Guangdong embroidery is the general name of Guangzhou embroidery (Guangzhou embroidery) and Chaozhou embroidery (Chaozhou embroidery). It is one of the four famous embroidery in China.
Guangdong embroidery has a history of more than one thousand years. The Tang Dynasty Su Jaw's "Du Yang Miscellaneous Edition" has been recorded by Nanhai (now Guangzhou) girl Lu Meiniang as "extremely skillful and capable of embroidering seven volumes of the Fahua Jing on silk rulers". During the reign of Emperor Xuanzong in the Tang Dynasty, the Lingnan Festival made Zhang Jiugao offer high-quality embroidery to Yang Guifei and get three additional official products. In the Ming Dynasty, Guangdong's overseas trade flourished. In the ninth year of Ming Zhengde (1514), a Portuguese businessman bought embroidered pieces of dragon robes in Guangzhou and returned home. He presented the embroidered robes to the king and was rewarded. Hence, Guangdong embroidery became famous overseas.
In the 28th year of the Ming Dynasty (1600), Queen Elizabeth I founded the British Embroidery Association in Britain. King Charles I also advocated the dissemination of Cantonese embroidery art in the three British islands. For a time, Cantonese embroidery was praised as a "gift from China to the West". Museums in Britain, France, Germany and the United States all have Cantonese embroidery. Cantonese embroidery became popular in the 18th century in the British Royal and upper class society. During the Guangxu period (1875-1908 AD), Guangdong Arts and Crafts Bureau opened the Mahua Art School in Guangzhou, specializing in embroidery. It devoted itself to improving embroidery skills and cultivating talents. Gao Jianfu, the ancestor of Lingnan Painting School, was the principal. In 1910, Yude of Guangzhou Muhua Art School, Lin Xinquan of Chaozhou and other 24 embroidery technicians won prizes in Nanyang Exercise Conference in Nanjing, such as Peacock Peony, Suwu Shepherd and Danfeng Chaoyang.
Guangdong embroidery technology pays attention to the combination of material shape and quality, including silk velvet embroidery, gold and silver thread embroidery, thread embroidery and Pearl embroidery. Silk embroidery is a kind of Guangdong embroidery with the longest history and the most complete inheritance of skills. The needle method of gold and silver thread embroidery has its own characteristics, including flat embroidery, knitting embroidery, embroidery, cushion embroidery, applique embroidery, weaving embroidery, brocade and so on. Pearl embroidery belongs to the new variety of Guangdong embroidery. It was developed and applied by Guangdong embroidery artists.
Guangdong embroidery has a history of more than one thousand years. The Tang Dynasty Guangdong embroidery technology level has been extraordinary. The Tang Dynasty "Duyang Zabian" records that in the first year of Yongzhen (805), Nanhai (county name, governing seat Panyu, now Guangzhou) Gongqi Nu Lu Meiniang embroidered seven volumes of the Fahua Jing on a foot (0.3m) silk, "the size of the word is no more than millet", "the dots are distinct, as fine as hair, the title and sentence are all the same." She also embroidered the "Feixian Cover" of 1 Zhang (1 Zhang = 3.33 meters), embroidered with landscapes, immortals and jade ladies, and "thousands of children holding houses and holding festivals". During the reign of Emperor Xuanzong in the Tang Dynasty, the Lingnan Festival made Zhang Jiugao offer high-quality embroidery to Princess Yang and get three additional official products. It can be seen that the highest class appreciated Guangdong embroidery at that time. Tang Shunzong (761-806) once praised Lumei Niang as his aunt.
During the period of Zhengde in Ming Dynasty (1506-1521), Guangdong embroidery was exported to Portugal, Britain, France and other countries through European merchants, and became the favorite clothing of palaces, royal families and nobles. In the ninth year of Ming Zhengde (1514), a Portuguese businessman bought embroidered pieces of the Dragon Robe in Guangzhou and returned home. He presented the embroidered robe to the king and was rewarded. In the thirty-fifth year of Jiajing Ming Dynasty (1556), Crotz, a Portuguese missionary who had stayed in Guangzhou for several weeks, wrote in his memoir: "Many handicraft workers in Guangzhou work for export trade. Export products are also rich and colorful. Embroidered shoes embroidered on the upper with colored silk threads... They are wonderful works of art.
In the 28th year of the Ming Dynasty (1600), Queen Elizabeth I of Great Britain was very fond of gold and silver thread embroidery in Guangdong. She personally advocated the establishment of the British Embroidery Association, which imported silk and silk thread from China and processed noble embroidery clothing. After the succession of King Charles I of Great Britain, she further advocated the cultivation of mulberry and sericulture and the development of British silk. The silk industry and technology spread the wide embroidery art to the three British islands, which was praised by western scholars as "the gift of China to the West" . Museums in Britain, France, Germany and the United States all contain Cantonese embroidery. Cantonese embroidery became popular in the 18th century in the British Royal and upper class society. According to Cunsu Tang Silk Embroidery Records, the Qing Dynasty Palace once collected 8 pieces of Guangdong embroidery "Bogu Fengping" in the Ming Dynasty, on which 95 pieces of ancient tripod, utensils and jade ware were embroidered. "Needle laying is thinner than hair, needle laying does not forget the rules", and some "horse tail wrapping as a strand, thus Crochet (outline)", with neat patterns, "needle eye concealment, tianyi" Seamless"fully demonstrates the superb skills of Guangdong embroidery in Ming Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, Guangdong embroidery also made silk thread from peacock tail feathers imported from abroad, and embroidered clothing and daily necessities. It was magnificent and magnificent.
In the 22nd year of Qianlong reign of Qing Dynasty (1757), Emperor Gaozong of Qing Dynasty ordered Western merchant ships to enter Guangzhou Port only, which promoted the development of Guangdong embroidery and made Guangdong embroidery famous abroad. In the fifty-eighth year of Emperor Qianlong, Guangzhou established the embroidery guild "Jinxiu Xing" and a foreign company specializing in the export of embroidery. There are specific regulations on the working hours, materials, patterns, colors, specifications and price of embroidery. In the mid-18th century, the "leather gold embroidery" was also popular in Guangdong, which was a kind of Nasi embroidery. The bottom layer was mostly lined with sheepskin gold. The gold glittered and was particularly exquisite. Guangdong embroidery artists also creatively weave peacock hair into thread embroidery, embroidery is extraordinary; some also use horse-tail bristles as stranding, which can be called ingenuity. During the Guangxu period (1875-1908 AD), Guangdong Arts and Crafts Bureau opened the Mahua Art School in Guangzhou, specializing in embroidery. It devoted itself to improving embroidery skills and cultivating talents. Gao Jianfu, the ancestor of Lingnan Painting School, was the principal.
In 1910, at the Nanyang Industry Promotion Conference held in Nanjing, the embroidery selected by Guangzhou Muhua Art School won the third prize, while Yude (Zongxi, 1880-1970), a disciple of Huang Hong, won the second prize for Peacock Peony, and 24 embroidery technicians such as Chaozhou Lin Xinquan, Wang Bingnan, Li Hebin cooperated to embroider Suwu Sheep, Suwu Mu Sheep and Bin.《 Danfeng Chaoyang and other awards were passed on as a good story . In 1915, Yu De's embroidery Peacock Peony Meeting won the first prize at Panama World Exposition held in San Francisco, USA, and was praised as "King of Embroidery" by the industry. In 1922, the remaining embroidered scraping "Rui Lion" won the second prize at the London Bridge Opening Competition in Britain. Famous artists Pei Yin and Lu Yan performed on the spot at the London Competition in 1923. They participated in the London Competition in 1923 and 1925, and received high international evaluation. In 1929, the head of Lenin embroidered by Mofu Jing was collected by the Lenin Memorial Museum in Moscow.
Since 1950 or so, after liberation, Guangzhou embroidery artists have created many excellent broadly embroidered paintings with exquisite skills, rich traditional characteristics and distinct flavor of the times. These embroidery paintings are well-known at home and abroad, such as: Li Zhan, Yu De, Huang Mei, Li Xiaohua, literary scenery, Yiran and other artists created a number of well-known broadly embroidered paintings at home and abroad. Among them are Yu De's Peony Pine Crane, Huang Mei's Baihe Tu, Nie Zhuo's Lu Xun Icon and so on, Liang Ji Design, Bauhinia Peacock, embroidered by Su Wen, Zhu Kai and Xu Qiguang, which was selected for hanging in the Guangdong Hall of the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, and Guangzhou Peasants, co-operated by Lin Zhang and Deng Bojiang. As a national gift, the Sports Workshop was presented to Chairman Frosirov of the Soviet Union; Yu De and disciple Li Yankai embroidered "Jinji Peony" in 1959 won the first prize in the selection of Guangdong arts and crafts works, which used seven kinds of more than 20 stitches, such as straight twist needle, continuous insertion needle, auxiliary needle, embroidery, winding embroidery, variant embroidery, and so on. The Peacock Hanging Screen, Nie Zhuo's embroidery by Liang Ji, the four screens of Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter by Zhu Kaideng, and Chen Heying's gold embroidery "Flower Basket" won the first prize in Arts and crafts of Guangdong Province.
In 1951, 13 embroidery villages in Chaozhou City established their association. In 1952, Chaozhou Drawing Company set up Embroidery Department to organize embroidery production and export. In May 1955, Guangzhou established the First Embroidery Co-operative, which was composed of 19 embroidery workers from Datang Township, Xinjiao District. Two years later, it was renamed Xinjiao Embroidery Co-operative (now Guangzhou Embroidery Craft Factory). In 1956, Yifeng and Minyi embroidery production societies were established in Guangzhou. In 1957, the Institute of Arts and Crafts was established in Chaozhou City and Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, to summarize and sort out the traditional skills of Guangdong embroidery. Later, Chaozhou set up an embroidery research institute.
From 1979 to 1981, Chaozhou embroidery works of art provided 250 sets of gifts for national exhibitions abroad, of which 198 were provided by Chaozhou embroidery factory alone, which was highly praised by all walks of life at home and abroad . In 1982, Chao embroidery works "Nine Dragon Screens" and "Blowing Xiao Yingfeng" won the Golden Cup of the Hundred Flowers Award of Chinese Arts and Crafts in 1982. Nowadays, Guangdong embroidery, large hand embroidery products such as quilt, screen, small pieces such as purse, fan cover, embroidered shoes, etc., women's sleeves, skirts, mostly for folding technology flowers, very thin velvet, flat silk surface, some of them are only Turquoise blue, unique style. In short, Guangdong embroidery with strong local color is very popular in the international community as well as among overseas Chinese in Hong Kong and Macao.
Origin of Guangzhou Embroidery
Guangzhou embroidery is a folk embroidery craft originating in Guangzhou and its ancient provinces such as Nanhai, Panyu and Shunde. It is called Guangdong embroidery in conjunction with Chaozhou embroidery and four famous embroidery in China, together with Hunan embroidery, Shu embroidery and Su embroidery. Following this artwork with strong Lingnan flavor to visit Guangzhou is like touching the cultural context of the ancient city for thousands of years.
Buddhist Sutras on Silk
Broad embroidery has a history of more than one thousand years. Du Yang Zapian, written by Su E in the Tang Dynasty, first described the exquisite skills of brocade embroidery: "Gongqi Maideness of Nanhai in the first year of Yongzhen, 14 years old, is extremely skillful. She can embroider seven volumes of the Fahua Jing on one foot of silk. The size of the characters is not more than millet grains, but points are clearly divided, as fine as hair, and the titles and sentences are all left behind." Better for Feixian, covered with silk hook into three, dyed into five colors..." "Gift to the West" to the Ming Dynasty, Guangzhou embroidery has become one of the important folk handicraft industries in Guangzhou.
In the ninth year of Ming Zhengde (1514), a Portuguese businessman bought embroidered pieces of dragon gown in Guangzhou and returned home. He presented the embroidered gown to the king and was rewarded. Guangzhou embroidery became famous overseas. Queen Elizabeth I of Britain appreciated Chinese gold thread and silver embroidery very much. She advocated the British Embroidery Association, organized the British Royal Embroidery House in the form of broadly embroidered workshops, imported silk and silk thread from China to process noble embroidery clothing. King Charles I of Britain advocated the dissemination of broadly embroidered art in the three British islands, and broadly embroidery was praised as "China" by Western scholars. Gifts to the West ", museums in Britain, France, Germany and the United States all have wide embroidery.
In the early Qing Dynasty, the British took their clothes to Guangzhou Embroidery Workshop for processing. Since then, Guangzhou embroidery has obviously absorbed the artistic style of Western paintings, become a kind of embroidery with better commercial and practicality than other areas, and developed rapidly in foreign trade. Wende Road used to be the cultural and educational center of Guangzhou. It has always been a place of books. The shops that mount calligraphy and paintings, sell antiques, books and four treasures of houses are in a row. Scholars and refined scholars often come to search for good copies of various ancient books. There are still several embroidery stores, full of various styles of embroidery works, through this window, traditional embroidery works of art to the market.
In the mid-Qing Dynasty, due to the prosperity of Cantonese opera and Cantonese opera, Guangxiu added a new type of clothing, Cantonese opera. At that time, the costumes made by Guangzhou Zhuangyuan Square were well-known in China, and even the Court Theatre troupes were admired to customize them. The embroidery workshops in Guangzhou Zhuangyuan Square, which were widely used to process the costumes of Cantonese opera, became a well-known "embroidery street" at home and abroad. Guangzhou embroidery industry has become a city. Guangzhou embroidery artists'skills have reached a very high level. They can skillfully use wool embroidery, and creatively use peacock hair, horse tail as thread and strand, and embroider with gold and silver thread.
On the south side of Guangzhou People's Road, there is a narrow lane paved with bluestone slabs. It is called "the most famous fashion center in Guangzhou" and "the shopping paradise for young people". This ancient inner street, which has existed for more than 700 years, was named after the former residence of Zhang Zhensun, the champion of the Song Dynasty. Nowadays, the champion has been buried in the pile of old paper, but the alley still shines with touching glory. Fashionable clothes with tens of yuan, cartoon dolls with a few yuan, Tibetan jewelry with popular elements, lively and lovely pets and cheap and attractive snacks all attract young people who pursue fashion.
Since the 1950s, the outstanding representative works of Guangdong embroidery include "birds facing the phoenix", "Danfeng facing the sun", "hundred flower basket", "I love chickens", "parrots", "dawn" and so on. "Morning dawn" is a beautiful scene of morning fog, the rising sun, the awakening of all things, peacocks in the flowers, dancing. When embroidering peacock tail, artists mix red, green, blue, yellow and purple silk threads together, giving full play to the advantages of different needling methods and silk gloss of Guangdong embroidery, showing the artistic effects of different colors reflected by different light-receiving parts. Artists also flexibly combine and transform the needles of the peacock according to its head, neck, chest and abdomen, and vividly show the different texture of its feathers.
From the Tang Dynasty to the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Guangzhou has made great progress. In the Tang Dynasty Su Jaw's Du Yang Miscellaneous Edition, Lumeiniang, a teenage girl from the South China Sea (now Guangzhou), has been recorded as "extremely skillful and capable of embroidering seven volumes of the French Classic" on silk. The Tang Dynasty Guangdong embroidery technology level has been extraordinary. During the reign of Emperor Xuanzong in the Tang Dynasty, the Lingnan Festival made Zhang Jiugao offer high-quality embroidery to Princess Yang and get three additional official products. It can be seen that the highest class appreciated Guangdong embroidery at that time. From Song Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, the skill of Guangdong embroidery was further improved. During the reign of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, embroidery shops were set up in Guangzhou and Chaozhou. Guangdong embroidery was flourishing. After liberation, under the impetus of the Shuangbai policy, famous masterpieces emerged constantly. With the prosperity of Guangdong embroidery, there are more and more varieties of Guangdong embroidery, which has a wide range of applications. Among them, high-grade embroidery mainly includes banners, hanging screens and desk screens. Generally, embroidery covers all aspects of daily necessities, such as embroidery pictures, gold and silver velvet skirts, quilts, pillowcases, lintels, cushions, batch towels, headscarves and various kinds. Embroidered clothes, embroidered shoes, embroidered bags, dramatic costumes, curtains, curtains and so on, there are also some ornamental embroidery works, such as "Dawn", "Birds Chao Feng", "Jiulong Screen" and "Blowing Xiao Yingfeng". The themes of Guangdong embroidery are also quite extensive, including characters, animals, flowers and birds, dragons and phoenixes, mountains, rivers, utensils and various patterns, among which the most traditional themes are birds and phoenixes, dragons and phoenixes, and Bogu.
At present, the largest preserved Guangdong embroidery in the Qing Dynasty is the longevity embroidery made by Tongtaidian number embroidered by Zhuangyuan Fang, 13 provinces of Guangdong Province in Guangxu 31 years. The embroidery is 4.2 meters long and 2.8 meters wide. Such a magnificent and exquisite embroidery work, which is rare in the world, is the best collection of embroidery craft and birthday etiquette in the late Qing Dynasty.
Chao Embroidery Master
In 2012, Lin Zhicheng (Chao embroidery), Kang Huifang (Chao embroidery) and Sun Qingxian (Chao embroidery) were listed by the Ministry of Culture as the successors of the national intangible cultural heritage project . Chao embroidery master Kang Huifang was awarded the title of "Cultural Ambassador" by the United Nations on August 11, 2015.
Chaozhou, Guangdong Province, is now a national master of Arts and crafts, a senior artist of Arts and crafts, a representative inheritor of intangible cultural heritage projects, and a director of the embroidery professional committee of the Chinese Academy of Arts and Crafts. He has been engaged in embroidery technology for more than 40 years. He has worked in Chaozhou embroidery factory and Chaozhou Embroidery Research Institute for embroidery, research and technical guidance.
At the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, the Guangdong Pavilion displayed a large-scale artistic work, which attracted the attention of many tourists. Its content is the appearance of the Guangdong Pavilion at the Expo - the golden arcade, the traditional cultural symbols of the Guangdong arcade, archway and awakening lion are vivid and vivid. So people began to speculate about its material and production process, and finally they came up with a surprising answer. This is an embroidery work, all the details are hand-made by a needle-and-thread. This exquisite work was created by the famous Chao embroidery artist Kang Huifang.
Coming into Kang Huifang's embroidery workshop, facing the door is a double-sided goldfish embroidery with a width of 98x88cm, golden thread-wound fish scales, meticulous four-circle fish eyes, uplifting fish mouths, using cotton pads to make the work higher, with a sense of three-dimensional, breaking away from the traditional embroidery method of plane embroidery, as if to see when turning. A fish's body sways slowly, vividly and vividly. Kang Huifang's exhibition hall is on the second floor, with elaborate embroidery works mounted and placed. She said that she spent most of the day looking at her works here to see what shortcomings her works had, how to modify them, and when she saw the works that were very well completed, she would clap her hands happily. Like a satisfied child.
Chao embroidery is one of the four famous embroidery. On the basis of drawing lessons from other embroidery species such as Su embroidery, Hunan embroidery and Shu embroidery, it innovates boldly and invents pad embroidery creatively. That is to say, before embroidering, pad embroidery with cotton floss is used to fix the pattern, and then gold velvet thread is embroidered on it, which makes the work look more relief and lively. Kang Huifang also integrated this kind of cushion embroidery into double-sided embroidery. Golden Dragon Double-sided Embroidery is her first double-sided embroidery. When embroidering a simple fish, we need to pay attention to its three-dimensional sense and eye angle, double-sided pad and double-sided embroidery, which is a new innovative technology. Kang Huifang said that when she studied the goldfish, she stared at the real goldfish every day, studying the rotation of the fish's eyes, turning upward and downward, tilting upward and upright shark fins when the fish was in power, all of which need to be studied and materialized continuously. Later, I found this method slowly, and I can't wait to start. I tried again and again, and more skills were gradually improved. Then I taught other embroidery workers, until everyone started, and then gradually embroidered a large number of double-sided embroidery works. Because of the complexity of these tide embroidery, it often takes months or even longer for a good piece of work. Like a piece of "Songhe Yannian" in Kang Huifang's studio, several embroidery workers work together, which takes about half a year to complete, it also needs enough patience and perseverance.
After thousands of years of development, Chao embroidery has become more and more diverse, slowly integrating into the art forms of calligraphy, painting, sculpture and so on. In Kang Huifang's studio, it is not only the magnificent embroidery that attracts everyone's attention, but also a special work, Mei Lan Ju Zhu, which is a double-sided hair embroidery, which is made of real human hair. It is difficult to control the texture of hair. After her processing, it is made into the most suitable softness for needle thread. This also involves the preservation of hair. Hard hair is not easy to be used as silk thread, so it is necessary to separate and bind these hair in a small handful, then wrap them in cloth after being stuffy. Contact with air and blowing, otherwise it is easy to harden and brittle, it is difficult to use, although the hair is not easy to break, but its hardness makes the embroidery process more difficult. This pair of double-sided three-dimensional hair embroidery is Kang Huifang's innovation combining the characteristics of tide embroidery and hair embroidery. Only by continuous innovation can we go further.
Lin Zhicheng is a national treasure embroidery master , a contemporary embroidery artist and a master of Chinese arts and crafts. Born in 1922 in the family of overseas Chinese workers in Thailand, he lost his father at the age of nine and returned home with his mother. At the age of 13, Jinxiuzhuang worked as a child laborer. At the age of 20, she was able to design all kinds of products independently. She was a rising star in the design team of Chaozhou embroidery at that time. In 1957, in order to improve the design level, he went to the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts for further study. Under the guidance of President Lei Guiyuan and others, he improved his art.
Lin Zhicheng has been engaged in fashion embroidery design for more than 40 years. First, he started with the variety of costumes and curtain edges, quilt covers and pillowcases. Besides absorbing the nutrition of traditional crafts, he also learned from his peers modestly to learn from their strengths and make up for their weaknesses. He often went deep into the life of the Chao Opera group, made in-depth research on the clothing of Chao Opera, boldly reformed and innovated, cooperated with the performance of Chao Opera abroad, and created 190 pieces of fine costumes of fifteen plays. These costumes were well received by foreign friends when performing.
His design of Chaozhou opera pythons, etc., won the third place in the national drama costume evaluation. As for the creation and design of gifts and exhibits, Lin Zhicheng is even more painstaking and accomplished. As soon as the first draft comes out, he invites designers and embroiderers to comment together and listen carefully to every helpful suggestion so as to make the work more perfect. His fashionable embroidery appreciations are characterized by beautiful patterns, exquisite embroidery, light and shade, prominent texture, harmonious colours and elegant appearance. Dragon Cloud Picture, a representative work, depicts the Golden Dragon rolling in the sea clouds. It seems to rise in the sunrise and sunshine atmosphere. It is magnificent and touching. It is a new work which emerges from the traditional Chao opera python. Another Shepherd Girl, with novel composition, exquisite embroidery, exquisite stitching, free and easy style, was listed as excellent works. It was sent to Britain, Egypt, Japan, Syria and other countries for exhibition.
In 1982, he devoted his attention to the design of the "Kowloon Picture", which was made up of twenty-five embroiderers, and was a delicate product of Chao embroidery. "Kowloon Tu" takes dragon as its theme, and "nine" symbolizes longevity, and Kowloon turns upside down. Its momentum is vast and magnificent, which symbolizes a strong, vigorous and heroic spirit. He used nail gold, pad gold, floating embroidery and other needle methods, embroidery with rich, rich characteristics. In embroidery, he also used six techniques: embroidery, nails, pads, pasting, collage and embellishment to make Kowloon slightly protrude. Especially, he embroidered dragon scales by means of two needles and dragon scales turning needles, with overlapping sheets and glittering gold. The waves are made of dark and light blue tones, embroidered with silver thread, and the waves are embroidered with silver thread cushions. The whole embroidery screen is brilliant, magnificent and has a strong decorative effect, reflecting the style and characteristics of Chao embroidery. His works won the Golden Cup in 1982 when he participated in the evaluation of the Hundred Flowers Award of Chinese Arts and Crafts.
Later, Lin Zhicheng created Chao embroidery hanging screen Chou Chou Jiao, which is another breakthrough in Chao embroidery technology. There are more than ten kinds of needling methods used in the whole hanging screen, such as padding gold, velvet, wrapping needle, chemical needle, insertion needle, random needle and dot embroidery. Colorful, reflecting each other, constitute a colorful picture. The turbulent raging waves submerged half of the body around him. He chopped down Jiaolong with a sword in one hand, showing a fierce battlefield. He made full use of the technique of cushioning to raise the face makeup and the head and tail of Jiaolong around him, and the waves were half cushioned. It looked like relief, with vivid characters and strong texture. This hanging screen is praised as an excellent embroidery work. In the late 1980s, although he was over the age of Huajia, he still designed a number of works with strong national style, such as "Yutang Spring" and "Blowing and Drawing Phoenix". His works such as Nazhao Naohai designed by Chen Libo, Happy Harvest designed by Xu Qirui and Goldfish designed by Du Yingbao are all masterpieces of ingenuity.
In August 1979, Lin Zhicheng was awarded the honorary title of "Artist of Arts and Crafts" at the National Congress of Arts and Crafts Artists and Creative Designers. In 1988, he was renamed "Master of Chinese Arts and Crafts".
One of the top ten Chinese folk artists , is a member of Chaozhou Folk Artists Association. He is currently the curator of Xiangqiao Folk Art Exhibition Museum in Chaozhou City. In 1986, he was awarded the title of embroidery artist by the Ministry of Light Industry of China. In March 1990, he was again awarded the title of famous folk artist by the Ministry of Light Industry of China who has been engaged in the arts and crafts industry for 30 years and contributed to the cause of Arts and crafts in China. In 2007, he was designated as the inheritor of folk arts by the Guangdong Provincial Government, and in 2008, he was named as "Guangdong Province" by the Guangdong Prov Guangdong embroidery (Chaozhou embroidery) is the representative inheritor of provincial intangible cultural heritage project, and won the honorary title of "Top Ten Artists in China".
Li Shuying has been engaged in embroidery art for four generations. His grandfather, Li Jinquan, opened a workshop of "Li Jinquan Iron Puppet" in Xima Road, Chaozhou in the late Qing Dynasty. It is well known in Southeast Asia, southern Fujian and Eastern Guangdong, and is known as "Puppet Li". Li Shuying has studied art with her father Li Wenlong since she was eight years old. She is good at traditional embroidery art and puppet making skills in Guangdong Bang. Her tidal embroidery works have won great prizes in provincial and national exhibitions for many times. Her work "Embroidered Iron Branch Puppet" has been selected by the Ministry of Culture for exhibition abroad and collected by Guangdong Museum.
Opening the collection of "Harmonious China - Artistic Achievement of Chinese Cultural Famous Artists" series of stamps and telephone cards just released in 2014, several fresh embroidery paintings of plum orchid, bamboo and chrysanthemum pearls and elegant embroidery paintings of pine crane pearls are very noticeable. These colorful, exquisite and elegant pearl embroidery paintings came from Huang Weixiong, a master of Chinese embroidery art and a master of Guangdong arts and crafts. Yesterday morning, the reporter walked into Huang Weixiong's pearl embroidery studio in Chaozhou Avenue Industrial Zone and listened to his story about the inseparable relationship with pearl embroidery painting.
Seven-year-old children pinch needles as "embroidery maids"
In 1964, Huang Weixiong was born in an ordinary family in the old city. Soon after, his parents added two new sisters to him. Family burden is getting heavier and heavier. As the eldest son, Huang Weixiong helped his mother to do embroidery work sensibly at the age of seven, saving tuition fees for himself and his sister. "Because my grandmother and mother all take embroidery needles, I learn quickly from them." Huang Weixiong has fallen into the memory of embroidery in his childhood.
Huang Weixiong, who is skillful in heart and hand, picked up the embroidery needle and learned embroidery very quickly. Under the guidance of his mother, Huang Weixiong became a "little embroidery girl". However, he still felt that it was a shame for boys to take embroidery needles. Every time a classmate shouts his name at the door, he always drops the embroidery needle at once and runs away from the embroidery bandage for fear that his little partner will make fun of him as "embroidery girl".
However, those colorful embroidery manuscripts opened the door to Huang Weixiong's art world. When he had time, he took his pen to describe those flowers and was totally intoxicated in the world of art. Later, he learned that these works were designed by the predecessors of Chaozhou arts and crafts circles at that time. His childhood painting experience laid the initial foundation for him to embark on the road of embroidery design.
Occasionally Creating "Pearl Embroidery Painting"
After graduating from high school, Huang Weixiong was admitted to the Arts and Crafts School, and was later arranged to work in the local state-owned Chao Embroidery Factory. Buried in the design of Chao embroidery and Pearl embroidery, he gradually fell in love with the work of dealing with color and art, devoted all his knowledge to the design of Chao embroidery and Pearl embroidery, and created many delicate Chao embroidery works. In 1993, he left the state-owned enterprise and founded a pearl embroidery company. The pearl embroidery and Chaozhou embroidery works produced by him were sold overseas.
The turning point of fate took place in 2001. I remember that day, Huang Weixiong was designing "flower sketches" in the design studio. As usual, the assistant used a large wooden tray to prepare dozens of beads for him, filled with dozens of cloth "bead bowls". Unexpectedly, when he came to Huang Weixiong, the assistant stumbled at his foot, and a whole plate of beads in his hand fell to the ground. The beads were placed neatly in different "bead bowls" of different colors, which would all spill out onto wooden plates. Looking at the dish of colorful beads, Huang Weixiong was suddenly shocked. In his eyes, the dish of pearls transformed into a picture of nature, green mountains, red sunset, golden sunshine, light blue sea water, and the red wood edge of the dish became a natural picture frame. "Why not embroider beads into paintings?" He could not help asking himself.
In a flash of inspiration, an amazing variety of art was born. He mobilized the knowledge of pearl embroidery design in his mind and designed the first pearl embroidery painting Mei Lan Ju Zhu. As soon as the work is finished, it has been affirmed and encouraged by many predecessors in the arts and crafts circles. Huang Weixiong was keenly aware that pearl embroidery has great prospects in the future. Soon after, he applied to the State Intellectual Property Office for a patent for "pearl embroidery painting hanging screen", and soon obtained a certificate and became the founder of pearl embroidery painting.
Helping Mother to Receive the Master of Arts Award
When entering the exhibition hall of Huang Weixiong's pearl embroidery studio, the reporter was overwhelmed by the colorful pearl embroidery scrolls in front of him. Based on Xu Beihong's "Eight Juntu" pearl embroidery painting "A Brilliant Future", eight steeds galloping in the wind are embroidered. Looking from a distance, it is quite similar to Xu Beihong's Eight Jun Tu. It makes people feel as if they can hear the hoarse of the horse and feel the flying of the mane. Only when a light hits the picture and the beads reflect a faint glow, can it remind people that it is a pearl embroidery painting. The whole pearl embroidery painting only uses more than 100 beads of different shades of gray one color system. It uses the "penetrating needle" method to arrange them gradually from deep to light. It depicts the texture of horses by changing shades of color, showing the dynamic sense of leaping and the stereo sense of horses. "The painting took more than 200,000 glass beads and took more than eight months to complete." Huang Weixiong told reporters that the pearl embroidery has won the "Chinese Arts and Crafts Cultural Creativity Award" gold medal.
In recent years, Huang Weixiong's pearl embroidery paintings have won gold medals in national and provincial fine arts and crafts exhibitions. In 2012, he was named "Master of Chinese Embroidery Art". On the award day, he supported his old mother to the stage to receive the award. Mother was the first teacher in his career. He took his mother to receive the prize not only for filial piety, but also for gratitude.
Innovative Subject Inheritance of Pearl Embroidery
As a category of Chaozhou embroidery, pearl embroidery is also a pure handicraft arts and crafts, and its market value is gradually attracting attention. The secret of pearl embroidery to go further is not to be bound by traditional themes and to dare to innovate in combination with the market. What Huang Weixiong is doing is to inherit and develop this skill with innovation.
Creative pearl embroidery painting, the most critical is the theme of innovation. Huang Weixiong said that with the progress of society, beads and other materials become more and more diverse and expressive, but the market demand of traditional themes such as Meilan, Juju and Pine Crane has shrunk. Only by combining with the current innovation of some themes, can it meet the appetite of young people. For example, he made the landmark embroidery of Athens, London, Beijing and other Olympic host cities into the pearl embroidery painting "From Athens to Beijing", and the figure portrait "Zheng Chenggong" was highly praised for its innovative pearl embroidery works.
At the end of the interview, Huang Weixiong sat in front of the embroidery bandage and kneaded the embroidery needle to perform for reporters. The embroidery needles fell together, and a leaf embroidered with green glass beads was nailed vividly to the silk cloth, shining green light under the lamp. Suddenly, I think of a passage in the local writer Huang Guoqin's Chaozhou in Smoke and Rain: "Chaozhou men who drink this water have beautiful spring mountains, and women who drink this water have soft spring waters." This spiritual mountain and beautiful water, Yin and Yang in one, will produce the Chaozhou man's ghost axe magic. Chaozhou men's skillful hands, Chaozhou women are not allowed to draw embroidery. And Huang Weixiong, a man in Chaozhou, is also embroidering his own inseparable bond with pearl embroidery with his skillful hands. Embroidery inherits this traditional craft.
Master Guang Embroidery
In 2012, Chen Shaofang (Guangxiu) was listed by the Ministry of Culture as the successor of the national intangible cultural heritage project .
When it comes to Guangzhou embroidery, we must mention Chen Shaofang, a 71-year-old master of Guangzhou embroidery. In 1962, after four years of study in Figure Science in the Department of Traditional Chinese Painting, Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts, Chen Shaofang graduated and assigned to Guangzhou Institute of Arts and Crafts. Since then, she has dealt with Guangzhou embroidery. Over the past 45 years, Chen Shaofang has poured half her life's efforts into the traditional folk art of Guangzhou embroidery, inheriting tradition and integrating innovation. The college graduates of that year have grown up to be the founder of "modern Guangzhou embroidery" and become the renowned senior Chinese arts and crafts artists at home and abroad and the master of Guangdong arts and crafts. Now, she has won the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage project representative successor title. Through decades of painstaking efforts in Guangzhou embroidery technology, the unique "silk thread color composition method" of "Chen's Guangzhou embroidery" has been successfully created, which has contributed to the development and innovation of Guangzhou embroidery.
Traditional brocade embroidery is mostly made with traditional themes of auspicious and festive celebrations, using the technique of white sketch. Through the inheritance and innovation of Chen Shaofang and others, brocade embroidery ushered in the peak of art, known as "modern brocade embroidery". Modern brocade embroidery uses coloring techniques on the basis of white sketch, and extends the selection of materials to such categories as portraits of characters by using the expressive techniques of traditional Chinese painting and oil painting. At the same time, Chen Shaofang also created many new stitches according to the artistic conception she needed to express. The artistic language of brocade embroidery is freely and ingeniously used, such as creating "fluffy needle" embroidered chickens, creating "single-character needle" embroidered deer and horses, creating "short-haired needle" embroidered children's "bald head", and creating "bamboo needle" embroidered bamboo basket... It has greatly enriched the skills of brocade embroidery. A chicken uses nearly 30 colors and Su embroidery uses colorful silk thread to complete embroidery. The innovation of modern brocade embroidery lies in the "silk thread color composition method". Traditional brocade embroidery has less than half the color of silk thread than Su embroidery. After more than ten years of research, Chen Shaofang invented the method of silk thread stacking to form various colors. "If you want to draw any color, you can embroider any color."
"I love chickens" is the most distinctive piece of Chen Shaofang's works, which can be called a famous product of modern brocade embroidery. The traditional four famous embroidery in embroidering chickens can only use deep, medium and light colors to show the texture of fluffy hair. More than a dozen chickens in Chen Shaofang's embroidery are painted with the "inclined color" in the oil painting. Looking carefully, some of the chickens'fur color tends to be purple, some to be green, some to be yellow, but only different. The most special thing is that the chicken held by the Yi girl in the embroidery is embroidered with velvet needles and painted with traditional Chinese painting on the backlight. It is wonderful that a chicken in the district actually uses embroidery thread of twenty or thirty colors. In 1978, when the works were exhibited at the National Arts and Crafts Exhibition in Beijing, Deng Xiaoping stood in front of the works for a long time and cheerfully greeted Chen Yonggui and said, "Come and see the chickens."
"Lingnan Brocade" is a huge embroidery roll designed by Chen Shaofang for 40 years and embroidered for more than 10 years. This 13.8-meter long flower-and-bird roll paints the Lingnan scenery where flowers compete for beauty and song in spring, summer, autumn and winter. It contains most of the traditional techniques of brocade embroidery and the innovative skills of "Chen's brocade embroidery". In April 1999, Guan Shanyue, a renowned master of Lingnan Painting School, was very excited when he saw this embroidery painting. In the case of "sealing pen" for a long time, he made an exception for the proposition of "long scroll" and waved the word "Lingnan embroidery". He evaluated this long embroidery scroll as "an epoch-making work of broad embroidery".
In 2001, the exhibition of Chen Shaofang's Broad Embroidery Works set a record of 450,000 exhibitions. The audience at home and abroad praised the exhibition. With its vivid charm, Zhao Pu Chu Picture attracted more than 30 Tibetan monks who came to visit. They joined the Ten Songs Sutras one by one. "Zhao Puchu" in the embroidery portrait carries on the frontal touching ceremony. In the Guangzhou embroidery exhibition hall of Chen Shaofang's family in Panyu District, Guangzhou, dozens of exquisite brocade embroidery works have been displayed, which have been created by Chen Shaofang for decades: Golden Prize "I Love Chickens" and Pearl Embroidery "Ma Zhigong Cheng", which won the Golden Prize of Guangzhou Fine Arts and Crafts Exhibition "Phoenix Crowned Birds". "
In 2006, Guang Embroidery, representing Guang Embroidery, participated in China's "National Non-material Cultural Heritage Exhibition" such as "Pride over Qunfang" and other embroidery masterpieces, as well as the embroidery work "New Partners from the North" published by newspapers and magazines at home and abroad, printing adult calendars, New Year pictures, postcards, greeting cards, telephone cards and so on. Guangdong Folk Art Museum (Chenjia Temple) to Chenjia Temple can see the essence of brocade embroidery art. Guangdong Folk Art Museum is based on Guangzhou Chen Academy (commonly known as Chen Family Temple).
Xu Zhiguang, the master of Guangzhou embroidery and the last "flower man" in Guangzhou embroidery industry, is good at the traditional skills of Guangzhou embroidery. He is the last "flower man" in Guangzhou embroidery industry (in Guangzhou embroidery industry, male workers are commonly called "flower man"). Born in an embroidery family, the family has been engaged in broadcasting embroidery for more than 140 years. From the age of 7, the family has followed his father in learning art. Whether it is embroidering portraits, landscapes, sceneries, or embroidering beasts, flowers, birds, fish, etc., the needles and expression techniques used are relatively comprehensive and proficient. They have invented and innovated new needles such as "cover needles" and "chicken needles", which have been praised by their peers. The artists who have studied needle technique have excellent artistic attainments and rich creative experience. They are one of Guangzhou's 100 skillful hands. Over the past 60 years, he has guided and participated in embroidery of a number of well-known Chinese and foreign broadly embroidered art works, including the Guangdong Hall of the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. He was selected as a gift by the Central Ministry of Light Industry to attend the Moscow World Youth Festival and won national, provincial and municipal awards. He was collected by the Guangdong Museum of Folk Arts and Crafts (Chen Jia Temple). He has successively won the titles of "outstanding inheritor of folk culture in Guangdong Province", "master of Arts and crafts in Guangdong Province", "senior artist of Arts and crafts in Guangdong Province", "representative inheritor of Guangzhou intangible cultural heritage embroidery project". Over the past decades, more than 400 people have been trained and coached to learn embroidery skills. They are still engaged in design, embroidery and apprenticeship in Guangzhou Embroidery Factory.
Since the age of 6, she has followed her mother to learn the basic embroidery skills of Guangzhou embroidery. After learning from the masters of Su embroidery and Guangzhou embroidery, she has learned and mastered the portrait embroidery skills and the unique embroidery skills of Guangzhou embroidery. She has integrated Guangzhou embroidery and Su embroidery skills and made some innovations. She is skilled in daily necessities embroidery and the appreciation of figures, landscapes, flowers and birds. The embroidery skills. From more than 50 years of art, he has participated in embroidery of a number of well-known broadly embroidered works of art. He has been awarded the titles of "master of Arts and crafts in Guangdong Province", "artist of Arts and crafts in Guangdong Province", "representative successor of Guangzhou intangible cultural heritage broadly embroidered projects". He is still working as a technical consultant in Guangzhou Embroidery Crafts Factory Co., Ltd. Engaged in embroidery, apprenticeship and other work.