Guo Shoujing

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Guo Shoujing

Guo Shoujing (1231 - 13 16). Xingzhou Xingtai county (now) Hebei Province Xingtai City People. Yuan Dynasty Famous astronomers, mathematicians, experts in Hydraulic Engineering Early teacher Liu Bin Zhong , Zhang Wen Qian Guan to Tai Shi Ling , Chiu Wen court Bachelor of Science Tai Shi Yuan The world is called "Guo Tai Shi". Emperor Renzong of Yuan Yan you In three years (1316), Guo Shoujing died at the age of eighty-six. Author of Push step "," Erect And fourteen other astronomical calendars.

Guo Shoujing has made remarkable achievements in astronomy, calendar, water conservancy and mathematics. He himself To yuan In the thirteen year (1276), it was ordered to amend the new calendar law, which lasted for four years and worked out a more than 360 year pass. Time service calendar "Became the most advanced calendar in the world at that time. In order to amend the calendar, Guo Shoujing also reinvented and invented. Brief instrument Twelve new instruments, such as high meter.

In the first year of the Yuan Dynasty (1264), Guo Shoujing was ordered to repair. Xixia Inside the ancient canal, more vertical sluice weirs, so that the local farmland irrigation. To twenty-eight yuan (1291), Guo Shou Jing Ren Du Shui Jian It took a year to repair the canal from yuan to Tongzhou. tonghui river It has developed the north south traffic and water transport business.

In 1970, the International Astronomical Society was named after Guo Shoujing. Moon One on the top Crater Hill Named " Guo Shoujing crater " In March 1977, the international asteroid center will Asteroid 2012 Named "Guo Shoujing asteroid" Chinese Academy of Sciences National Observatory National key infrastructure for science and technology LAMOST telescope It is called the Guo Shoujing astronomical telescope.

Paul Mauriat's History

Learning experience

Guo Shoujing Yu Jin sad Zhengda Born in eight years (1231) Xingzhou Of Xingtai County ( Today's Hebei Xingtai ) The history of Guo Shoujing's father has not been recorded. It may be an early death. He was brought up by grandfather Guo Rong.

Guo Rong is a famous scholar at the time of Jin and yuan. Guo Shoujing, Guo Rong, a young grandfather, is well versed in five classics. He knows astronomy and mathematics well, and is good at water conservancy technology. Under Guo Rong's upbringing, Guo Shoujing grew up diligently and studious, and developed a very strong practical ability in his youth. When Guo Shoujing was fifteen and six, he used an illustration in his book. Bamboo strips He made a set of measuring days. An eagle instrument Besides, a soil step is made up of earth, and the bamboo instrument is placed on the top to carry out astronomical observation. He was also based on the Northern Song Dynasty. Yan Su A rubbing stone carving Lotus leakage Figure shows the working principle of this kind of time keeping instrument, which can keep the surface of the pot stable.

At that time, Kublai Khan ( Later Kublai Khan Important advisers and famous scholars Liu Bin Zhong Because of his father's funeral, he is in southwest Xingtai. Zijin Mountain In the middle school, there are famous scholars from learning. Zhang Wen Qian , Chenchu , Wang Jie Wait forsomeone. Guo Rong and Liu Bingzhong make good friends, then send Guo Shoujing to Liu Bingzhong's door for further study. Liu Bingzhong is well versed in classics and astronomy, and Guo Shoujing has gained much instruction from him.

Mongon kaan Eight years (1251), Liu Bingzhong was the then general. Inner Mongolia Kublai of Han Dynasty affairs entered the curtain. Liu Bingzhong left Xingtai Later, he introduced Guo Shoujing to Zhang Wenqian.

Shortly after his adult life, Guo Shoujing was sent to appease the detachment of Xingtai. Liu Su And so on, initiated the work of regulating and excavating the current channel, and specially hired Guo Shoujing to undertake the planning and design of the project. Based on family knowledge and careful investigation, Guo Shoujing quickly discovered the river system destroyed by the war. The subsequent dredging and renovation projects made the sprawling rivers belong to the old road, and at the guidance of Guo Shoujing, they excavated the remains of stone bridges that had been buried for nearly thirty years. The project was praised by people, a famous writer. Yuan Hao Wen He wrote a book on xingshizhou new bridge, and Guo Sheng refers to the young Guo Shou Jing.

Middle unification In the first year (1260), Kublai was there. Kemenfu (later called) Upper capital Zhang Wenqian ascended the throne. Daming Road ( This is the name of Hebei. And other places Xuan Fu Si Sir, Guo Shoujing followed Zhang Wenqian to study. Wherever Guo Shoujing went, he did a lot of investigation and investigation of river water conservancy. He also summoned the craftsmen in the name and set up a set of lotus leaks he explored in his youth. Perhaps he changed the ornamental lotus as a "Baoshan leak".

Water control in Western Xia Dynasty

Three years (1262), because of the current situation Zuo Cheng Zhang Wenqian's recommendation, Guo Shoujing in Kemenfu Kublai was summoned by Yuan Dynasty's ancestor, and he faced six suggestions on water conservancy. Kublai nodded and praised him for everything. Kublai was then appointed to lift the roads and canals and to manage the renovation and management of the various rivers and canals.

In four years (1263), the court gave Guo Shoujing. Silver character It is raised to vice channel.

To yuan In the first year (1264), Guo Shoujing and Abe went to Yan. Xixia ( East of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia. The area inspects river channels and watercourses. A few months later, Zhang Wenqian acted as the representative of the court to govern the Western Xia Dynasty. Under the leadership and support of Zhang Wenqian, Guo Shoujing was ordered to repair the ancient canal, such as Tang Lai and Han Yan in the Western Xia Dynasty, and erect the sluice weir, which irrigated the local farmland and was loved by the people of Xixia. The local people once built him on the canal head. temple to a living person

Until two yuan (1265), all of them were promoted.

To twelve yuan (1275), Prime Minister Bayan South levy, intends to establish a water transport station, Guo Shoujing inspected the Hebei and Shandong area where boats can sail, and draw the memorial.

Making new calendar

To thirteen yuan (1276), all water supervision merged into Ministry of labour Guo Shoujing served as the Ministry of labour. Long Zhong In the same year, Kublai, according to Liu Bingzhong's life advice, ordered Zhang Wenqian to preside over the revision of the new calendar, Guo Shoujing and Wang Jie The rate of command was measured by the north and South officials, and the correct proposition was put forward that "the test is based on the test, while the tester is the first instrument".

Until sixteen yuan (1279), Tai Shi Bureau Extension to Tai Shi Yuan Wang Xunren Tai Shi Ling Guo Shou Jing Ren Tongzhi Tai Shi Academy. When the instrument was put into production, Kublai gave a detailed explanation until the evening, and Kublai was still not tired. In the same year, under the leadership of Guo Shoujing, the national astronomical survey was launched. Four seas test "

To seventeen yuan (1280), Time service calendar Successful completion This book is an excellent calendar in Chinese history.

In eighteen yuan (1281), Wang Xun died, and Guo Shoujing took all the work of Tai Shi Yuan. Push step "," Erect And many other works.

In twenty-three yuan (1286), he was promoted to Tai Shi Ling.

Tonghui river is excavated.

Until twenty-eight yuan (1291), it was suggested that Luanhe River And Hun River upstream, as a way to transport grain up. Kublai could not decide and sent Guo Shoujing to field investigation. When Guo Shoujing detected the midway, he found that the proposals were unrealistic. He made many new suggestions based on the opportunity to report the survey results. Including the new canal scheme. Kublai was very happy and special reset after his reading. Du Shui Jian Guo Shoujing was appointed. Du Shui Jian A job.

In the spring of twenty-nine yuan (1292), the construction of the canal project started on the day of Kublai's life. The following officials went to work at the site, listening to Guo Shoujing's command. Although this is only a symbol, it reflects Kublai's attention to the canal and Guo Shoujing's authority in water conservancy. Guo Shoujing led and opened up. Mostly ( this Beijing City urban district The white floating weir has been excavated. Tongzhou Most of them Pool of water ( Today's Beijing Shichahai The northernmost part of the Grande Canale - tonghui river The construction works. Not only did he solve the water problem of Tonghui River Based on most landforms, but also set up the dam and Doumen in the canal according to the changes of topography and landform and water level, and solved the water volume and water level of the river.

To thirty yuan (1293) July, Tonghui river. Kublai from Upper capital ( Today's Inner Mongolia Xilinguole Meng Blue flag grassland Back to the metropolis, passing by Pool of water To see it, Shelter "Water", the great Yue, is called the Tonghui River, and gives Guo Jing Jing Jing twelve thousand and five hundred passes.

Prestige is high

To thirty-one yuan (1294), Guo Shou Jing Ren Chiu Wen court A bachelor's degree in the history of Tai Shi.

great virtue In the two year (1298), it was proposed that a channel for the release of mountain torrents should be opened to the Nantong under the iron banner ridge in the northwest of Shanghai. Luanhe River Yuan Cheng Chung Iron ear Call Guo Shou Jing to the upper city for discussion. Guo Shoujing pointed out that the channel for releasing the mountain torrents should be fifty steps to seventy steps according to the topography and the flash floods. About 80~115 meters. ) But the people in charge of the matter thought that Guo Shoujing had exaggerated the fact that the width of his decision had been reduced by 1/3. Who knows the next year when the flash floods occurred, due to the narrow channels, flooding, and almost rushed into the line. Cheng Zong sighed while he was avoiding the water. "Guo Tai Shi is really a god man, but unfortunately he did not listen to him!"

Die of old age

Dade seven years (1303), Cheng Zong Zhao, all the seventy year old officials can retire, only Guo Shoujing, because the court still has work to rely on him, no retirement. A new example is formed: the astronomical officer of Tai Shi Yuan does not retire.

After Yuan Cheng Chung, the Yuan Dynasty's political power decayed, and the struggle within the ruling group became fiercely fiercely and the life was extremely extravagant. In this context, Guo Shoujing's creative activities were greatly restricted. Compared with his constant fame, his creative activities in his later years were very quiet.

Emperor Renzong of Yuan Yan you In three years (1316), Guo Shoujing died at the age of eighty-six.

Main achievements

Mathematics

Guo Shoujing's participation in the formulation of the " Time service calendar In addition to its progress in astronomical data, it has also made significant innovations and innovations in computational methods. The main features are:

1. Abolish The year of the Shang Dynasty For eighteen yuan (1281), the winter solstice. That is the winter solstice until the beginning of eighteen yuan, actually in seventeen yuan. For its main starting point. In other astronomical cycles, the gap between the time and the winter solstice is calculated. Thus an astronomical constant system is formed. In this astronomical constant system, the time service calendar puts forward seven answers. Qi Ying , rotation, intercalary, Cross fertilization , Zhou Ying , Harmony , Lunar calendar )

2. with Extremely The Japanese Law: ancient astronomical data are expressed in fractional form. However, it is difficult to immediately compare the numerical value with this fractional method, and it is very inconvenient to do complex computation in the calendar calculation. With the progress of astronomical data determination, the ancients have gradually realized that it is impossible to express the value of the data exactly with one fraction. Therefore, from Tang dynasty At the beginning, some people tried to break the tradition of fractional expression. Nangong says to Emperor Zhongzong of Tang Dragon The "Shenlong calendar" compiled in the first year (705 years) is the basis of astronomical data based on the hundred. Cao Shiwei Yu Emperor Dezong of Tang Jianzhong In the year (780 - to - 7, 3, 3) Fu Tian Li "More clearly put forward the" ten thousand day "law. But the Shenlong calendar has not been issued. The "Tian Tian Li" is only popular among the people, and is called down by the official astronomers. Xiao Li In the "time service calendar", the system of "ten thousand days" was adopted in a grand spirit of innovation, so that the expression of astronomical data went on a concise and reasonable way.

3. The proper way to deal with the three difference interpolation method is self invented. Sui dynasty Liu Chao Since then, astronomers have used the two difference interpolation method to calculate various kinds of celestial motion, such as day and month. But in fact, astronomers in the Tang Dynasty have found that many movements are not accurate enough to calculate by two times difference, and three times difference is necessary. However, the three difference interpolation formula has not been found and can only be replaced by some approximate formulas. The time service calendar invented the method called "recruiting difference" to solve the problem that has not been solved for more than 300 years. And, Recruiting difference method In principle, it can be extended to any higher order difference. Interpolation method This is a great improvement in data processing and computational mathematics.

4. Sagittal arc cutting: there is something in astronomy. Ecliptic coordinates , Equatorial coordinates The spherical coordinate system of white road coordinates and so on. Modern astronomers use Spherical trigonometry It is easy to convert data from one coordinate system to another. In ancient China, there was no spherical trigonometry. The ancients used approximate algebraic computation to solve problems. The arc sagittal circle cutting technique used in the "Shi Shi Li" has projected the arcs on various spheres onto a certain plane, and solved the relationship among these projection lines by the traditional Pythagorean formula. Reusing the Song Dynasty kuo Invented Circle technique It is completely accurate to get the relationship between the long and the arc segments from the line segments. They are in essence consistent with the present formula of spherical trigonometry.

The above achievements should be attributed to the above achievements. Wang Jie But other scholars have also done their work. Especially because Guo Shoujing is the final finishing editor of the "Shi Li Li", these outstanding astronomy and mathematics achievements are worthy of recognition.

optics

Guo Shoujing is creating. Scenery symbol , Pitch instrument The principle of pinhole imaging has been used repeatedly in astronomical instruments. History of optics in China This is also an outstanding achievement, reflecting the higher application ability of optical knowledge in ancient China.

Water conservancy

· Water control experience

There are many experiences in Guo Shoujing's successful water control. There are three main aspects:

1. Guo Shoujing's correct guiding ideology is the precondition for successful water control. During the process of water control, Guo Shoujing has consistently implemented the guiding principle of "three in one" for irrigation, flood control and water transport, and achieved good results.

2. The spirit of Guo Shoujing's practice is the decisive factor for the success of water control. Guo Shoujing devoted all his life to the cause of water conservancy. He had no fear of difficulties, paid attention to investigation, and worked hard for practice.

3. Guo Shoujing's persistent and enterprising spirit is an important condition for the success of water control. In the process of water conservancy and construction, Guo Shoujing has the spirit of not afraid of failure, perseverance, perseverance and enterprising spirit. He has made remarkable achievements in the construction of water conservancy projects.

· Water control in Western Xia Dynasty

Xixia In the last years, because of the successive years of war between Mongolia and Xixia, the water conservancy facilities were seriously damaged, the fields were deserted, and the people fled everywhere. Lush Southern-type fields north of the Great Wall It's full of trouble.

To yuan The first year (1264), Zhang Wen Qian To inspect Xixia in the capacity of Zhong Shu, Zuo Cheng, he was responsible for the work of water control in the Western Xia Dynasty. Guo Shoujing, who was deputy river channel, went there to inspect water conservancy. When Guo Shoujing came to Xixia, he surveyed the water conditions along the two sides of the Yellow River, visited the people, plotted the map, and put forward the plan of "old planning for new and more vertical sluice". Kublai put it into practice after examination and approval. Guo Shoujing led the workers to excavate, dredge the original river course, repair the dyke and build dams. In less than a year, it repaired more than 400 miles of Tang Laiqu and more than twenty five hundred and more than ten thousand Han canal and more than ten large and sixty-eight branch channels, and at the same time erect a dam to control the water intake of the canal effectively, and successfully completed the task of dredging and repairing the canal. Guo Shoujing's unremitting efforts made the Sai Xiahe canal accessible, and tens of thousands of farmland was irrigated in time. In order to thank Guo Shoujing, the Xixia people built a Kwok Sheng shrine on the canal and recorded it in a monument.

To two yuan (1265), Guo Shou Jing was on the way back from the Western Xia Dynasty. He went down the river by boat in four days and nights. Dongsheng ( Today's Inner Mongolia Togtoh The success of the trial proved by oneself. Yellow River Yes? Water transport At the same time, he also inspected Cha Po and Wu Lang Hai. Today's Inner Mongolia Wu Liang Su Hai It is believed that many of the old canals can be used after renovation, and that they will play the Yuan Dynasty. Kublai Khan Kublai was praised. In four yuan (1267), Kublai adopted Guo Shoujing's advice and ordered ten water posts on the the Yellow River section of Zhongxing to Dongsheng. The opening of this section of water transport and the setting up of the water post station facilitated the grain transportation in the Western Xia Dynasty, improved the traffic between the Xixia and the upper cities and the metropolis, and strengthened the connection between the Western Xia and the Yuan Dynasty.

· Mostly water control (Design) tonghui river )

Yuan Dynasty Most of the capital. Today's Beijing To ensure the supply of materials, large quantities of grain are transported from the south to the vast majority. The Grand Canal It is an important waterway for north-south traffic. But the Grande Canale is only accessible. Tongzhou ( Today's Beijing Tongzhou ), from Tongzhou to Beijing, all by land transportation. In the rainy season, the diseases and deaths of human and livestock are very serious and the transportation efficiency is very low. Therefore, since Jin Dynasty Since then, people have been trying to dig a canal from Tongzhou to Beijing to solve the problem of grain supply.

The topography of Tongzhou is lower than most. The canal can only be transported from most of the diversion to Tongzhou, and a series of dams will be built along the way, so that the ships coming from south to South will be on the way. In this way, we must find water sources around the metropolitan area to ensure the water supply of the canal. In the Jin Dynasty, it was from West Beijing. Shijingshan In the north of the West Ma Yu village, a canal was built, which was infused into the east of Tongzhou. Shirakawa But cause Hunhe River There is a lot of sediment and the canal is quickly silting up. In addition, during the summer and autumn flood season, the Hun River water is extremely turbulent, which is very easy to flood and threatens the two sides of the canal. So after fifteen years of digging, the mouth of the canal was filled again. Because of the canal excavated by the Jin Dynasty, it is passing through the southern part of most of the city walls. The following section from east to Tongzhou can be fully utilized, so what Guo Shoujing needs to solve is upstream water supply.

As early as Kublai Khan Middle unification The first thing mentioned in the six water conservancy projects in the three years (1262) when Guo Shoujing first met Kublai was this. He plans to take the Qinghe River from the source. Yuquan mountain After flowing, the East flows through the Weng Shan. this Longevity Hill South of the Weng Shan Po ( this Kunming Lake Predecessor Then divert the east to the south, injecting the sorghum River and then entering the canal. The plan was implemented. But because it is only a fountain of water, it can only be used to increase the water consumption of the lake town garden in the metropolitan area, which is not good for shipping.

To yuan After two years (1265), Guo Shoujing came from Xixia Returning to Beijing, he put forward second plans for repairing the canal. This scheme is based on the mouth of the Hun river opened by the golden man, but only a river diverting water upstream of the golden man canal, which leads back to the Hun River. When the river surges and threatens the lower reaches, it opens the gate of the diverting River and relieves the threat to the metropolis. At the same time, taking into account the sediment problem of the muddy river, he removed the canal. Sluice dam So that the sediment can be transported naturally. This assumption is reasonable, but most of the gradient of the water level of the Tongzhou canal is smaller than that of most of the canal sections, but it is still quite large. There is no gate dam control, and a huge grain ship can not go upstream. Therefore, after the completion of the project in thirteen yuan (1276), the scheme only helped the irrigation and drainage of the west side of the canal.

Since then, Guo Shoujing summed up the lessons of the failure of the two schemes and carefully surveyed the topography of the hydrology and topography around the metropolis. Just because he was transferred to "repair". Time service calendar The matter was put aside.

Until twenty-eight yuan (1291), it was suggested that Luanhe River And Hun River upstream, as a way to transport grain up. Kublai could not decide and sent Guo Shoujing to field investigation. When Guo Shoujing detected the midway, he found that the proposals were unrealistic. He made many new suggestions based on the opportunity to report the survey results. The first is the new canal plan that he has planned for many years.

The plan used the first Qingdao river source that he had chiseled from the first plan to the south of the sorghum river. In order to further expand the source of water, Changping County Kamiyama ( This is called Lantau Peak. Underfoot White float spring Water is introduced into Weng Shan Po. After that, the river did not go straight south, but turned west to the foot of the Western Hills. Then along the Western Hills, it intercepted all the springs from the Western Hills to the East and into the rivers of Shahe and Qinghe, so that they could sink into a considerable discharge channel and then enter the canal to Tongzhou through the sorghum river. Because these are spring water sources, with very little sediment, the downstream of the canal can be built without worry, so that grain ships can run smoothly. Guo Shoujing's proposal to excavate the Grande Canale was adopted by Kublai soon, and began in the spring of twenty-nine yuan (1292).

The whole project took only a year and a half, and the canal with a length of more than 160 miles was completed with all the dam works. The canal was named Tonghui river. The section from Changping to Weng Shan Po is also called white buoyant weir. From then on, the ships from the South could go straight to the metropolis, and the mast, as the terminal of the ship, was on the way. Tonghui river not only solved the problem of grain transportation, but also promoted the sale of Southern goods and prospered the economy of the metropolitan city.

The most prominent technology in Tonghui River project is the choice of the Bai Fu weir line. The origin of the white floating spring is about sixty meters above sea level, which is ten meters above the northwest corner of the most city. But they are separated by two river valleys of Shahe and Qinghe, and their topography is below fifty meters, or even less than forty-five meters. Therefore, if the line is straight down from the white floating spring, the water potential will flow down the valley and enter the canal. If the aqueduct is used, it will only lead to the water of the white floats and springs, but it will not work much. The route chosen by Guo Shoujing, though circuitous, maintained a smaller gradient of the water level of the river, and could intercept many water sources along the way, so that the water energy flowing into the canal had a larger amount of water. Because the straight distance from Shen Shan to Dadu is more than 60 Li. More than 30 kilometers On the long journey, the terrain has a few meters of ups and downs, which is very small. From here we can see that Guo Shoujing's topographic surveying technology is really superb. Many contemporary geographers have praised Guo Shoujing's achievements after reviewing the white buoyant line.

Astronomy

· Compile "time service calendar"

Astronomical observation

Guo Shoujing used his improved and created astronomical instruments to carry out many precise astronomical observations, thus making " Time service calendar The compilation of the system has a reliable basis for observation. He has engaged in and led many observation projects, such as Winter solstice Time and distance between two quarters Star catalogue , Four seas test , Huang Chi intersection As well as some Epoch Most of the data were in ancient China. calendar The most accurate or near the best in history. The more famous one is the four seas test.

Four seas test

In sixteen yuan (1279), Guo Shoujing proposed to Yuan's ancestor Kublai: Nowadays, the territory of the Yuan Dynasty is much larger than before. The sunrise and sunset in different regions are different from day to night, and the time varies from place to place. The old calendars are no longer applicable. Therefore, nationwide astronomical observation is needed to compile new calendars. Kublai accepted Guo Shoujing's advice, sent fourteen officers and officers to separate the road, and carried out astronomical observation in twenty-seven places. Four seas test "

Guo Shoujing from Upper capital ( this Duolun ) Mostly ( this Beijing Henan began to travel thousands of miles to the South China Sea and personally participated in the test. In 6 locations, the length of the summer solstice day and the length of day and night were measured. The average error of the Arctic height is only 0.35. The average error of the new measurement is less than 5'. The new value of the ecliptic intersection is measured, the error is only 1'. The length of the regression year is 365.2425 days, which is exactly the same as the current Gregorian calendar value. These observations provide scientific data for the compilation of national calendars.

Calendar compilation

In " Time service calendar In his creation, although Guo Shoujing had a professional division of labor, he was responsible for making devices and tests, but it had nothing to do with the rest of the creation and the overall work. The compilation of time service calendar is a large-scale collective work. In the work, there is a collective discussion between the specialized personnel and the major issues. " History of Yuan In addition to Wang BIE and Guo Shoujing's biography, the author also recounts the change of history. Xu Heng , Yang Gong Yi The biographies of others also made quite a length description. These narrations reveal the collectivism of the compilation of time service. According to contemporary historians of Science Qian Bao - Chung The point of view can even be considered as early as Liu Bin Zhong , Zhang Wen Qian , Chenchu When they were classmates, they had many discussions on calendars.

In assessing the role of collective work, Guo Shoujing should pay attention to the following aspects: on the one hand, the tasks assigned by Guo Shoujing will absorb the wisdom and labor of others. For example, the determination of the constant star scale is not what anyone can do alone. As for the work of determining the seven, we can not do without the calculation of calendar and the processing of data. On the other hand, we should affirm the contribution and wisdom of Guo Shoujing in the whole calendar's innovation and reform. Shortly after the enactment of the new calendar, Wang Jie, the main cadre, died or resigned, but only Guo Shoujing continued to work. Therefore, Guo Shou Jing deserves his credit. This is also an important reason why later generations attributed their achievements to Guo Shoujing.

A year of regression calculated by the time service calendar is 365.2425 days, that is, 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes and 12 seconds, which is only 26 seconds behind the actual revolution of the earth around the sun. gregorian calendar "( Be commonly called Solar calendar The cycle is the same, but the Gregorian calendar is 1582. Ming Wanli ten years It began to use more than 300 years later than Guo Shoujing's "time service calendar", which had a certain impact in the world.

geography

Guo Shoujing once proposed sea level Comparison as a benchmark Mostly ( Today's Beijing Sum Bian Liang ( Kaifeng, Henan today The difference between the topography of the two places is an important concept in geography. altitude Creation.

After the end of Xixia water conservancy project, Guo Shoujing went back to the Yellow River to explore the birthplace of the Yellow River. Thus he became the pioneer of scientific exploration in Heyuan, the Yellow River. His findings were not recorded. The first book on the achievements of Heyuan's investigation is published today. All real Written by Heyuan notes This is from Seventeen yuan to 1280 yuan. Kublai Khan His life is a special trip to Heyuan. Guo Shoujing's expedition has certainly had a considerable impact on reality.

Restructuring invention

Astronomical instrument manufacturing

Guo Shoujing completed the " Time service calendar "The work has created twelve instruments used on the observatory, and four instruments that can be carried to field observation." Brief instrument , High meter , Waiting pole instrument The sky, the Linglong instrument, Pitch instrument , Mobile instrument , evidence instrument, Scenery symbol , Peek at Twelve kinds of sundial timer and star dial timer. But the total number of instruments in historical records is thirteen. Star dial Two kinds of timer. ) Four portable instruments, Qi Lu Qian, are also listed in the "knowledge of Tai Shi Shi Guo Gong Gong". Positive scheme Pill list Hanging instrument A positive instrument. Of the sixteen instruments, nine are in the " History of Yuan · Astronomical records There are more detailed records: brief instrument, waiting pole instrument, Li Yun instrument, Mu Xiang, Yang Yi, Gao Bi, Jing Fu, peep Ji and Zheng plan. The only positive solution is called portable instrument. The main instruments are the combination of three instruments, namely, the simple instrument, the equator longitude and latitude, and the sundial. They are used to observe the movement of the sun, moon and stars in the sky. The improved instrument is not affected by the shadow of the circle on the instrument. High meter and scene symbol are a set of instruments for measuring the sun shadow. It is Guo Shoujing's innovation, which changed the past eight feet to four meters tall table, set up crossbeams on the table, placed shadows on the stone and coincided with the Japanese shadows on the scene, that is, the local Japanese and Chinese moments. This instrument is used to measure the shadow of the heliocentric, which is more precise than the shadow measured before. This is a great improvement on the moment instrument.

And in the creation of " Time service calendar Before and after work, Guo Shoujing also created and created some astronomical instruments, most of which are timers or instruments related to timers. Instruments produced before and after work are available. :

1. Baoshan leaks;

2. Daming hall lamp leakage ( Also known as Qibao lamp leakage );

3. Lingtai's water transportation and sky leak;

4. Cabinet leakage;

5. The screen is leaking.

6. Line leakage

Among these instruments, the lantern leak in Daming hall is China's first separate from astronomical instruments. timer In China Clocks and watches Development history is of great significance.

Taking a look at the astronomical instruments made by Guo Shou Jing, most of them have the characteristics of design science, ingenious structure, precise manufacture and convenient operation, and most of them have noticed the calibration device for instrument installation. His works won high praise from the same era and later generations. History is called haughty. Wang Jie Every time I see Guo Shoujing's new creation, I am convinced of it. Some of the instruments he made later returned to Beijing in the early Qing Dynasty. Later in eighteenth Century Kangxi , Qianlong In the several projects of the year, Guo Shoujing's works were destroyed as copper.

Other

Guo Shoujing designed the instrument. Equatorial theodolite It is the earliest equatorial device in the world. Europe Until the year 1598. Denmark Astronomer Valley of the valley Invent similar devices.

Guo Shoujing used the instrument. Roller bearing In order to move the southern end of the instrument. Equatorial circle It can flexibly operate on the equatorial ring. Similar devices in the West were only two hundred years away. Italy Scientist Da Finch Invented.

Personal works

Guo Shoujing has participated in Xu Heng, Wang Xun and other joint research and formulate a more than 360 year pass. Time service calendar "Became the most advanced calendar in the world at that time. According to History of Yuan The biography of Guo Shoujing records that the astronomical calendar compiled by Guo Shoujing has " Push step "," Erect "," calendar, "God's choice", "upper and lower three calendar notes", "time notes and notes", "the origin of the calendar", "the image of the French", "two to the sundial scene examination", "five stars fine line examination fifty volumes", "ancient and modern food exchange examination", "new survey twenty-eight Shu Za sits the stars to go to the place to go extremely", "the new test nameless stars", "the month leaving test". There are fourteen volumes, 105 volumes.

Character evaluation

General comment

Guo Shoujing was the greatest scientist in the world in the late thirteenth Century and early fourteenth Century. His scientific achievements were very outstanding not only in China but also in the whole world, and the scientific spirit, scientific thought and scientific method embodied in Guo Shoujing's scientific research reflected the brilliance of human wisdom.

Guo Shoujing's life is mainly engaged in scientific research work. In scientific activities, he carefully observed the characteristics of objective things, from which he can learn from their development rules; he can find and sum up the invention and creation of the working people, and have been applied and improved from concrete practice; he is good at absorbing useful things from others' experiences and lessons, making every effort to complement each other, so that his scientific research career will gradually improve. However, he never satisfied the ready-made experience of the predecessors, bold and bold explorations and innovative spirit. Thanks to his tireless efforts, diligent study and hard work, he has made remarkable achievements in astronomy, calendar, water conservancy and mathematics.

Past appraisal

Kublai Khan This is not the case. Vegetarian meal Yes.

Xu Heng God bless us, how can it be easy?

Iron ear Guo Tai Shi is also a man of God.

Qi Lu Qian The public YISHION Germany's practical learning is the world's master method. However, its non accessibility has three, one is water conservancy study, two is the calendar study, and the three is the system of image system. It is easy for people to see and use, to observe the simplicity of their planning, to observe carefully, and to be smart and not to argue privately, and the masses do not participate in their work. Alas! It is more ancient.

Matteo Ricci Its ( Guo Shoujing's astronomical instruments The size and design are far more beautiful than anything that has been seen and known in Europe. Although these instruments have undergone two hundred and fifty years of rain, snow and weather changes, they are no harm to their original glory.

Zhang Hui In the ancient calendar, "Da Yan" is refined, while a line of monks still hides gold needles. Therefore, respecting and respecting one's own law is called "sagittal circle", such as the horizontal arc arrow, the vertical arrow, the equator into the ecliptic, and the ecliptic becoming white. Since then, Huang, Chi, and Bai are three ways to be homogeneous, and the difference between Qi and Shuo is fixed. This method is not only a scholar but also a three hundred year official. There is a book in this prison, which is called "Li Yuan". Although the number of family members has been counted, and the number of calendars has been passed on, the number of deaths has also been increased. The number of deaths, the words and words, and the number of live words are also non-verbal. If we get the number of lives, we can not lose the word of Guo, but we can not lose a word and create a new law. The number of people who die is next to the wall.

Zhu Shi It's a thousand years to do everything. Chen Shuili, whose words are not yet finished, are very powerful. If this is said, there can be no special book. It is necessary to observe the ancient and modern words and deeds.

Ke Xiao - First, Zheng Ruan Wen Da Gong ( Ruan Yuan There is a saying. Push step The two must be measured and calculated. Guo Shou Jing Brief instrument , Pitch instrument The system is not yet available. Stacking Enrollment gap Sentence stock sagittal The law of the past is also known. To measure the essence, to calculate the density, to examine and seek, if we should be the yardstick, can be described as the great achievement of the ancient law.

Kinship members

grandfather

Guo Rong, a renowned scholar, was proficient in the five classics during the period of Jin Yuan. He was familiar with astronomy, mathematics and water conservancy technology.

Progeny

Guo Shoujing's descendants are still unknown. Presumably, the main reason for this is that Yuan Ming The change of dynasties resulted from the change of dynasties. Guo Shoujing's hometown is Hebei Xingtai county. Huangsi town Guo Cun But so far no descendant of Guo Shoujing has come here to find his ancestors. Guo family in Nan Zuo Quan village, Yinan County, Shandong, has been preliminarily textual research and visited Guo village, Huangsi Town, Xingtai county. Guo Shoujing Memorial Hall It is believed that the family of the Guo family in Yinan or the descendants of Guo Shoujing can be used for textual research: Shou Jing, Shou Jing Zu, moved from Beijing to the early part of the Yuan Dynasty.

Commemoration of future generations

international

In 1970, the International Astronomical Society Moon The back is located at 134 degrees W ( Western scriptures ), 8 degree N ( North latitude )的 Crater Hill Named " Guo Shoujing crater "

In March 1977, the international asteroid center will Asteroid 2012 It is called "Guo Shoujing asteroids".

domestic

· Anniversary Stamp

In December 1, 1962, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications issued the " Ancient Chinese scientists (group second). Ji 92 8 sets of commemorative stamps are introduced. Cai Lun , Sun Simiao , kuo Guo Shoujing's achievements in paper-making, medicine, geology, astronomy and so on, of which seventh and eighth were Guo Shoujing's bust and his invention. Brief instrument

· Commemorative coins

In 1989, People's Bank of China It issued a Guo Shoujing refined silver coin, one of the sixth sets of gold and silver commemorative coins series of outstanding historical figures in China.

· Telescope

In April 17, 2010, the Chinese Academy of Sciences National Observatory Major national science and technology infrastructure " LAMOST telescope It was officially renamed "Guo Shoujing telescope" to commemorate its contribution.

· Xingtai, Hebei

Hebei Province Xingtai City The most important street was named "Guo Shoujing Avenue" to commemorate Guo Shoujing and later renamed "Shou Jing Bei Lu" and "Shou Jing Nan Lu".

Guo Shoujing Memorial Hall Located in Xingtai Da Quan Quan Park It was built in 1984 with an area of 50000 square meters and a building area of 4700 square meters. The main facilities include Guo Shoujing bronze statue, observatory, four exhibition halls and astronomical observatory. Hebei Tourism Bureau has been designated as a key tourism unit of Hebei Province, and is named Hebei province by the Hebei provincial Party committee and the provincial government. Patriotism Education Base Named by the China Association for science and technology. National popular science education base The Ministry of science and technology, the Central Propaganda Department, the Ministry of education and the China Association for science and technology jointly named the four ministries and commissions of the whole country as the National Youth Science and technology education base.

According to Xingtai county records "Records:" Tai Shi Guo Shoujing tomb county northwest thirty Li. " However, no definite orientation has yet been found.

In January 5, 2016, the results of Xingtai's "Ten Golden business cards" were announced. Kaiyuan Temple And so on has been identified as "ten big gold business cards".

· Beijing City

Guo Shoujing memorial hall is located. Beijing City No. 60, West Street, Desheng Gate, Xicheng District. Shichahai The Huitong shrine on the north shore of the West Sea. Built in September 1986, the memorial hall covers an area of nearly 800 square meters, with a floor area of 400 square meters. The memorial hall has four exhibition halls, which introduces Guo Shoujing's life and achievements.

· The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region The ancestral hall of Guo Shoujing was built to commemorate his achievements in the Western Xia Dynasty.

· Dengfeng, Henan

Henan Dengfeng has so far retained the observatory set up by Guo Shoujing.

Historical records

Qi Lu Qian " Meta category Volume fifty. Knowledge of Tai Shi Shi Guo Gong Gong Xing "

Su Tian Jie " The famous ministers in Yuan Dynasty Volume nine. Tai Shi Guo Gong.

Song Lian " History of Yuan Volume one hundred and sixty-four. Biography fifty-first.

Zhu Shi Shi Chuansan compilation 4 twelve. Famous minister thirty-four.

Ke Xiao - " New History of Yuan Volume one hundred and seventy-one. Biography sixty-eighth.

Guo-Shoujing1


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