Guan Zhong

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Guan Zhong

Guan Zhong (about 723 BC - 645 BC) Ji surname Guan Shi, name Yi Wu, character Zhong, posthumous title, Yingshang (now Yingshang County, Anhui) A famous economist, philosopher, statesman and strategist in ancient China, the representative of the legalist school in the spring and Autumn period and the descendants of Zhou Mu Wang.

Qi Xi Gong began to assist thirty-three years (698 BC). Correction of childe In the year of the year of Qi Huan (685 BC), Bao Shu Ya It is recommended to serve as a "state father" and is also known as "Zhong Fu". During his tenure, he made great efforts to reform the interior and enrich the country and strengthen the army. To honor the king and resist foreigners Nine Kings Help the whole world Duke Huan of Qi Become Five Hegemons The first.

Qi Huan Gong died forty-one years ago (645 BC). Later, it is known as "Guan Zi". Legalist School Pioneers, teachers of sages, "protectors of Chinese civilization" and "China's first phase". " pipe The book entitled "Guan Zhong" is actually a posterity's name.

Paul Mauriat's History

Early experience

In fifty-six years (723 years ago), Guan Zhong was born. Guan Zhong's ancestors were descendants of Zhou Mu Wang and Zhou royal family. Same clan father Guanzhuang It is the doctor of Qi, and the decline of family life led to the poor life of Guan Zhong. To make a living, a friend. Bao Shu Ya Partnership failed in business. Guan Zhong had been considered a humble businessman at that time. Travel many places, contact all kinds of people, have seen many of the world, thus accumulated rich social experience. When soldiers become soldiers, they run away. Several times I wanted to be an official, but I failed.

Zuo Gong Zi rectification

Qi Xi Gong (thirty-three years ago), 698 years ago. Qi Xi Gong To die, leaving three sons.

Prince Edward Zhu Er , Correction of childe And the childe Xiao Bai. After the death of Qi Xi, the princes of the prince ascended the throne. Qi Xiang Gong At that time, Guan Zhonghe Bao Shu Ya Assist the childe in correcting the problem Xiao Zi Bai Soon, Qi Xiang Gong and his sister Lu Huan Gong Madam Chinese ginger Secretly, he tried to kill Lu Huan Gong. In this regard, Guan Zhong had a premonition that chaos would happen in Qi state. The son of Guan Zhonghe is the daughter of Lu Jun. Call up We should protect the childe from escaping to Lu kingdom.

Qi Xiang Gong (twelve years ago), 686 years of internal disorder. The two fugitive sons, who saw the time ripe, tried to rush to return to the throne to win the throne. When Lu Chuang Gong knew that Qi had no king, he was extremely anxious. He immediately sent soldiers to escort the prince to rectify his homeland. Later he discovered that the prince had already set out to return home. Guan Zhong decided to take the lead himself, 30 to the chariots. Ju state On the way to Qi, we will intercept the childe and Xiao Bai. People passing by compound surname More than 30 Li, is meeting the prince of Xiao Bai's brigade horse and horse. Guan Zhong and other childe came nearer, and began to shoot the arrow. Guan Zhong saw that he had shot dead and led his men back. In fact, Xiao Zi did not die. Guan Zhong shot his copper clothing belt with an arrow. After this surprise, Xiao Zi and Bao Shuya were more alert and rushed to Qi. When they came to Linzi, Bao Shuya was persuaded by the advanced city, and Qi Guozheng Qing and Guo Shi agreed to protect the son of the emperor as the king, so he went to the city and successfully ascended the throne. Duke Huan of Qi

Bao Shujuxian

Qi Huannian (the first 685 years), when Qi Huan took the throne, he was badly in need of finding talented people to help him, so he was prepared to ask Bao Shuya to come out and serve as a leader. But Bao Shuya said he could not be equal to Guan Zhong. If we wanted to make Qi the state, we must use Guan Zhong as our prime minister.

Guan Zhong and the childe rectify a group that the childe is dead, and no one contends with him for the throne. Six days later, I arrived in Qi. As soon as I arrived at Qi State, I did not expect that there was a monarch in Qi state. Lu Chuang Gong Hear Qi State After the new emperor was in a state of fury, he immediately sent troops to attack the Qi State and attempted to seize the throne by armed intervention. Both sides Dry time During the battle, Guan Zhong suggested that when the small white people were not able to attack quickly, Lu Chuang said, "if everything is as you expected, Xiao Bai was shot dead." Not listening to Guan Zhong's words, the result was ambushed. Lu army was defeated. The childe rectify and Guan Zhong followed Lu Zhuang's defeat. Lu state Qi Jun pursued victory and entered the territory of Lu. Qi Huan Gong sent a book to Lu Chuang Gong for Lu Guosha's later illness. Correction of childe Surrender Guan Zhonghe Call up Otherwise, Qi army will attack the whole country in an all-round way. When Lu Chuang learned about it, he consulted with Dr. Shi Bo. Shi Bo believed that Qi had to manage Guan Zhong not for revenge but for his appointment. Because there are few talents in Guanzhong, and the country that he is in charge of is bound to be prosperous and strong. If Guan Zhong was appointed by Qi State, he would be a great trouble for the state of Lu. Therefore, Shi Bo claimed to kill Guan Zhong and return the corpse to Qi state. But Bao Shuya used to call Qi Huan Gong hating Guan Zhong to go to the bone and to kill Guan Zhong. Moreover, Lu Chuang Gong was defeated in the new era, and the troops of Qi state were forced to tremble. Under the pressure of Qi, he killed the son of the prince and seized Guan Zhong and his arrest. He was ready to send the two men back to Qi Huan, so as to withdraw troops.

Guan Zhong knew that this was Bao Shuya's strategy, so he escorted the workers to the Qi State, and finally arrived safely in Qi state. After Bao Shuya's proposal, Qi Huan agreed to choose auspicious days and greeted Guan Zhong with very grand etiquette. At the same time, let all the people know that Qi Huan is very generous. Qi Huan Gong took over three days and three nights after he took over the charge. He kept speculating and fasting three days. He worshipped Guan Zhong as his prime minister and called Guan Zhong "Zhong Fu".

Help to seek hegemony

In the two years (684 years ago), Huan Huan also told Guan Zhong: "I want to strengthen arms." Guan Zhong added, "no way." Huan Gong did not listen, and indeed he repaired arms. Once, Mrs. song enraged Qi Huan Gong, and Huan Gong said to Guan Zhong, "I want to cut up song." Guan Zhong said, "no, I don't think domestic affairs will be successful, and foreign troops will not succeed." Huan Gong did not listen. Indeed, he started to cut up song. All the princes launched the battle to save the song and defeated Qi army.

In the three years (683 years ago), Guan Zhong suggested that he should send troops to condemn the tan state which did not obey the law of etiquette. Tan Guo was very young, and his strength was very weak, and soon he was eliminated by Qi. Qi had done nothing to destroy Tan and expand its territory.

In the five years (681 years ago) of Qi Huan Gong, under the suggestion of Guan Zhong, Qi Qi and song, Chen, Cai, Zheng and other countries gathered in the northern apricot (Shandong Liaocheng East) to discuss the strategy of stabilizing the Song Dynasty. Sui Guo (now Shandong fat city south) was also invited, but did not attend. In order to raise the prestige of Qi, Guan Zhong sent troops to wipe out the state. The state of Lu was relatively strong, but because of successive defeats by Qi, it saw that all the princes were obedient to the Qi state. Qi State Soon, Qi and Lu were reconciled. Ke (today's East, East and southwest) alliance. In this alliance, there was a famous one. Cao Mo Chau Meng Event. Cao forced the return of the Qi state to all the land lost before Lu, and wanted to go back after the incident. However, Guan Zhong should not break his promise by using a great power to return the lost land.

In six years (680 years ago), Lu, song, Chen, CAI and Wei all succumbed to the Qi state. Tam and Sui both had already wiped out. Only Zheng Guo was still in civil strife. Guan Zhong therefore suggested that Qi Huan should come forward to mediate Zheng Guo's internal disorder, so as to raise the status of Qi and speed up the realization of hegemony. Zheng Guo came home from Li Gong to kill Zi Yi, and killed Fu Xia. He killed the doctor. Guan Zhong seized this opportunity to suggest that Qi Huan joined song, Wei and Zheng Sanguo, and invited Zhou royal court to participate. Juan (now Shandong) Juancheng Alliance.

In the seven years (679 years ago), Guan Zhong also asked Qi Huan to convene song, Chen, Wei and Zheng in his own name. Since then, Qi Huan has become recognized. Overlord

North War Shan Rong

Twenty-four years (662 years ago) of Qi Huan Gong. Shan Rong Attack Yan state Yan state asked for help from Qi.

Qi Huan believes that the southern Chu state is more scourge and unwilling to send troops. But Guan Zhong thought that when he was suffering from one side, Chu Kingdom in the south, Shan Rong in the north and Di in the West were the scourge of the Central Plains. If the monarch wants to cut down the state of Chu, he must attack the mountains and settle down in the north and settle down in the north. Now that the Yan state has been committed and asked for help in our country, it will win the support of all countries. Qi Huan deeply thought that he was going to raise the army to save Yan. Guan Zhong went to the army to fight for Shan Rong to rescue Yan state.

In the twenty-six years (660 years ago), the duer in the West and North also attacked the Central Plains and attacked the Central Plains. Xing Guo (now Xingtai, Hebei). As a hegemon, Qi Huan Gong can not be ignored. Guan Zhong is also very concerned about this problem. He said to Qi Huan Gong: non-Chinese peoples of the north and west Temperament is very cruel and insatiable. All countries in the summer are relatives and care for each other. It is difficult for a country to live. Everyone should help each other. It is dangerous to satisfy the well-being of the current situation. It is the best policy to send troops to save Xing. " Qi Huan Gong appreciates Guan Zhong's idea and sends troops to save Xingguo. Xingguo is soon saved. Not long after, the Di people sent out troops to defend the country. Wei Yi Gong Killed defend one's country Extinction. Di people catch up with the people of Wei to the Yellow River coast. The Song Dynasty sent troops to rescue seven hundred and thirty people from the Wei state. In addition, there were five thousand residents in two cities. In Cao Yi (now Huaxian, Henan), Dai Wei is the king. The newly restored Wei state is in a very difficult position. Qi Huan Gong and Guan Zhong sent the childe without loss and armed with five hundred horses and three thousand horses to defend the country. He also brought the horse riding sacrificial dress to Wei Jun, and brought him a ride and a brocade. In addition, there are more than three hundred cattle, sheep, pigs, dogs and chickens. And helped build palaces. Xingguo has not yet recovered, and the Di people have robbed second times.

In the twenty-seven years (659 years ago), the duer attacked Xing, and the situation was very serious. Qi Huan Gong and Guan Zhong immediately joined the song and Cao Jiuxing. When the Qi, song and Cao troops arrived, the people of Xingguo saw their relatives and ran away. Xingguo was robbed by Di people again. So Qi Huan Gong and Guan Zhong, together with song and Cao, helped Xingyuan move the capital to Yi Yi (now southwest of Liaocheng), which is safer near Qi. To stabilize the Xingxing country. Both Xing and Wei were ransacked by the duer. They were reunited under the auspices of Qi Huan and Guan Zhong. At that time, people admired: the Xing people moved to the new capital, as if they had returned to their old home. defend one's country People feel happy and forget the sorrow of subjugation.

Alliance between Qi and Chu

In the twenty-nine years (657 years ago), Chu army sent troops again. zheng Qi Huan Gong and Guan Zhong's princes jointly rescued Zheng from resistance to Chu. As Chu constantly attacked Zheng, Qi Huan Gong and Guan Zhong Yu Lu, song, Chen, Wei, Zheng, Xu, Cao and other eight countries formed a coalition army to go down to South Korea. First of all, they eliminated Cai Guo in one fell swoop and pointed directly to Chu state. Under the circumstances of the great army, Chu sent ministers. Qu Wan Come out and negotiate.

After seeing Qu Huan, he asked, "you live in Beihai, we live in the South China Sea, thousands of miles away, and nothing interferes." Why did you come to us this time? "

Guan Zhong, who was around Qi Huan, listened to Qi Huan's reply. "Once upon a time, when the king ordered the king of Zhou to give orders to his ancestors, he said to our ancestor Tai Gong," five, wait for nine grade. If you do not obey the law, you can go to the expedition. " East to sea, West to river, South to Mu Ling, north to no Li, are within your scope of claim. You are not going to King Zhou The koumiss, a tributary of the liquor used for offering sacrifices, blatantly violates. Wang Li There is also no sign of King Wang, and it is not related to you. We came here to help you.

After he finished, he replied, "it's our fault that we haven't paid tribute for many years. As for King Zhao, the South did not return. Hanshui River You have to go to the water side of the river and ask for it. "

Qi Huan Gong saw Chu's attitude towards the end of the battle. He ordered the army to be stationed in Xinghe (now Henan City South). The confrontation between the two armies has lasted half a year from spring to summer. Chu also sent Qu Wan and Qi Huan Gong and Guan Zhong to negotiate. Qi Huan Gong and Guan Zhong had no intention of fighting, but wanted to show them through this military action. Overlord The prestige of the state of Chu threatened the state of Chu. So they soon agreed to negotiate with Qu Wan and reach agreement. Zhao Ling (now Henan Yan County).

Duke Huan of Qi In order to show off the strength, please bend over to the army to see the army with him. Qi Huan Gong pointed to the army and said to him: "what kind of enemy can resist the command of such an army to fight? What kind of town can we conquer if we command such an army to attack the city?

Qu Wan answered very quietly. "Monarch, if you use justice to appease the princes of the world, who dare not obey?" If we only use force, then we can make the city of Fangcheng the city of the mountain and make the Hanshui pool. The city is so high and the pool is so deep that if you have more soldiers, I am afraid it will not help. The answer was euphemistic and forceful.

For the situation, Qi Huan agreed to form an alliance with Chu state. In this way, the confrontation between the north and the South was decently ended.

Union of Kui Qiu

Thirty-five years (651 years ago) of Qi Huan Gong. King Hui of Zhou Death. Qi Huan Gong, together with all the princes, holds the crown prince Zheng as the son of heaven. King Xiang of Zhou After King Zhou Xiang ascended the throne, he ordered Kong Ciqi, Huan Wen, Wu Gong, Tong Gong and the road to be praised. Qi Huan Gong convened all the Lords' meetings. Sunflower Hill (now Henan) Lankao The ceremony was held in the county seat of civil rights. On the occasion of the ceremony, the king asked for the king's life, because he was not old enough to give thanks. Qi Huan Gong wanted to obey the king's fate. Guan Zhong said from the side: "although King Zhou is modest, the courtiers must not be disrespectful." Qi Huan Gong replied, "Print-Rite does not violate the law. Does Xiao Bai dare to kill the king?" On the other hand, Qi Huan went down the steps, and then paid a visit to the head. When all the princes saw this, they all sighed for the gentleman's courtesy. Qi Huan Gong reaffirmed his alliance and signed a new alliance. This is the famous in history. Union of Kui Qiu "

In the thirty-nine years (647 years ago), the younger brother of Zhou Xiang and his brothers were colluding with the Juns to attack the capital. Qi Huan Gong sent Guan Zhong to help the king to quell the civil strife. Guan Zhong finished well and won the appreciation of Zhou Wang. In order to show respect Overlord The courtiers were ready to celebrate Guan Zhong with ceremonial banquet, but Guan Zhong did not accept it. Finally, he accepted the treatment of lower Qing etiquette.

Recommendation in old age

In the forty-one years (645 years ago), Qi Huan Gong asked Guan Zhong who asked for a replacement. Guan Zhong recommended Gong Sun Xi Peng, and asked Qi Huan to leave the party, to set up Diao, to change three teeth. After Guan Zhong died, Gongsun Xi, a successor, Bao Shu Ya The two countries continue to use the political system left behind by Guan Zhong. Guan Zhong's descendants were appointed doctors, enjoying the shade of generations from generation to generation.

Main achievements

political system

administrative reform

Guan Zhong rectified the administrative system, which was "three countries but no one". The so-called "three countries" is to divide the country into 21 townships, 15 townships, 3 townships, 3 villages, and 3 official management. The so-called "Wu Qi despicable" is divided into 5 genera, 5 doctors and 5 official officials. There are 4 counties, townships, pawns and towns under the jurisdiction of the county. The purpose of rectifying the administrative system is to "settle the people's house", so that the people, peasants, workers and businessmen will have their own business, so that the residual influence of the tribe is completely eliminated. The organizational structure of the administrative area is more refined and effectively safeguarded the social stability.

Personnel employment

He put forward the principle of employing people: "virtue and righteousness are not visible to those who are in the court, but they should not be added to the rank of honour." those who do not know what they have done is not allowed to give them priority. In today's words, when appointing all officials, they must be based on their actual achievements, especially the real achievements that win the trust of the people, rather than false and superficial achievements. In addition, he summed up a set of specific measures for rewards and punishments for officials at all levels.

Junior high school Cixiao "," Intelligent "," tough and powerful boxer The outstanding person is recommended by the head of the township and appointed as an official. He who is competent can be promoted until he is promoted. official with high rank Assistant. To some extent, it has been a breakthrough. Shi Qing Shi Lu system It has expanded the source of talents, and this system has become the future. imperial examination system The embryonic form of degree.

Political proposition

Guan Zhong paid attention to economy and agriculture, opposed empty talk and created vocational skills education. He advocated reform to enrich the country and strengthen the army. He said, "the country is rich and the wealth is far away." materialism The idea of "material determines consciousness" is quite close to the thought of Guan Zi. Qi Huan Gong Zun Zhong Zhong " uncle He was authorized to chair a series of political and economic reforms: to divide the administrative area in the whole country, to organize military establishment, to set up official management, to set up a talent selection system, and to select three persons to be elected as the "superior praising" (Assistant); to levy taxes according to land classification, to prohibit the aristocracy from taking advantage of private property; to develop salt and iron industry, to cast money, and to adjust prices. Guan Zhong reform In essence, we should reform the land and population system. Guan Zhong's reform has achieved remarkable results, and Qi has greatly strengthened its national strength. Externally, Guan Zhong first put forward the nationalism thought of "discrimination between China and foreign countries" and "respecting the king and resisting foreigners". United northern neighbours, resistance Shan Rong nationality South invasion. This one Diplomatic strategy It has also been successful. later Confucius Exclaimed, "Guan Zhongxiang, Huan Gong, the princes, Unite the whole empire under one government This is what the people deserve. Microtubule Zhong, Wu Qi Become Barbarians Yes. If not A common man and woman For the sake of forgiveness, do we not know how to know it by ourselves? He added: "Huan Gong. Nine Kings No soldier, Guan Zhong's strength. Like their benevolence, like their benevolence.

Diplomatic proposition

Guan Zhong's diplomatic proposition displayed the banner of "respecting the king and resisting the foreigners".

In order to make Qi Huan become the leader of the princes, Guan Zhong made many efforts to assist Qi Huan in diplomacy. Duke Huan of Qi In the twenty-three years (the first 663 years), Shan Rong attacked the Yan state, Yan asked for help, and Qi saved Yan. In the twenty-five years (661 years ago), Shan Jung attacked the country of punishment, and Guan Zhong put forward "Rong Di's wolves, not to be tired of it." Qi Huan again sent troops to attack Shan Rong to save Xingguo. He repulsed the di Bing who destroyed Xingcheng capital and established a new capital for Xing state in Yi Yi. In the following year, Di people launched a massive attack, Wei Yi Gong was killed. The state of Qi and the state of Lords build another new capital in Chu Qiu. In the thirty years (656 years ago), Guan Zhong asked Qi Huan to ask why Chu did not pay tribute to the son of heaven on time. The ceremony could not be carried out in time, making Chu admit his mistake. In the first 655 years, King Zhou Hui had the intention of setting up another prince. Guan Zhong proposed that Qi Huan Gong gather the princes and princes of the princes in the first place, with Zhou Tian Zi alliance to confirm the prince's Orthodox status. In the first 654 years, Guan Zhong, Qi Huan Gong, led by Zheng Wen Gong for the first time to run away from the meeting, and allied forces to crusade against Zheng Guo. Several years later, Qi Huan Gong was allied to the doctors of Zhou Xiang and Wang Xiang, and established the throne of Zhou Xiang Wang. In the first 651 years, Qi Huan duo summoned the king of the Song Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Cao and other countries and Zhou Wang Zai Kong to the Kui Qiu. On behalf of King Zhou, Zhou Gongzai officially sealed the Duke of Huan. In the autumn of that year, Qi Huan hosted the alliance of Kui Qiu as a hegemon. Since then, he has been confronted with the violation of the authority of the royal family. Qi Huan Gong will ask and stop it. Guan Zhong's diplomatic strategy has been very successful, making Qi Huan Gong's hegemony more legitimate and reasonable, and protecting the economic and cultural development of Central Plains. It has made great contributions to the survival of the Chinese civilization.

military system

Its principle is to send military orders to the internal affairs, and its measures are "to participate in the country and to oppose it". Its contents are: dividing the whole country into twenty-one townships and six industrial and commercial townships. Shi Xiang Fifteen. The township of Commerce and industry does not engage in combat. Actually, it is fifteen. Five townships are handsome, with eleven thousand people. From the Qi Jun rate to the central army, the two upper Qing officials each rate five townships for the left and right army, is for the three armed forces, namely "ginseng country". There are ten villages in a village, four in a row, ten in one lane, five in one track, and five in one track. The five families in the track are living together because of the same advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the "code is consistent with the solid, the war is the same."

This is a combat system that combines social and military forces, and prepares for large-scale wars later.

economic system

The economic policy of Guanzhong is to "make people rich and have no money".

The law is "the benefit of light fish and salt, in order to support poverty". Qi Tai Gong family ) Or "right and wrong", "Shi Shan Hai Ye" (Shiji Ping Ping Shu), see entries. Theory of light and heavy "To" accumulate money and enrich the country and strengthen the army "(Shi Ji Guan Yan Biography).

It is the origin of the salt and iron officials in the Han Dynasty that we have no credit materials. Guan Zhong's record says: Guan Zhong opposed to "tree", "six livestock" and the population levy taxes, and advocated "only official mountains and seas can be also", "Shan Hai" is iron and salt ("Guan Zi Hai Wang"). If this is recorded as credible, the economic policy of ruling salt and iron has already been implemented in Guanzhong.

The skillful use of the tube technology has been planned abroad. The strategy of Heng Mountain It is a classic case of the ancient currency war.

The policy of "quasi leveling" was implemented in Guanzhong, that is, "the surplus of the people is lighter than that of the old people," so that the old people will be able to take it lightly; the shortage of the people will be heavier, and the old gentleman will be more dispersed. Therefore, the great Jia Fu family must not take advantage of our people. Food order (below). This quasi leveling system is not only a policy of balancing grain prices, but also indirectly acknowledges the rights of farmers to freely buy and sell grain and the legality of free and private land, and also protects the production profits of private farmland farmers. This economic policy also centralised power for the economic level.

Guan Zhong put forward " Decline in phase "That is to say, according to the quality of soil and output, the amount of tax collection is determined, and Marx's differential rent is the same.

Guan Zhong faced the then " Drain the pond to catch all the fish "Economic development," in order to make effective use of Qi's forest and fishery resources, formulated "Shan Ze each time". That is, the earliest natural environmental protection law in history, that is, to prohibit people from overcutting and overfishing in order to protect their trees and fish from normal growth. Logging and hunting will only take place in the proper season.

By Guan Zhong Xiu Qi Tai Gong, "the nine houses round the law", in the Qi state set up an institution that specialize in managing money: "nine yuan and moan". Qi is a unified currency casting by the government. The standard currency is knife shaped, named "Qi Fa Hua" or "Jie Mo Hua Hua", commonly known as "Qi Dao".

Guan Zhong systematically expounded the promoting effect of consumption on production in the article "pipe and extravagant".

Character evaluation

Confucius "Microtubule Zhong, I am left behind." (the Analects of Confucius constitutionalism) means:

Guan Zhong assisted Qi Huan Gong as a princes. Overlord Let the king conquer the country. Without Guan Zhong, we would loose our hair and turn left to become a barbarian. He added: "the nine kings of Huan Gong do not use a military car, but Guan Zhong's strength is like his benevolence.

" Huainan Zi and Tai nationality training " father of the first Zhou king lift Chi-Kou-Go-Istu , Zhao Gong And Wang, Huan Gong Ren Guanzhong, Xi Peng And the hegemony is a meritorious service. king of Wu during the Spring and Autumn Period Destroy with Tai Zai, Qin Ren Liz , eunuch who conspired with Li Si to influence the succession to the First Emperor And this is the same fate. Therefore, in view of its action, chaos can also be seen.

Sima Qian (1) Guan Zhong, the so-called virtuous minister, but Confucius was small. Do you think that the way of Zhou Dao is declining? The saying goes: "let go of its beauty, save its evil, so that we can kiss each other." What does Guan Zhong mean? " (2) Yan Zi Frugal, Yiwu Extravagant; Qi Huan With tyrants, Jinggong To cure. "

Name of Shu Han Zhu Geliang I often compare myself to Guan Zhong. Yue Yi In history, Guan Zhong was homogeneous, making Qi become a state. Five Hegemons Zhu Geliang and Xiang Shu made Liu Bei and Cao Cao and Sun Quan three points in the world. Two people are working hard. Bend one's body and exhaust one's energy And it has great merit.

Fang Wen Ling "To be able to live in a small country," Kong Ming To practice righteousness, to be good to the new state, to stir up matters to talk about feelings, to restrain things like that.

Li Jing "Ruo Leyi, Guan Zhong, Zhu Geliang, war will win, Shou will be solid, this is not looking at heaven, time, place, and energy, you can suddenly and suddenly?"

Liu Xie "There are many faults in ancient times. Until Guan Zhongxiao steal, Wu Qi Greed, Chen Ping Stain, Deep irrigation The slander and jealousy are numerous below. Kong Guang Dong Xian is the champion of the Kuang ban ma. Wang Rong On the founding of the country, the rank and rank of the officials are vulgar; the situation of Ma Du hangs out, and Ding Luzhi is poor and thin. However, Zi Xia did not lose to famous scholars. If he is loyal, Zou Mei knows that, Huang Xiang Chun Xiao, Xu Jing's silence, what does it mean to be a scholar?

Si Ma Zhen "To become a tyrant," Ping Chung Call virtuous. Su Naishi Lin, beans do not hide their shoulders. Turning calamity into blessing is the most dangerous thing. Kong Lai wear the clothes of a barbarian Shi Xin takes the lead. When you are courtesy, you will live. "

personal works

Main entry: pipe

The book "Guanzi" was originally written in 86 chapters, and 10 articles were lost in Tang Dynasty. There are 76 articles in this book. In fact, Guan Zi, like many classics in the pre Qin period, is neither a single book nor a temporary book. It is a collection of collected works of the old Taoist School of Ji Xia Huang. Han Han Yi Wen Zhi, a National Bibliographic catalogue of Western Han Dynasty, was recorded in the Taoist category, which is written by Guan Zhong. pipe "The 85 chapter," Ban Gu notes, "is the name of the emperor, but the nine is the prince, not the military vehicle. There are biographies. " There are 76 articles in this book, which contain very rich contents. They include knowledge of Taoism, Confucianism, name, law, military, yin and Yang, as well as astronomical, geographical, economic and agricultural knowledge. Among them, "light weight" and other articles are rare economic works in ancient books and records. They also discuss production, distribution, transaction, consumption, finance, currency and so on. They are valuable materials for the study of agriculture and economy in pre Qin China. The biography of Guan Zhong is recorded in biography of Shiyan. Among them, Huang Lao Taoist works are the most, followed by legalist works 16, and the rest are miscellaneous, among which legalist thought is the legalist thinking under the influence of Taoism.


Respecting kings and resisting foreigners

The original meaning of this allusion is to worship Zhou Wang as the Central Plains.

The Lord is resisting the nomadic people of the north. Later it became synonymous with the united front when faced with foreign invasion.

During the ruling period, Qi Huan, under the help of Guan Zhong, made reforms in many aspects such as internal affairs, economy and military affairs, and accumulated a solid material foundation. Military strength He played the banner of "respecting the king and resisting the foreigners".

The policy of "respecting the king and resisting foreigners" carried out by Qi Huan Gong was put forward by Guan Zhong, making his hegemony more legitimate and reasonable, while protecting the economic and cultural development of Central Plains. It has made great contributions to the survival of Chinese civilization.

Cry over the valley of the devil

Guan Zhong attacked Shan Rong, a tiger son spot to Qi Huan Gong and Guan Zhong said before.

The face is the valley of devil's cry. If Shan Rong is lying in ambush, we will never think of the past. He said to tiger son, since the general is worried, then you will follow the final order of the army. Prince Cheng Fu Zhaokawa Ni will act according to the token.

Second every day when dawn came, Qi army mounted with wooden posts and pretended to lie in ambush. In Shan Rong's plan, the chief took the arrow in the mill, and a general of his staff rushed into the tight encirclement, robbed the wounded mile and fled to another tribal country in Shan Rong.

David and Jonathan

Guan Zhong has a good friend. Bao Shu Ya The friendship between the two is very deep. The two of them went into business together. When making money in business, Guan Zhong always gave more to himself and less to Bao Shuya. And Bao Shuya never looked at it with Guan Zhong. In this regard, people say to themselves that Guan Zhong is not greedy for money. friendship After Bao Shuya knew, he explained for Guan Zhong that Guan Zhong did not talk about friendship, but only covet money. He did so because he was poor and gave him more money. Guan Zhong took part in the three fight, but fled back from the battle for the three time. Therefore, people laughed at him, saying that Guan Zhong was afraid of death and did not have the courage to sacrifice. After hearing this ridicule, Bao Shuya knew that it was not in line with Guan Zhong's actual situation. He explained to people that Guan Zhong was not afraid of death, because he had an elderly mother and was supported by him, so he had to do that. Guan Zhong's friendship with Bao Shuya was very sincere. He also wanted to do some good deeds for Bao Shuya many times. However, none of them had done it. Not only did he fail to do so, but he created many new difficulties for Bao Shuya, but he might as well not do well. So people thought Guan Zhong had no ability to do things, but Bao Shuya didn't look at it. He knew in his heart that his friend Guan Zhong was a very capable person. Things didn't work out because the opportunity was not mature. In the long term exchanges, the two of them have had a deep friendship. Guan Zhong has told people many times that they are my parents.

Chu country buys deer

Qi Huan asked Guan Zhong: "Chu is a great power and its people are skilled in fighting. We need to raise troops to punish the state of Chu. A Chu state is very troublesome. How should we go after it? " Guan Zhong said, "king, you pay a high price for the deer of the special state of Chu. This is a good idea. " Qi Huan Gong set up a small town on the border with Chu state and sent people to the state of Chu to buy live deer. The price of living deer in Chu kingdom is eighty thousand yuan. Guan Zhong makes Wang Huan, a Chinese doctor in the Huan Huan school, bring twenty million money to the state of Chu to search for it. The king of Chu heard about this and said to his prime minister, "money is something people like, and is also something that a country depends on for survival. But deer are nothing but animals. Now that Qi has so much money to buy things we do not need, this is the blessing of our Chu Kingdom. Heaven let the fool of Qi to come cheap! Hurry up and issue orders so that the people can quickly catch the live deer and change the money from Qi State as soon as possible.

In order to stir up the incident, Guan Zhong also said to the official purchasing agent from Chu state: "you can get 20 deer for me, and I will reward you with gold hundred jin. When you get 200, you can get a thousand jin of gold." If the state of Chu does not levy taxes on the common people, it will be enough. Therefore, the whole country has been Sensational: no matter official or folk, men, women, old and young, all of them are in a rush, quite a bit of "universal speculation (or real estate)". The people put down their farm work and went wild to catch the live deer. At this time, Guan Zhong made minister Xi Peng secretly purchase and store grain in the Qi and Chu countries. Chu earned five times more money than selling live deer, and Qi bought five times more grain than usual.

So Guan Zhong said to Qi Huan, "well, we can safely attack the Chu state." Qi Huan asked, "why?" Guan Zhong replied, "Chu took five times more money than usual, but missed the farming season, and the grain could not be harvested in a few months. Then we'll block the border. " Qi Huan Gong suddenly appeared and ordered to close the border with Chu state. As a result, the price of rice in the Chu state was soaring, and the Chu king sent people to buy rice everywhere. They were cut off by Qi State, and refugees from Chu to the Qi state reached 4/10 of their population. Chu was badly hurt, and succumbed to Qi three years later.

Dying advice

Guan Zhong had a serious illness. He went to visit him and asked him, "Zhong father's illness is very serious. What will you teach me?" Guan Zhong said, "there is a proverb in the countryside of Qi country:" people at home don't have to prepare things to load when they go out. People on the road do not have to prepare things that need to be buried at home. Now I'm going to stay away from the world. Where is it worth asking? " Huan Gong said, "I hope Zhong Fang should not be modest." Guan Zhong replied, "I hope you will be alienated from the king, the upright, the upright, the Witch and the guardian." Huan Gong said, "do you doubt that people are willing to cook their own sons to satisfy my taste?" Guan Zhong answered, "man's nature does not love his son. How can you love your son? " Huan Gong also said, "can I doubt if such a person can be served by me?" Guan Zhong answered, "man's nature is to cherish his body. What is the love for the king? " Huan Gong also said, "can a man of nature be able to examine the principles of life and death and dispel the disease that demons descend to human beings? Can such a person still doubt?" Guan Zhong answered, "death and life are predestined, and the disease that is caused by demons is caused by mental failure. If a king does not obey his destiny and keeps his spirit, he will rely on the constant wizard. Huan Gong added, "Wei Gong Qi Fang has served me for fifteen years, and his father will not return to mourning when he dies. Can such a person still doubt?" Guan Zhong answered, "man's nature has a father who does not love himself. When his father died, he could not bear to go back to mourning. What kind of love would he have for the king? Huan Gong said, "I listen to you." However, after Guan Zhong's death, Qi Huan Gong did not follow Guan Zhong's advice, reused and trusted these three people, and eventually died in the hands of these three criminals.

The valley of the foolish old man

Duke Huan of Qi Out hunting, ran into a valley after catching up with the wild deer. Seeing an old man, he asked him, "what Valley is it called?" The old man replied, "it's called the valley of the foolish old man." Huan Gong said, "why do you call this name?" He replied, "make its name under the name of a subordinate." Huan Gong said, "today I see that your manners are not like a stupid person. Why do old people have such a name?" The old man replied, "please allow the subjects to speak one by one. I used to raise a cow, gave birth to a calf, grew up, sold the calf and bought a pony. A young man said, "a cow cannot breed a horse." And took the little horse away. The neighbourhood heard about it and thought I was stupid, so I called it the valley. The valley of the foolish old man " Huan Gong said, "you are really stupid! Why did you give him the pony? " Huan Gong went back to the palace.

On the second day, he told Guan Zhong about it. Guan Zhong adjusted his clothes to the direction. Duke Huan of Qi After two worship, he said, "this is my stupidity. If Tang Yao were a judge, he would be a judge. How could anyone else take a pony? If someone is bullied like this old man, he will not give it to him. The old man knew that the prison was unjust, so he had to give the little horse to the young man. Please let me go down to politics. Confucius said, "remember these things, Huan Gong is the overlord. Wise and able The prime minister. They still have their hands. clever Regard as stupid The situation, let alone those who are not as good as Huan Gong and Guan Zhong.

Golden beetle changing grain

Huan Gong asked Guan Zhong once, "what is the treasure of the emperor?" Guan Zhong replied, "Bei Guo has someone digging the ground to get tortoise. The turtle can get the benefit of 100 miles of land." Huan Gong said, "why is a turtle equivalent to a hundred miles of land?" Guan Zhong replied, "let the turtles put the tortoise in the market. The king sent the envoy immediately, equipped with ten carriages, carrying hundreds of Jin Jin to the home of the tortoise man, and ordered, "the monarch gives you the official uniform of the Chinese doctor." Also said: "this is the offspring of the sea god of the East China Sea. It looks like a tortoise, lives in your home, gives you the official uniform of the Chinese doctor, enjoys it all your life, and pays you a hundred jin of gold." So the turtle is regarded as priceless and expensive, and is stored on the platform. Every day, blood is sacrificed for four oxen, and it is called priceless treasure. Four years later, he got to know the grain of the bamboo Kingdom and learned the food stored in the family of the wealthy families. It was enough for the three armed forces to eat for five months. He summoned the master of the Ding family to him and said, "I have a priceless treasure here, and now I have a great event that I want to pledge to you and borrow your food." Ding went to the north again to command his life and sent it to grain, but he dared not accept this pledge as a pledge. Huan Gong said to Ding, "I am old, and my son does not understand the whole story. You must accept this pledge. When Ding came home, he converted the house and set up a mat to collect the tortoise. In the past four years, when the soldiers cut off the bamboo leaves, they could get the food of the Ding family. "

The strategy of Heng Mountain

Heng Mountain is rich in weaponry and Heng Mountain. Guan Zhong has long been planning to conquer Heng Mountain. However, if we want to attack Heng Mountain by force, it will take a lot of effort. The alternative is that Guan Zhong sent people to Heng Mountain to buy weapons at a high price a year before launching troops. Ten months later, Yan, Dai, Qin and other countries followed Heng Mountain's arms purchase. Seeing the money making situation, the king of Heng Mountain told the Prime Minister: "all countries in the world are competing for our weapons to raise the price by more than twenty times", so the people of Heng Mountain have abandoned agriculture and switched to iron.

A year later, Qi sent people. Zhao Buying grain, Zhao's grain price is fifteen yuan per stone, but Qi State buys fifty yuan per stone. All the countries, including Heng Mountain, transported grain to the Qi state. When all countries cheered and cheered, Qi suddenly closed the border and stopped buying grain and Heng Mountain weapons. Before the summer harvest, he sent troops to Heng Mountain. At this point, Heng Mountain has no grain available, weapons are almost sold out, and it can not buy grain in other countries. The economic and military two battlefields have failed to get the best of the country.

Shi Bi man

Words Kui Qiu Alliance After that. Qi Huan Gong told Guan Zhong that we had held such a big event and spent a lot of money and the wind had come to an end. How can we change these false names into real profits? Otherwise, if the few want to worship the emperor, they will feel that the cost is not enough. Is there any good way Zhong father has? Guan Zhong said, "Lord, there is a chaotic stone Gang somewhere. Please order a batch of jade craftsmen to recruit a bunch of jade craftsmen. They will be carved into stone blocks according to the standard. They will be priced at ten thousand yuan in length, eight in eight thousand, seven in seven thousand, four thousand in stone, five hundred in stone." Qi Huan listened and was skeptical, but he did what he said.

On the day of Shek Pik's completion, Guan Zhong came to Luoyang to meet with him. Emperor The emperor kindly met the Zhong father of the overlord. At that time, the son of heaven's brother Ji was still fighting about the separation and the emperor. As the Prime Minister of the great princes, Guan Zhong came to the court to speak and persuade the brothers. Guan Zhong said, "for the dignity of the king, our monarch intends to lead the princes to worship the ancestral temple of the king. One can observe and study Zhou Li, and the two can also cheer for the king. If they saw this posture, they would not dare to act rashly. The emperor said, "well, then the princes will worship the emperor's ancestral temple." Guan Zhong also said, "if the king is to make a decree, all the princes who come to worship the king's ancestral temple must take the wall of" stone breaking the sky "as a tribute to the king, otherwise, they will not be allowed to enter the court. So called " The breaking of rock frightens the heaven The wall, which was chiseled out of that pile of rocks, found a good project and it was immediately worth it.

The emperor said, "yes, that's fine." They issued orders to all parts of the world. The princes generally have little chance to visit the ancestral temple of the king of heaven. Therefore, all the princes of the world were carrying gold, jade, grain, colored silk and cloth and silk. They rushed to Qi State and scrambled to buy tickets. In this way, the stone walls of Qi state are in circulation all over the world.

Jing Mao Mou

Guan Zhong was very willing to give advice to the emperor. He saw that there was no special resource for the emperor. Only the valuable grass of tribute came from the state of Chu. It was called "green grass". This is a three species of grass that runs directly to the roots in the Yangtze River Basin. Let's not leak. The emperor said that the emperor would go to Taishan to worship heaven. Only this time the Chartered Lords would accompany him to the heaven. Because the princes are not entitled to worship the sky, so this opportunity is extremely precious, everyone is willing to go. Then he ordered again: "all those who worship heaven with the emperor must carry a bundle of fine grass as a mat for sacrificial offerings." If there is no fine maid, no entry is allowed. So the princes of the world came out with gold. Scramble for the first time Snap up. If you can accompany the emperor to attend such a grand event, what is gold? It's worth it! The price of Mau Mao has suddenly blowout and has risen dozens of times, and a bundle can be sold to hundreds of gold. So the gold of the world is like flowing water. From all sides Come together. In the three days of the week, Zhou's selling Mao Cao's money has been equivalent to his seven years' income.

Uncle Bao came out of the mountain

At first, Bao Shuya was very dissatisfied with Qi Xi's assistance to his son, Xiao Bai. He often felt ill, because he thought that "knowing a son is a father, knowing Mo Ruojun." The king knew that Xiao Bai would not inherit the throne in the future, and thought he had no talent before he could help Xiao Bai. But Guan Zhong did not take it for granted. When he understood the inside story, he persuaded Bao Shuya to say: "all the people in China hate mother's son, so they don't like to be corrected." The rule of the future will not be corrected. Although he was not smart, he was very anxious, but he was very anxious. I am not Guan Zhong, nobody understands Xiao Zi Bai. Correction of childe Even if you dismiss your brother in the future, you will accomplish nothing. It's not your Bao Shuya to stabilize the country. Who else is there? " In this way, Bao Shuya listened to Guan Zhong's opinions, came out to accept the appointment, and tried to serve Xiao Bai with all his heart.

Qi and Qi

Lu's defeat in the dry time defeated the Qi state. Under the pressure of Qi, he killed the son of the prince and seized Guan Zhong and his arrest. He was ready to send the two men back to Qi Huan, so as to withdraw troops. In order to express his loyalty to the childe, he called on himself to commit suicide. Before death, he said to Guan Zhong, "when I die, the childe can be regarded as a loyal official who has died." The dead have done their virtues, and the living have accomplished their fame. The two of us are doing their best. Please do it yourself.

An old hand is a good guide

Qi Jun Wai Guzhu The solitary bamboo country sent a man to cheat and drop the Qi army, and presented the head of the mountain Rong to the head. He lied that the king of the bamboo country had fled to the desert. Qi Huan Gong took the fallen leader as the front runner and pursued the army in a hurry. The leader of the solitary bamboo country lured the Qi army to the desert, and he escaped by himself. At this time it was too late. Looking at it, we saw a vast expanse of sand, the wind was rolling, and the cold was pressing. Qi Huan was somewhat at a loss and was busy asking Guan Zhong for advice. Guan Zhong spent a moment in meditation, so that the accompanying soldiers beat drums and drums, so that all the teams could gather their voices and gather up one place to the dawn. Who knows, although the sky is bright, the desert is hot and abnormal, and there is no drinking water. The endless desert is difficult to identify the direction. Guan Zhong saw the situation and was busy with Qi Huan. He suggested: "the minister heard that the old horse knew the way, and the Yan Ma came from the north. Maybe he was familiar with this place." Qi Huan Gong, according to his words, ordered people to take several old horses, put them first, and the army followed closely.

Three return platform

Guan Zhong lived in luxury. According to the Warring States policy, Lu Bin The lobbyist once quoted Guan Zhong's story to persuade Zhou Wenjun not to recall Lu Cang. One of them mentioned: "there are 7 markets and 700 brothels in the palace of Qi Heng Gong, and all the Qi people rebuke him. Therefore, Qi Zhong Guo Guan Zhong deliberately set up his own table in his own home and named it" three times to Taiwan ". The purpose is to cover up the fault for Huan Gong, and he did not intentionally hurt the people's heart.

Historical records

Sixty-two records of historical records, biography of Yan biography second

" pipe "

Commemoration of future generations


Guan Zhong's hometown is located in Guan Gu village, Jian Ying Township, Yingshang County, Anhui today. The ancestral hall of Abbot was built to commemorate the joint Temple of Qi Zhong Guan and Qi doctor Bao Shuya. In the six years (1578) of Ming Wanli about 500 years ago, he was rebuilt by the county magistrate Tu Long. The tube Abbot shrine was destroyed after many times, and in the late Ming Dynasty, it was destroyed by the army. The Daoguang six years (1836) city people rebuilt like Wan Ling, and was destroyed again in the Xianfeng Period. In the twenty-two years of the Republic of China, the county magistrate was rebuilt.

Memorial Hall

After his death, Guan Zhong was buried in Linzi, Shandong (now Zibo). Linzi District, Qi Ling Street office, Beishan West Village Niu Shan This is the famous northern foot. Guan Zhong tomb Guan Zhong Memorial Hall On the basis of Guan Zhong's tomb, based on Guan Zi's thought and Taking Guanzhong's life as a vein, through various artistic means, he displayed the broad and profound Guan Zi thought and displayed the prime minister culture and the contribution of the historical names to the society in an all-round way. At the same time, the museum was built and opened to the public in 2004.

Guan Zhong Memorial Hall covers an area of 200 thousand square meters, with a total investment of nearly 30 million yuan. It is divided into the library area and the park area. The pavilion covers an area of 50 thousand square meters. It is mainly composed of the exhibition hall of Chinese Prime Minister hall, Guan Zhong and Guan Zi, which consists of the exhibition hall of Guan Zi Bao, Huan Gong Bai Xiang, Guan Zhong Zhi Qi, the first tyrant of spring and autumn, the eternal light of light, Guan Zhongci and Guan Zhong tomb. The park covers an area of 150 thousand square meters, mainly squares, green space and supporting facilities.

The whole exhibition hall has a total area of 539 square meters, from five offices. David and Jonathan , Huan Gong Bai Xiang, Guan Zhong Zhi Qi, the first tyrant of the spring and autumn, the light of the ages, a shrine (Guan Zhongci), a museum (Chinese Prime Minister Hall). The whole exhibition hall adopts the combination of pictorial landscape and Chinese style display components, and uses various means of display, such as relief murals and so on.

Pavilion, green tile, yellow wall, red door and bluestone steps. The main entrance adopts the gate type, the 16 column, and the overhanging structure on the top of the door post, and the 5 sides of the overhanging bucket extend to the left and right sides. The door is 6 meters wide, and the lintel book has the plaque of "Guan Zhong Memorial Hall".


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