the Ming Dynasty, and spread to counties and counties of Baoding area of Hebei Province during the Qianlong period of Qing Dynasty. From this point of view, Haha Opera is an ancient local opera. Haha Opera reached its peak in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. Its development went through two stages: local folk songs and dances and folk operas. Finally, Haha Opera was finalized as a small opera with the tune of "Liu Zi" as the chord song. Under the influence of different local languages and folk arts, Haha Opera has gradually formed three schools of "Middle Road", "East Road" and "West Road" with different artistic styles and musical characteristics.
On May 20, 2006, Haha Opera was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists, with the heritage number IV-72.
Haha Opera is a local folk opera in Hebei Province, which is formed by the evolution of folk string tunes popular in southeastern Hebei and northwestern Shandong. In the Ming Dynasty, Haha Opera was popular in Cangzhou Prefecture, Hebei Province. According to Cangxian County Chronicle, "Haha Opera originated from Yanshan, Qingyun..."
During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, it was further spread to the counties and villages in Baoding, Hebei Province.
As Haha Opera has a long historical tradition, there have been some artists praised by the masses in past dynasties, such as Qing Jiaqing, Daoguang Changlaojin, 70'er, Changhuai and "Bangzi Laoshang"; Ma Laohe (Pumpkin Dan), Sun Zhilan and Xu Qingwen in Tongzhi and Guangxu years; Guo Lidong, Hao Yuchun, Lei Zhenyue, Zhang Xueming and Quanyun Xiyun (Iron Scorpion) since the Republic of China. And so on. Since the founding of New China, many outstanding actors have emerged, such as Wang Shoutian, Qin Zhenguo, Cai Zhiying, Shang Huanwen, ZhongAizhen, Tang Rongxian, Liu Xirong and Song Yanling.
In the process of spreading Haha Opera, due to the different local language characteristics and the influence of folk art, it has gradually formed three roads of east, middle and West with different artistic style and music characteristics. East Road is popular in Wudi, Leling and Ningjin of Shandong Province; Middle Road is popular in Cangzhou and Hengshui of Hebei Province; West Road is popular in Baoding and parts of Mafang.
By the beginning of the 20th century, Haha tune had entered a prosperous stage. Renqiu Liu Qinghai, Wen'an Dong Jinxi and others performed in Beijing Dongan Market for nearly two years. Later, they went to Tianjin Tongxing Tea Garden to sing.
Since then, Haha Opera has been performing in big cities such as Beijing and Tianjin for many times. In Cangzhou, Baoding, Hengshui, Langfang, Shijiazhuang and other places of Hebei Province, Haha Opera Disciples'Clubs are also active in semi-professional classes.
Haha tune instruments are mainly composed of three parts: clumsy Sheng, chord and flute. The flute of the West Road is especially prominent and is rich in the characteristics of folk playing. Its most distinctive way of supporting the tune is to absorb the musical accompaniment of folk song Blowing art, commonly known as "small lifting pole".
Haha Opera is rich in means of performance. It can not only perform the life of emperors, generals and gifted ladies, but also perform stories of vulgar disputes. All walks of life have their own performance characteristics. For example, Wen Xiaosheng is full of Confucianism, elegant and unrestrained, dignified in appearance, while Wu Xiaosheng is handsome and powerful, young and vigorous. Poor people bow, hug their shoulders, stagger and look pitiful. Another example is the same Danjiao, Qingyi's performance is calm and solemn, can't show enough, can't grin; Huadan's performance is light, quick-witted, flexible, extroverted, happy and angry. The costumes of Haha Opera are the same as those of Peking Opera, Hebei Bangzi Opera and Opera Criticism.
The performance of Haha Opera is simple, good at singing, narrative and rap. Starting with the main performance of life drama, such as "New Year's Eve", "Check Name" and so on, later on, more large-scale historical stories can be shown step by step.
There are about 100 pieces of music cards in Haha Opera. They are mainly used to set off the stage atmosphere and accompany the characters'movements. They are mostly drawn from Peking Opera, Hebei Bangzi and Jilu folk music. Percussion instruments used to use high-pitched gongs and drums, and then changed to Hebei gongs and drums.
There are four categories of Haha Opera, i.e. the division of professions, dan, Jing and ugliness, each of which has a systematic expression program.
Music for voices in a Chinese Opera
Haha aria belongs to the board cavity. The main board types are headboard, second board, running board, third board, dial and crying board. The running board is the core board type. Haha tune is basically the same in all walks of life, which is divided into male and female tunes, with male and female homology and slightly different melodies. Haha tune is sung in Qingyuan dialect. The lyrics are seven-character and cross sentences. The ending of the upper and lower sentences falls to the "1" sound, the last sentence falls to the eye, and the last ten days falls to the board.
The lyrics of the tune are the upper and lower sentences of 7 words and 10 words. The first sentence usually sings on the board, and the last word falls on the "1" sound in the eyes; the second sentence is also generally on the board, but the last word must fall on the board of the "1" sound. Because the ending of the upper and lower sentences are all "1", the main mark of distinguishing the upper and lower sentences is that the upper sentences fall short and the lower sentences fall short. Various types of plate intersect, and the most frequently used in the play is the flowing sound board, so the flowing sound board is the core of the Haha cavity.
By 2015, there are more than 100 kinds of traditional Haha operas, which are good at comedy style. The representative operas are Wang Xiao-duo, Sanbai Huatang, Shuangdeng Ji, Li Xianglian's Painting, Golden Lock Ji, Nu Zhongkui, Selling Water, Yang Ershe Huayuan, Tang Zhixian's Death Examination, and other small operas reflecting folk life. As well as "Quanzhong Xiaoxiao" and "Wuyu Belt" transplanted from Bangzi drama.
Inheritance and protection
Haha Opera has accumulated many historical artistic creations of Chinese opera and Qingyuan culture, condensed the wisdom and creativity of artists and intellectuals of past dynasties, recorded the historical changes of modern and contemporary Qingyuan society in unique artistic form, and fully embodied the humanistic spirit, artistic character, living condition and social style of modern Qingyuan society, which is any other kind of culture and art. Surgical form can not be replaced.
At present, because of the high level of accomplishment of the old artists for many years and the lack of successors, the Haha tune is in an endangered situation, which urgently needs to be promoted and protected.
Qiu Yinchang, male, Han nationality, born in Tangshan, Hebei Province in 1944. The second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects, the representative inheritors of Haha accent, compose music at the national level.
Liu Zongfa, male, Han nationality, born in 1950 in Qingxian County, Hebei Province. The second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects are representative inheritors of Haha accent.
Wang Lanrong, female, Han nationality, born in Qingyuan, Hebei Province in 1957. The second batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage projects are representative inheritors of Haha accent and state-level directors.
Since the founding of New China, a professional Haha Opera Troupe has been set up in Qingyuan County, Hebei Province. It has played an important role in enriching the local people's cultural and entertainment life and publicizing the Party and government's line and policy.
In 1956, Haha Opera Troupe of Leling County participated in the second conference of Hebei Province.
In 1962, at the invitation of CCTV, the Haha Opera Troupe of Qingyuan County went to Beijing to perform The Story of Saponins, which was received by Zhou Yang, Minister of Culture of the Central Committee.
In 1997, the Haha Opera Troupe of Qingyuan County performed in the army and Tangshan under the name of "Baoding Branch of Hebei Ancient Comfort Troupe".
In 1978, the Haha Opera Troupe of Qingyuan County performed "Overlapping Ladies" and won the first prize and the first prize for dance beauty design, band accompaniment, and cultural and artistic performers in Baoding area's literary and artistic performances.
In 1984, Haha Opera Brushing Troupe of Qingyuan County was listed as the key troupe in Baoding area.
In 1986, the Haha Opera Troupe in Qingyuan County had 65 performers in a neat lineup, and became the only professional Haha Opera performing group in China.