Genghis Khan Cheng Ji Si Han
He was a Jin Jin. He was from May 31, 1162 to August 25, 1227. Yeke Mongghol Ulus Khan, outstanding in world history. Politician , Militarist
Thirty-two years in Shaoxing 1162), born North of the Gobi desert Onon Upstream area ( this Mongolia state Kent Province ) The name is tie Mu Zhen. Chun Xi eleven years (1184) before and after becoming Mongolia Khan Yan Khan, step by step to unite Mongolia. In the two year (1206) of the jubilee, the great Mongolia state, Genghis Khan, was promulgated, and the Gen Gi Khan code was promulgated. (Khan) Launched many foreign wars and conquered Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Black Sea Seaside area. Baoqing three years (1227) Xixia Died on the way, buried in secret.
Kublai Khan To two yuan (1265) October, Chasing honour as Tai Zhu. To three yuan (1266) October, The ancestral shrine Upon completion, the emperor was captured. Yuan Wu Zong to the second year (1309), pursued the posthumous title, "the emperor of heaven, the emperor of sage", the temple emperor.
Paul Mauriat's History
Gen Gi Khan, born in the Jin Dynasty, was born in the Jin Dynasty. Da Ding Two years (1162), after the father was killed, the Department dispersed. Through continuous efforts, United Jamuqa And his father's andertaylor. Kiyan Finally, we will gradually develop and unify Mongolia. At that time, the North China region was under the rule of the Nu Jin Dynasty. The grassland in North and south is independent and independent of each other. The Jin Dynasty actually adopted the policy of "divide and rule" and "slaughter".
Song Shaoxing sixteen years (1146), head of Mongolia Ministry Ambaghai Khan Kim Hee Chung In the name of "punish the law of betrayal". Wooden donkey Up. The Mongolia tribal League once organized many struggles, and their ancestors paid blood and life for them. Born in this social environment, tie Mu Zhen will naturally regard Kim's victory as the most important goal in his life.
He always kept this hatred in mind. It was these generations of hatred that led to the long campaign inside and outside the grassland. Hoelun Lady comes from Hong Jila He was married to a son of a man. Shaoxing, thirty-one (1161) autumn, Mongolia beggar The leader is fast. Onon Hunting on the side of the bank, he found the station of Mongolia. He was assisted by several brothers, according to the then " Rob relatives "The tradition defeated the beggar and grabbed Mrs. haelun, so she became" It's also fast. Wife.
In second years, he was also the leader of the captured Tatar. Tie Mu Zhen Wu Ge It happened that the first son was born. In order to celebrate the victory of the war, it is also time to name "iron wood" for the newly born eldest son. When he was 9 years old, his father was not poisoned by the son of tie Mu Zhen Ge. And then, after the damnation, the Baba Khan sun tau hitai tahlhitai took the opportunity to stir up trouble, and incited the people of Mongolia to abandon the mother and son of iron Mu Zhen, so that their position from the tribal leader fell into the abyss of suffering.
The battle between the thirteen wings
When he was 18 years old, he was robbed of his wife by his former enemy. Tie Mu Zhen fought against the Ministry of beggar and defeated the beggar. Song Dynasty Ayden Before and after eleven years (1184), tie Mu Zhen was elected to Mongolia Khan Yan Khan.
Iron wood really called sweat caused the jealousy of ambitious Zai Mu He. Jamuqa Combined with 13 Tata, Tachi and so on, they launched the project to tie Mu Zhen. The battle between the thirteen wings " This is the only defeat in the war of more than 60 wars.
With the constant strength of their strength, tie Mu Zhen began to seek revenge against the enemies of his father. Beat the Lord, beg the Ministry, kill his leader, minister. Muqali Father and son surrender. Hou Mu Hua Li became the first general of iron wood. Imperial College The king, let him be alone. Central Plains
The nobility of the grasslands feared the rise of iron wood. Jamuqa For the "Khan", that is, the sweat of the sweat, oath and tie Mu Zhen as the enemy. They formed 12 coalition forces to tie Mu Zhen and Kerait The ministry launched. War of Kuo Yi Tian The mob led by Zha Mu he could not survive the fierce attack of the iron and white coalition of the king of iron and he collapsed in less than a day. Then the attack of iron wood. Tatar The leader of his leader did not commit suicide by taking poison, and another leader of Tata was also invited to surrender. Tie Mu Zhen pursued Tai Chi Wu Department, and was hit by his neck in the command battle, and his life was in danger. On the morning of the second day, Tachi came to surrender to iron wood.
The collapse of Tai Chi Wu has removed huge obstacles to further unification of various ministries in Mongolia. Jebe , Na ya However, he became the right-hand man who conquered the world. Later expedition Kara-Khitan Khanate eliminate Kuchlug The first time they were in the West sign. Not fast enough The most special function is to catch up with Maha. Sultan They were the ones who captured the bald queen, and they were the ones who defeated Rawski.
In the two year (1202) autumn of Song Jia Tai, tie Mu Zhen concentrated forces to destroy his old enemy Tatar.
In the three year (1203) autumn of Song Jia Tai, tie Mu Zhen attacked and kept fighting with himself. Wang Khan The king's account was defeated by Wang Khan and his son.
Song Jia Tai four years (1204), tie Mu Zhen Conquest name of a Nestorian ethnic group situated in western Mongolia that was wiped out by Yuan Department. Wang Han wanted to run alone. naimans On the border of the border, he will be killed as a spy. His son sang Kun died of a strange land.
Strong Kuri was destroyed, and iron wood really occupied the eastern grassland with abundant water and grass. Hulun Buir Grassland In the grasslands of Mongolia, only the Ministry of the Kuwait and the force can fight against iron and wood, and all the nobles who have been defeated by iron Mu Zhen have gathered together in the Han Dynasty, trying to help. Solar sweat The support has taken back the lost cattle and sheep and pasture. But the prairie people did not want the situation of tribal forest to repeat itself, and the "Sun sweat" before the battle was also vulnerable. After the battle of nadouya, the NAIRU was completely wiped out.
In the spring of two years (1206), the Mongolia aristocrats in the Song Kaixi River (today) The e en River At the source, the meeting was held. Honorific number "Gen Gi Khan".
but Late Qing Dynasty In the past, Yuan Han Ming and the early Qing Dynasty concentrated on the history of Han Dynasty, and did not have the title of honor. Gen Gi Khan's records, Yuan Shi Tai Zhi Ji Ji, recorded that all the kings and ministers were the "Chingis emperor". Peng Daya, a scholar in Southern Song Dynasty, was the envoy of the Jin Dynasty who sent his liaison to Mongolia. Black Tartars The record is also recorded as emperor Genghis ( "The emperor who was the first to rule the emperor was called" the emperor of Ji Si ". ) In the Yuan Dynasty, Li Zhichang's "Changchun real life journey to the west" is also recorded as "imperial edict of the emperor Chingis." In 1998, the silver gilded "Yanshan imperial decree" discovered in the Yuan Dynasty also reads "heaven sent, Emperor Chingis's decree and disease". The historical concentration of the west is recorded as Gen Gi Khan and introduced to China, resulting in the concentration of Chinese literary history in the late Qing Dynasty. Such as "Hai Guo Zhi Zhi", "Meng Wu Er Shi Ji", "Mongolia chronicle at the end", "new yuan history" and so on. The two appear to be used or used exclusively by Gen Gi Khan. Officially become a base Yeke Mongghol Ulus Emperor (Mongolia Empire Khan) this is the beginning of Mongolia empire. Then promulgated the " Gen Gi Khan code It is the first widely used application in the world. Written code A system of aristocratic democracy based on aristocratic democracy was established in Mongolia.
· Annihilate Xixia
After Gen Gi Khan founded the country, the forces were prosperous and effective. Thousand household system To establish a guard force. We launched a massive war of conquest. After more than twenty years Xixia During the war, the main force of the Xia Xia army was repeatedly created, forcing the king of Xixia to beg to surrender. In twenty-one years, Gen Gi Khan defeated the main force of the Western Xia army in 100 thousand and died in Xixia in the following year.
· Break through the Golden State
In six years, Gen Gi Khan began to spend 24 years in the war of Mongolian gold. First battle of the castle
(now northwest of Zhangbei, Hebei) won the battle. Wild fox ridge (Hebei Wanquan northwest) and Hui River fort. Huai'an Southeast China, killing a large number of elite Jin army, and fighting Huailai (now Hebei), Jinshan (now Beijing) Yanqing ) defeat Jin Jun More than ten thousand, and hit the Golden Army in Tokyo (now Liaoyang, Liaoning). the Western Capital (now Shanxi) Da Tong ) Juyonguan Great Wall And so on. After that, they constantly changed their tactics and divided three forces to attack the Central Plains hinterland and Western Liaoning.
Gen Gi Khan, nine years (1214) March, gathered troops. Mostly (now Beijing) under the city. For a time, it was difficult for the city to be enforced, and then forced to compelled the Jin Dynasty to offer the princess of Qi, the gold silk and the horse, and to withdraw the army from the Ju Yong pass. In June, with the relocation of Nanjing in the Jin Dynasty (now Kaifeng of Henan) and the "breach of contract" as an excuse, the Ministry dispatched the three people to the capital of the capital. Shi Ming Ming An The rate army, rendezvous and Mongolia (Ji, Liao, Jin and Yuan Dynasties) were widely known for the conquest of the northern nationalities. In the army attack, they were beset by the strategy of besying the city and surrender, and in May the next year, Ke Cheng. In order to meet the needs of siege, Gen Gi Khan adopted the Ministry to build up artillery troops gradually, and the first thing to attack the city is to use artillery stone. After the siege campaign, hundreds of guns were used, and the city was quickly destroyed. At the same time, in order to absorb the advanced technology of various nationalities and plunder the craftsmen and artists, thousands of cities will be plundered. Then we built craftsmen and set up factories and iron making weapons. In the communications and communications, the "arrow speed" was launched, with hundreds of miles in speed, and the speed of military orders transfer and military deployment. Good at playing the length of the cavalry, known as the "Mongolia cyclone".
Gen Gi Khan in twelve years (1217), Gen Gi Khan, Mu Hua Li, was a teacher and king, commanding the war against gold and returning to Mongolia in preparation for the western expedition.
· Xi Hua Hua Luo Zi pattern
Gen Gi Khan, thirteen years, commanding general Jebe West Liaoning Kuchlug The forces will clear up the obstacles to the West.
Gen Gi Khan is fourteen years old. Flower mold Haier Khan of erra La town killed 499 peace merchants in Khanate of Mongolia, and his king Mahadi ended up the killing of Gen Gi Khan. For the purpose of military expansion and looting of property, the army was about 200 thousand cents West.
Several years have broken through. Otrar (in the middle stream of this river) Bukhara and Samarkand And so on. Send philosophy to others Not fast enough The army pursued Chai Zi Mo King Maha and forced him to escape to the middle island of KISI Hai (today's Caspian Sea). To be wise and not to continue to move westward Crimean peninsula One army pursued the son of Maha, zllanding to the Shen River. India River )
The flowers were destroyed, and the cavalry and the hosts of the Horus were also defeated. The ancient India River and the Volga River area became fiercely contending battlefields. Flower mold The prince zanlanding led the remnants to resist and eliminated nearly 30 thousand Mongolia soldiers in the battle of the eight Ru bend. But the flower son model has gone, zlanding is surrounded by Gen Gi Khan on the side of the Shen River, and finally broke through to India, and Gen Gi Khan returned. North of the Gobi desert
Gen Gi Khan in twenty years (1225) autumn, after 7 years of western expedition, Gen Gi Khan returned to Mongolia.
Grassland. because Xixia Back alliance, chief commander Muqali Die with hatred. Despite his 64 years of age, Gen Gi Khan insisted on his own expedition to Xixia. On the way, he hunts and gets hurt. He can not afford to quit. The king of Xixia was forced to send an envoy to surrender.
Gen Gi Khan is in danger. Six Panshan Recuperation, leaving behind three famous Testament: the use of song and Jin Dynasties revenge through the Song Dynasty, and the Song Dynasty. Gen Gi Khan in July 12th twenty-two (August 25, 1227), Gen Gi Khan in six Panshan Qingshui County (now Gansu) died, 66 years old.
Its son ogodei In accordance with Gen Gi Khan's strategy, Torre saved gold in six years (1234).
To two yuan (1265) October, Kublai Khan Kublai chased Gen Gi Khan for the temple. Tai Shu
In the three year (1266) October, the temple was built, the imperial temple was built, and the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty pursued Gen Gi Khan's posthumous title. Emperor Sheng Wu
To the second year (1309), December. Yuan Wu Zong Seamounts Add the statues law to heaven, the temple Tai Shu Since then, Gen Gi Khan's posthumous title is The emperor of France
· Establish political power
See also: Yeke Mongghol Ulus
· Enactment of grammar
Before Gen Gi Khan unified Mongolia, there was no written law because the Mongolian people had no words. When Gen Gi Khan was founded in 1206, he gave orders. Lose one's sight To set up green books is the beginning of the Mongolian People's formal promulgation of statute law. However, the first statute law of the Mongolian nationality, "zaca grand canon", was formulated before the western flower flower model. According to Jami al-Tawarikh "Recorded in 1219," Gen Gi Khan held high the banner of conquering the world and went on to spend his life. "He summoned the meeting before he left." Flash lap Tai Among them, they reformulated their leadership rules, decrees and ancient customs, which is called "Zai Sha Dian Dian". Juvayni In " History of world conquerors "In the middle school, he wrote a chapter" the decrees formulated by Gen Gi Khan and the Zarzas promulgated after his rise. " Tatar Without his own words, he ordered the children of Mongolia to write the fear of writing, and wrote down the relevant laws and decrees.
These rolls, called "Zar sage", are kept in the Treasury of the first king. Whenever the new Khan ascended the throne, the army mobilized or the kings gathered to co host the state affairs and the state affairs, they took these rolls out, acted according to the above words, and deployed the army in accordance with the provisions of them, destroying the counties and towns. "Zassa grand ceremony" has been lost, but in the Chinese and foreign history books, some of the clauses were also recorded. In the Mongolia society, Khan and Khan are supreme rulers and enjoy supreme authority. The words and orders of sweat are the laws. Gen Gi Khan's "Da Sha Sha" is the order of Gen Gi Khan. Gen Gi Khan's "training speech" is also known as the "great law".
· Wage war
· The battle between the thirteen wings
· Gen Gi Khan's battle to unify Mongolia
· Mongolia flower mold
· Gen Gi Khan's three battle against gold
· The battle of Meng Xia
· Commander General
· Four heroes (mastiff) Bo Er , Muqali The red man is warm. Boll )
· Four courage ( Jebe , Stryan , Not fast enough , Hb.
· Four younger brothers ( Ha al , Don't le Gu Tai , Hachiun , and the "Mu Mu Ge"
· Four sons ( Jochi , Chagatai , ogodei , Torre )
· Four foster son ( Broad and wide Loss of luck, sudden neglect, and sudden failure. Boll , Qu Qu )
· Separation of households
The first thing Gen Gi Khan did after the unification of the Mongolia steppe was to make a great contribution to the imperial family and the imperial clan, to further improve and institutionalize the 1000 family system that had been implemented in the war, and set up a thousand household system with the combination of military and government, and appointed a group of thousands of officials, ten thousand family officials and all royal families. Gen Gi Khan made up 95 households in the occupied area and assigned them to the founding fathers and the distinguished officials.
" Jami al-Tawarikh "And" the secret history of the mongols "Enumerated the names, origins, main experiences, and the composition of 1000 households, including 78 heroes, 10 consort horses, 3 imperial consort, and 10 thousand families, so there were only 88 people who were actually separated, which is the famous eighty-eight hero in the history of Mongolia Khanate. a thousand households The establishment of the system marked the final collapse of the tribe and clan system. It is a system of military, political and economic Trinity, and is the most important part of the ruling system of Khanate of Mongolia. Building special feats Noyan He was also granted various privileges. The Yan class was the backbone of Gen Gi Khan's "golden family" to rule the people of Mongolia. In fact, it defeated the slave owners and clan aristocrats of the former departments by war, and re created a new class of slave owners. This is a new class of slave owners based on the golden family of Gen Gi Khan and the meritorious officials at all levels.
After the completion of thousands of families and tens of thousands of families, Gen Gi Khan, a forbidding timid God, immediately began to expand the Chinese Army escort. Cowardly soldiers Because timid Xue Jun was divided into four rounds into the value, used to be called four timid Xue. The guards said they were cowardly, and even numbered Xue Dan. The guards who are carrying out their duties are called coward Xue, and the cowardly cowboy who serves in the court is called timid Xue deacon. Timid Xue is chosen from 10000 households, thousands of households, hundreds of households, ten families and free people. This shows that Gen Gi Khan is very concerned about ensuring the reliability of this team. Gen Gi Khan stipulates that there are three main responsibilities of cowardly Xue Jun: one is to defend the golden account of Khan; the two is to serve as a warrior in time for war, and to serve as a combat force in command of Khan himself; and three is to manage all kinds of affairs of Khan. Therefore, it can be said that Gen Gi Khan's timid Xue army is not only a standing armed force directly controlled by Khan, but also an administrative organization in charge of the daily affairs of the central government. It has developed into a huge governing body in the central part of the Khanate of Mongolia. Gen Gi Khan gave them a superior position: those who were shy were superior to the thousands of officials outside, and the followers of the cowardly Xue were above 100 officials and ten officials. Gen Gi Khan's establishment of such a powerful armed force is very necessary for maintaining the right to Khan, consolidating the new unified state, preventing the revival of clan aristocracy and restarting civil war. Of course, it is also a powerful tool for Gen Gi Khan to conquer the war abroad.
· Create text
The Mongols did not have words, and they only remembered things by cutting grass and carving wood. In the war of iron and wood, a name was caught. Tata unification The fearless people. He is the handwriting officer of the sun sweat of the man's department. Solar sweat Respect him as his master and let him
Master gold seal and Qian Gu. Tie Mu Zhen let Tata Tong stay in his own right and left. "After that, everyone has the purpose of making use of seals, but still lives on his hands." Soon, Tam also asked Tata to use the alphabet alphabet to spell the Mongolian language and teach the prince to learn. This is the so-called "fear of words". Since then, the instrument of the Khanate of Mongolia, "Hui Hui Hui uses the word", "Hui Hui only twenty-one letters, the rest only on the side.
They only use Chinese characters in Han, Khitan and nu Zhen subjugation. And for a considerable period of time, in Mongolia, it was "only wooden". The word "Hui Hui" refers to the word "fear of words". Although Kublai had made the national master Eight Si Ba The "new Mongolia character" was created. However, after the Yuan Dynasty withdrew from the Central Plains, it was basically not used, and the "fear of words" was perfected after the early fourteenth Century. Tata Tong created Mongolia characters, which is a pioneering work in the history of Mongolia Khanate. It is because of this kind of writing that Gen Gi Khan will be able to enact statutes and green books, and the first ancient history of the Mongolia nationality after his death. the secret history of the mongols It is written in this book.
· Religious policy
Gen Gi Khan and his descendants established the Mongolia Khanate across the two continents of Europe and Asia. At that time, all kinds of religions in the world were almost everything within their domination. These include the original belief of Mongolians. Shamanism Tibet, Xixia and Han believed in Buddhism, Jin and Taoism in the Southern Song Dynasty. The Church of man And the western countries believe in it. Islamism (Hui Hui Jiao, Bi man), some of the tribes of Mongolia plateau, and even the Christian Church of the state of jakas and Horus, including the Protestant church, the Nie stair group, and the Rome school. The Mongolia aristocracy conquered the world was basically a policy of slaughter and pillaging, but its religious policy was more enlightened, instead of forcing the conqueror to convert to Mongolian religion, but to declare freedom of religion, allow all sects to exist, and allow the Mongols to freely participate in various sects and basically exempt the followers. taxes And military service. The implementation of this policy reduced the resistance of conquered to a certain extent, and played a very important role in Mongolia's nobility's rule and rule.
With the conquest of Central Asia, Persia, the Caucasus and the Great Plains of Eastern Europe, the Hui Hui who came to the East has increased unprecedentedly. The Mongolia aristocracy used the upper class and rich merchants as helpers to oppress and exploit the Han people in the Central Plains, such as Hua Zi Mo Zi Ya Ya wa Chi, who did not take the aristocratic race to the throne, and the rich businessmen such as ordol and Al AHMA played an important role in the ruling organs. The Hui people who moved to northern China and the central plains were allowed to retain their religious beliefs, and mosques were built in their settlements. Muslim teachers lost the brute and hardship, and they enjoyed the same duty-free treatment with monk road and Rey. But general Islam The wooden speed and the Lu man are the same as the compiling people.
In short, "in China, because of the policy of" freedom of faith "and" inclusive policy ", Islam has taken the opportunity to develop eastward, and a large number of Muslims have moved to China, thus laying the foundation for the formation of the Muslim nation. Since Kublai, the rulers of the Yuan Dynasty mainly advocated Lamaism Tibetans eight "Si Ba is respected as". Karmapa "," Dayuan Emperor division. After every death of the emperor, he will take a heir from Tibet until the end of the Yuan Dynasty. From this, Buddhism grasped the power of Tibet and introduced the doctrine into Mongolia.
Gen Gi Khan is a famous historical figure both at home and abroad and at the same time, he is also the most controversial figure. In the past seven hundred or eight hundred years, politicians, militarist and celebrities from different countries have studied and discussed Gen Gi Khan from different angles.
· Ming Tai Zu evaluation
· In the past, heaven abandoned gold and song, and the ancestors were in the Royal Highness. Therefore, the desert started with Tatar tribes, and entered China and the people. The ancient emperors were mixed up in the Central Plains, but not in the Central Plains.
· But I, the king of the Chinese people, came to the end of Song Dynasty, and the emperor of heaven was the Lord of the desert.
· Sun Zhongshan evaluation
· "The most powerful ethnic group in Asia is the central Mongolian monarch."
· During the Yuan Dynasty, almost all of Europe was occupied by Yuan Dynasty, far stronger than China's most powerful period.
· "China has been oppressed by political force for thousands of years, so that it has completely subjugated the country, two times, one is the Yuan Dynasty, the other is the Qing Dynasty."
· Mao Zedong evaluation
As we all know, the mention of Qin Huang Han Wu, Tang Zong Song Zu, especially the "one generation arrogant", is ironic, and is not a positive compliment. ( Qinyuan spring snow )
· Jiang Jieshi evaluation
It is the first model hero that our Chinese servicemen should follow and respect.
· Lu Xun evaluation
It is said that our "Gen Gi Khan" in Europe is the most prosperous era of us. By the age of twenty-five, we knew that the so-called "our" richest era was that the Mongolian conquered China and we became slaves. It was not until August of this year that we could read a story and turn over three Mongolia histories to understand that the Mongolians conquered the "Hans" and invaded the Hungarian Austria. Before conquering the whole China, Gen Gi Khan was not our sweat, but the Russians were older than us. They should say, "our Gen Gi Khan conquered China is our most prosperous era."
· Bo Yang evaluation
Bo Yang Gen Gi Khan was highly praised in the history of the Chinese people: "iron wood is one of the greatest organizer and strategist in history. His brilliant achievements in politics and battle field before twentieth Century seldom matched him. Iron wood is broad-minded and magnanimous. He uses his popular and just attitude to govern his expansive Empire every day. His high intelligence enables him to play a high level of talent.
. History of Yuan Evaluation
The emperor is very broad in strategy, so that he can use the force as a God, so that he can destroy the country forty, and then set down the Western Xia Dynasty. The wonders of Wei were numerous, and they were not prepared for historians at that time.
· Soviet Russia control period
In 1921, Mongolian People's Party stay Soviet Russia With the help of independence. The establishment of socialism in 1924 the people's republic ofmongolia After independence, Mongolia was under the influence and control of the Soviet Union. Nationalism It is a political taboo. Not only does Gen Gi Khan fail to regard him as a national hero, but he also gives negative comments to it.
The people's Republic of Mongolia requires all places to prohibit worship and sacrifice to Gen Gi Khan, and no place to hang a portrait of Gen Gi Khan. All official textbooks should not be called Gen Gi Khan a national hero. "It is only a clear cursing of Gen Gi Khan and his successors to expose Mongolia's ruling class's destruction and destruction to Central Asia, Iran and Eastern European countries." Contrary to this prohibition, that is, the fate of being cleared. Buryat Mongolia scholar Zam Charan Nor (Ts.J.Jamtsarano) extolled the culture of Mongolia in the seventeenth Century chronicle of Mongolia published in 1936, and believed that Gen Gi Khan and his successors were "politically and spiritually prosperous" in the history of Mongolia. Gulag Mongolia people's Revolutionary Party Elder statesman the people's republic ofmongolia prime minister Amar (A.Amar) it was liquidated because it publicly affirmed Gen Gi Khan's historical status. On the occasion of the 800th anniversary birthday of Gen Gi Khan in 1962, Mongolia's central propaganda minister, Timur Ochl (TomorOchir), held the Gen Gi Khan memorial event. The incident made the Soviet Union angry. Moscow First Secretary of the Mongolia people's Revolutionary Party Tsedenbal (Y.Tsedenbal) hearing the news and pressing the letter to the people's Revolutionary Party Central Committee: "Gen Gi Khan is a terrorism The elements were not national heroes, and a large number of people under Temuel Ochl were executed and exiled.
In addition to treating Gen Gi Khan as a barbaric aggressor, the people's republic ofmongolia Also long term Gen Gi Khan, October 27, 1949 Mongolia people's Revolutionary Party The provisions of the Central Committee on the history and teaching of literature in schools in Mongolia clearly pointed out: "no praise and praise for Gen Gi Khan".
· Post democratization
After 1990, Mongolia state From the Soviet Union, we abandoned the socialist road and achieved democratization. Since then, Gen Gi Khan's worship has risen in Mongolia, and the evaluation of Gen Gi Khan has risen sharply, becoming a national hero in the eyes of Mongols.
In March 1, 1990, the then Prime Minister of Mongolia, Thord Norm, said at a press conference: "for many years, Gen Gi Khan has only viewed unilaterally as a D.Sodnom. Aggressor ... Mongolia is revising the history... We are going to reassess Gen Gi Khan's role in all aspects of history. After that, Gen Gi Khan's image was rebuilt in Mongolia. Mongolia's bronze statues and monuments were set up everywhere in Mongolia. Movies, novels and stage dramas that sang praises for Gen Gi Khan's achievements were mushrooming. The Mongolia enterprises and products named after Gen Gi Khan were even more numerous, so that the Mongolia government had to make legislative restrictions.
Mongolia state The government held an international celebration in 2006 on the 800th anniversary of Gen Gi Khan's founding, pushing the worship of Gen Gi Khan in Mongolia to the summit. Nowadays, Mongol Gen Gi Khan has boundless admiration for Gen Gi Khan. Gen Gi Khan has also become a symbol of the Republic of China.
Former Prime Minister of India Nehru In the book "how to treat the world history", he said: "the Mongol people have made such a great victory in the battle field. It does not depend on the large number of troops, but on rigorous discipline, system and feasible organization. It can also be said that those brilliant achievements came from Gen Gi Khan's command art. He highly praised Le GART's statement: "the Mongol people's campaign is unprecedented in terms of scale and art, suddenness and flexibility, surrounded by strategies and tactics." "Even if Gen Gi Khan is not the only and greatest commander in the world, he is undoubtedly one of the greatest commanders in the world."
In June 1999, the president of South Korea Kim Dae-jung said: "some people think that because of Mongolians, human beings have the world history for the first time, but the stubborn and invincible spirit of the Mongols and the quick witted character have shaped the great Gen Gi Khan. Similarly, I agree with the comments of some people that Mongolians, who have not yet appeared in the Internet seven hundred years ago, have opened up relations among countries around the world and established international relations.
Persian, author of the history of the conquerors of the world Juvayni Said: Alexander Gen Gi Khan will be respected as his teacher in the world. He believed that the true master of Almighty made Gen Gi Khan superior in intellect, and made him quick in thought and boundless in power. Therefore, the history book records the implementation of the great ancient ancient Chinese and the Pharaohs. Cesar However, Gen Gi Khan created something similar to his own brain. He did not bother to read the documents, nor did he bother to follow the tradition. The strategy of conquering other countries, destroying enemy troops and promoting deployment is also the result of his own understanding. To tell the truth, if Alexander, who is good at planning and dealing with things like a God, lives in the age of Gen Gi Khan, he will be a student of Gen Gi Khan in making plans. Moreover, he will find that the best way is to follow Gen Gi Khan blindly.
Former Prime Minister of Japan Ryutaro Hashimoto It's a Gen Gi Khan fan. In an internship training program, the Japanese government investigated 520 new civil servants and asked who they were most admired in their minds. The result was 79 candidates, Gen Gi Khan. This is the first non Japanese who has won the first prize since conducting similar surveys in 1991. Personnel officials say many of the newly appointed civil servants consider Gen Gi Khan an "organized leader rather than a conqueror". Japanese Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto only got 8 votes, ranking ninth. But he didn't care much about it because he was also a Gen Gi Khan fan. Hashimoto's favorite book is Japan's novels about Gen Gi Khan and his family.
Nehru Gen Gi Khan is occupying Korea. Tangut people After that, he wanted to stop expanding. He did not intend to capture the western countries, but wanted to live in peace with Moshaa. But a governor of Shah killed the businessmen in Mongolia. Under such circumstances, Gen Gi Khan still wanted to live in peace and sent the mission to deal with the governor of Mongolia. Shah not only did not agree with Gen Gi Khan's request, but killed the head of the regiment, and the rest of the members were shaved and bearded to leave the country. Gen Gi Khan, of course, could not tolerate such unreasonable behavior. After preparation, he attacked and destroyed the flower model in 1219. Many palaces and their millions of people in Bukhara were ransacked, and the capital was destroyed, leaving only 500 thousand people left. Over the years, the culture, civilization and handicraft industry in Central Asia have been destroyed. The civilization of Iran and Central Asia seems to disappear. Gen Gi Khan's horseshoe was nowhere to be seen. People describe Gen Gi Khan very cruel, but compared with other conquerors of the same age, there are no two. The Afghans who came to India were cruel at that time, but they occupied a different range. The Afghans captured galni in 1150, and all men were killed without any reservation, and women became prisoners. Mohamed's famous palaces and buildings were destroyed. A series of destructive acts in India during the Afghan occupation period are essentially different from those caused by Gen Gi Khan in Iran and Central Asia. Shah killed Gen Gi Khan's Messenger, this is blood feud, so Gen Gi Khan attacked. Flower mold Revenge. Gen Gi Khan also carried out large-scale destruction elsewhere, but the extent of destruction was lighter than that of Central Asia.
" Marco Polo travels In Gen Gi Khan, he is a master of great talent and brilliant, kindhearted, fair and modest ruler who wins the support of the people. Although the philosopher and litterateur criticized Gen Gi Khan's brutality and attacked Mongolians or yellow people after the enlightenment, most intellectuals still had beautiful imagination in the Yuan Dynasty, such as Coleridge (S.Coleridge, 1772~1834). kubla khan " After eighteenth Century, the western society had great changes in the understanding of Gen Gi Khan and Mongol Empire, and Mongolians had become the symbol of evil forces. When discussing the cause of the phenomenon, witzeford pointed out that the criticism of philosophers and writers was nothing. The most vicious attack came from the new intellectuals group, the scientists formed from the enlightenment. They divided the world species into three categories, namely, Europe, Africa and Asia from the perspective of taxonomy and evolution, and the highest level of evolution by European white people, and Asians all came near to the primates, such as orangutans. Mongolia race "If children in Europe suffer from mental retardation and hereditary diseases, it is the reversion of the Mongolian invasion of Europe after the rape of white women. Even the anti Semitism of Europeans is also because they believe that Jews are intermarried with Mongols, and they have the influence of Mongolians. Under the combined force of scientists and politicians, the image of the barbarian and barbaric empire of the Yuan Empire has penetrated into the western society. The work of correcting this prejudice has been most unthankless. Wei zafde not only has the courage to remold Gen Gi Khan's image, but also chooses a new angle to set him as a pioneer of modern civilization and globalization.
Gen Gi Khan's killing and destroying the city in conquest is an obvious fact, but this is not a product of racial hatred, and can not be compared with the genocide in modern society. In the process of conquest, Gen Gi Khan never took force after the peaceful means were null and void. Although he thought the Mongol took the system of slaughter as a system, he did not mean to be cruel. They were only puzzled by the fact that they did not know better ways to deal with it. From the records of the literature, it is surprising that Mongolians did not adopt the custom of that era to torture the enemy. Vaizey Fode wrote that it is almost certain that the Mongolian people regarded death as a policy, but compared with the civilized army of the same age, the Mongols did not create terror by cruelty, but by rapid and effective conquest, and they seemed to be totally concerned about the lives of the elites and the rich. (125th pages) in the history of all conquests, only Gen Gi Khan did not care about the life of the rich. This is really impressive. Vaizey Fode pointed out that the check of the destruction of the cities by the Mongolian people showed that fewer than 1/10 of the population was killed or injured. Gen Gi Khan, more accurately, should be the destroyer of the city, not the slaughtered man (125th pages). This view is correct.
Persian historians Rashid al-Din (Rashided Din, 1247~1318) has a very classical portrayal of Gen Gi Khan's character: Gen Gi Khan once asked "no ancient red". Who is the most happy in life? The best way to answer this question is to take a horse in the spring. Gen Gi Khan said, otherwise, to defeat the enemy, take all of them, see their relatives shed tears, and their wives and daughters is the most joy of life. Vaizey Fode pointed out that Gen Gi Khan did not consider this exaggerated description to be a derogation to him. This is an effective way to spread fear through his pen. Mongolians are using terrorist propaganda to speed up their conquest. As a nomadic people who regards war as a production, Gen Gi Khan regards robbery and destruction as a national policy. Vaizey Fode emphasized that in the long process of conquest, Gen Gi Khan's goal changed from earlier robbery and gradually formed the mission of establishing the world unified empire. Gen Gi Khan told his sons and daughters that his most important lesson is that defeats an army is not the same as conquering a country. You can only conquer it by winning the hearts of the people. In other words, Gen Gi Khan finally recognized the value system of the civilized world in his writings, and Kublai set up a more moderate and humane criminal law system in the Yuan Dynasty.
Marx When it comes to Gen Gi Khan, he said, "Gen Gi Khan fought for war, he fought for life, unified Mongolia, fought for China's unification, and the three generations fought for sixty or seventy years, and then conquered the nation to 720." In the book of Chronicles of Marx's history of India, Marx wrote that Gen Gi Khan formed an army in the process of unification of Mongolia. He relied on this army to conquer East and North China, then conquered the northern part of the Amu River and hroshan, and conquered the Turkic region, that is, not to spend, but also to invade India. The territory of his empire extends from the Caspian Sea to Beijing, and extends to the India ocean and Himalaya Shanxi to the South and to A Strachan and Jia San. After he died, the Empire was divided into the Khanate of Khanate. The Iraqi Khan Kingdom , Chagatai Khanate , House of Ogedei The first four parts were perspiration. rule The last one is empire The main part is dominated by Khan.
Us five-star general Macarthur He said: "if the records of the war are erased from history, only the detailed records of Gen Gi Khan's fighting situation are kept and well preserved, the soldiers will still have unlimited wealth. From those records, servicemen can acquire useful knowledge and shape an army for future wars. The success of the amazing leader (Gen Gi Khan) has eclipsed the achievements of most of the commanders in history. He crossed rivers, climbed mountains, conquered cities, destroyed the country and destroyed the entire civilization. In the field of war, his troops used so quickly and ingeniously, sweeping away thousands of troops, such as rolling seats, and countless times defeated the overwhelming majority of the enemy. " Although he destroyed everything, cruel, cruel, brutal and fierce, he clearly understood the invariable demands of war.
It has been counted that Gen Gi Khan spent more than 60 wars in his whole life. Except for the thirteen wings war, he failed to take the initiative to withdraw because of the great disparity of strength. Therefore, Liu Letu, a Chinese scholar, said in his book Gen Gi Khan, "Gen Gi Khan is a war wizards who can hardly be matched by posterity. He met the magic of the enemy and the victory of war, and exhausted the military genius of mankind. "The cavalry under his command is in full swing, and the smoke is rolling to Russia. Afghanistan And Northern India. In the vast Eurasian continent, Gen Gi Khan has become an invincible God, and his opponents are all in fear and surrender to their feet. "Who can be called the God of war? Only Gen Gi Khan! "
The Russian general said to Kena Giff, "across the horizon, there are few years of history, and the vast number of territories, such as those of Gen Gi Khan, have never been seen before. At the beginning of Gen Gi Khan's great sweat in Mongolia, the number of soldiers was about thirteen thousand (about 30 thousand), and the number of people who conquered the nation was seven hundred and twenty. All his sons and daughters, the whole territory, including the present Qing Dynasty, the northern part of India, the entire Korean Peninsula. Central Asia Global, Russian Empire Most of them, The bottom Griess River and Euphrates River In the southern part of the country, where the sword is cut, the horse foot is torn down by a line of East Darcy, a diameter of six thousand miles (about 16 thousand li in China), and dozens of nations among them. Gen Gi Khan and his descendants have been leveled off for sixty or seventy years. How does this great man grow up?
Russian military strategist Colekin also said: "looking at the world history, with very little force (Rashard Martin said 120 thousand, Xiao Lin Gao four Lang said 200 thousand), in a very short period of time (from 1207 to 1227 for 20 years), Raiders of the vast land (most of Eurasia two continents), ruling a large population (small and medium roads, 600 million people, I think some exaggerated), in addition to the Gen Gi Khan era. Tatar and Ting Mu er Outside the Middle Asia, The creation of the world Never before. "
French scholar Groot said in the history of Mongolia Empire: "Mongolians almost unite all of Asia, open up intercontinental passages, facilitate contacts between China and Persia, and contact between Christianity and the Far East. Chinese paintings and Persian paintings know each other and communicate with each other. Marco Polo learned. Shakya Muni Beijing has the Catholic Archbishop. " "From the point of view of Mongolian culture of communication, it is almost as beneficial as Romans to spread culture. For the world's contribution, only Cape of Good Hope The discovery and discovery of the Americas can be similar to this.
Staveley Athas, a Canadian historian, said: "because of the rise of the Mongolia Empire, there has been a great change in land trade. For the first time in history, it was the only time that a regime crossed the Eurasian continent, from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, from Siberia to the Persian Gulf. "Businessmen who have been on this road say that it is absolutely safe to walk on the road to China on day and night," he said. This "business road across Central Asia" has great significance for the development of commerce between East and West.
American writer Harlow Lamb called Gen Gi Khan "the king of mankind". In his book, he said, "although Gen Gi Khan has never been influenced by material civilization, he can set up practicable laws and regulations for more than 50 peoples and maintain peace and order in the greater part of the world". "Faith enables us to cross 50 longitude, and a young girl carries a bag of gold, so that we can safely travel around this vast empire." It makes communication between the East and the West smooth and Eurasian culture exchanges. "This is the most extensive and open handshake among mankind."
Napoleon I am not as good as Gen Gi Khan. Do not think that the invasion of Europe by the Mongolia army is the blind movement of Asian loose sand. The nomadic people have strict military organizations and well thought out commanding officers. They are much smarter than their opponents. I am not as good as Gen Gi Khan. His four sons are fighting for their father. I do not have this kind of good luck.
Hegel Speaking of Gen Gi Khan, Mongolians used horse milk to make drinks, so horses were their weapon of war and their nutritious food. Though their long-term life style is so, they often gather into a large group of people. Under any impulse, they will be activated as external activities. Although they tended to be peaceful before, they were flooding in the civilized land at the same time. The result of a great mess was nothing but destruction. Such turmoil, when these tribes were led by Gen Gi Khan and trinbull, had happened: they crossed the plateau to the low valley, destroyed everything at present, and disappeared like a flash flood. There is absolutely no inherent survival principle.
Nick Barratt Welles In his world history, he said: "the conquest of the Mongols is indeed one of the best stories in all history. Alexander the Great The conquest can not be compared with it in scope. His influence on spreading and expanding people's thoughts and stimulating their imagination is immense. As a creative nation, as a disseminator of knowledge and methods, they have great influence on history. " The general history of the world (before 1500), published in 1970, also emphasized that aggression in Mongolia "promoted the interaction between Eurasia". Many examples were cited in the book. Finally, "the opportunities provided by this mutual influence are fully utilized by new civilizations formed in Europe. This point has far-reaching significance, until now, it still has an impact on the process of world history. "Seven hundred or eight hundred years later, Gen Gi Khan's influence was not dimmed by the passage of time. For the whole world, the influence after his death is far greater than before, and penetrated into all fields of politics, military, economy and culture, and Gen Gi Khan fever appeared in the world.
Franzoll von Erdo, a professor at the University of Kason in Germany, called Gen Gi Khan "the iron king of the unyielding king". In his book "iron king of the unyielding king", he wrote: "in Europa, as in Western Asia, no natural order can be established." No matter in Europe or Asia, it is urgent for them to wake up from their deep sleep and need a strong hand to shake them. The powerful hand that wakes them up appears. This is the king of iron and his descendants. In that way, they soon left the stage of history after completing the supreme destiny of dominating the world. The Russians and Germans and other Western European citizens can reach such a strong and civilized state now. They are undoubtedly the stimulation and gift of the conquest of the Mongolians and the Mongolia army.
Former German Prime Minister Schmidt Said: similar integration in human history, only Gen Gi Khan and others in the era.
Zheng Hangen, a reporter for the International Herald herald in Berlin, once wrote in a report: "... But on the other hand, the past millennium history of Europe is also a crisis. After that, the crisis has been lifted. At present, the crisis facing European integration will also be lifted. Therefore, it is also possible that the EU will emerge in 50 years' time. This will be a brilliant achievement in the history of mankind. This brilliant achievement is equivalent to an alliance of Asian countries. This kind of integration has not appeared in human history, but appeared in some times of conquerors, such as Gen Gi Khan, Alexander and Napoleon, but the coalition formed voluntarily has not yet appeared. So this kind of association is very rare. Even if it can be formed, it will take a long time, and I will not live so long, so I will not make predictions. "
Pu Jin Jin Gen Gi Khan: the Russians covered Western Europe and protected Western Europe from the oppression of Mongolians. Unlike the moors, the Tatar did not give it to Russia after they conquered Russia, nor did they give it to Aristotle. The lofty mission fell on Russia, and its boundless plains devoured the power of the Mongols and stopped their aggression on the brink of Europe.
Nicola Lerich, a famous Tibetan scientist in the former Soviet Union, said: "since ancient times, no nation has been so powerful."
Former president of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt Highly praised the history of Mongolians. Jerim Curtin, a Mongolia scholar, has written 3 books on Mongolia studies in 1835~1906. The first Mongolian history was published in London in 1908. At that time, President Roosevelt wrote a 7 page preface with elegant diction, highly praised the publication of the book. The book is composed of 19 chapters and 426 pages with compact structure. At the beginning, we first summarize the origin and development of the Mongolians in Russian, Chinese and Persian, and the growth and achievements of the iron monk. Secondly, we discuss the battle of the flower thorn model, the death of Gen Gi Khan, and the Persia after Gen Gi Khan's death. hulagu The rule, the war against Kim, the death of the moon, Kublai and Khan, the Song Dynasty, tuhuan, and the Mongolian were expelled from the Central Plains.
UN Secretary General Annan Speaking of Gen Gi Khan, he said: "nomadic culture is a great culture of all mankind. In thirteenth Century, Gen Gi Khan unified the Mongolia tribes and established the world's unparalleled huge Mongolia empire. The political power and laws established by him still have positive significance to all countries and regions in the world. I already have a wish. I want to see Gen Gi Khan's hometown with a long history. "
Gen Gi Khan was on the way back to the battle of Hua La Zi mo.
See you. Changchun real people The leader of Taoist Quan Zhen in northern China, Changchun Qiu Chu Ji Japanese scholars call it a cool breeze sent to the West.
Qiu Chu Ji is a Taoist Quan Zhen Longmen faction, and Gen Gi Khan treats him like a teacher and friend. Qiu Chu Ji and Gen Gi Khan met for a long time, but played a significant role in Gen Gi Khan's life path, so that his character also changed little.
Qiu Chu machine clearly told him that people can not live forever, only to keep fit. He also told him a way to govern the country and advised him to be quiet and not to kill innocent people.
Father: It's fast.
Mother: Onggirat Shi Hoelun (also translated) Yue Lun )
Brothers and sisters
Brother: Clumsy (referred to as Samuel). Hachiun , Don't le Gu Tai The Buick stickers (Blair and Buick) were also born by the other wives. The Buick paste was killed by the combination of tie Mu Zhen and he Sha Er, when three people were killed. juvenile How many brothers did Buick take to his brothers? Arrogant Tie Mu Zhen and sassarben wanted to shoot arrows at Buick's butt. Payback His arrogance resulted from poor skills in archery and death in the middle.
Gen Gi Khan has more than 40 empress concubines, and at the same time set up a number of empress. They live in four places. Er Duo (originally meant to be a mat, then a palace). The ranking of the first place is the head of the duer, and the rest of the imperial concubines rank according to their actual status. Among all the empress wives, the first wife of the first child was taken. Borte The highest status.
Queen of polttie (posthumous empress), Queen of lurlun; Queen of queer; Queen of Mulun; Queen of empress; True pity and eight thorns The queen; the queen of the face and the princess.
Second: Kulan Queen; Gu Er speed The queen is also known as the "Queen of Hal eight" or the "Sun Khan Fei" of the Emai tribe. Song Bi It is the first beauty of Mo Bei; also bequeathing the queen of real life; the queen of dehasi (the same name as the first person of four people); the real imperial concubine; also the Li Fei's imperial concubines; the real imperial concubine; Haraki.
Third: Sui Sui Queen; Also fast drying The queen; the queen of hruhara; Queen aldron; the queen of ballet Hara; the queen of cha. Li Ming Ming Also known as the Xixia princess. Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia Female;
Ah Xi lost the queen; the queen was queen.
Fourth: Princess queen ( Jin Guo of Princess Qi , Emperor Weishaowang of Jin Fourth women); He an an The queen, the queen, the queen of the swallow, the bald princess, the concubine; Golden Lotus The imperial concubine; the princess of the imperial concubine; the wife of the imperial concubine.
Other: Also beggar beggar (k), Do not agree with others Eldest daughter
Eight don't beg your concubine.
According to History of Yuan The genealogical lineage records that Gen Gi Khan has six sons. According to the order of birth:
1. Jochi Born by POLTI,
2. Chagatai Born by POLTI,
3. ogodei Born by POLTI,
4. tolui Born by POLTI,
5. Wu Lu Chi, no offspring.
6. Kui lie Jian Suddenly, Lan Lan was born. Although he is a bastard, he is very popular with his father. Later he followed. warrior When he was in Russia, he died of an arrow injury.
Others did not record sons in the genealogy of Yuan history.
7. Cha Wu er It's also fast drying.
8. All children are born.
Gen Gi Khan daughter in history:
1. Princess Chang ROK Chen (do not beg for real; fire ah Ji, Bo Ji: transliterate, Ben beg.) Born by Marti, married to King Chang Chung Wu. Baldness The author tends to make an explanation for the fire Zhen Ji Bo Ji: Bo, Chang, and Bo Ji is the eldest daughter. Yuanshi, the first emperor of the first dynasty: Emperor wants to propose for his eldest son, Chi Chi. Wang Han Bo Ji, Wang Hanzhi, Sun Tu and Samuel, who want to be a woman, are also very dissatisfied with Bo Ji. " The record of San Wu "Also called" Wang Khan's sun, bald and Samuel, and asked for the princess fire, ah Zhen Bo Ji. "
2. Princess of Yanan Pull hard Born by poltie.
3. The famous Princess of Zhao Arai Hai Ji Ji Born by Marti, married to King Zhao Wuyi. Poland No child. During the 1206-1211 years of western expedition and Gen Gi Khan's death, she acted as a princess in charge of state affairs. "Yuan history" biography fifth called her "Ming Rui has intelligence strategy, the vehicle expedition four exits, taste left behind, the military big government, consult and then row, the teacher out of no worries, Princess power is the majority."
4. Princess Yunguo Bald full Born by poltie.
5. Al answer black He was also translated by AI talun, according to talun, also known as Al TALU, born by the child. To marry the Thai Emperor (out of the tower). There is a son of Zhen Bo (also known as Zhuer Xue Chan). Yuan Xian Zong Mongo Daughter of Lost neighbor Princess and princess.
6. Princess Gao Chang, also known as the village of Li Ke, married. Iduq-qut Ba Er Shu Ai te Jin Jin
After Gen Gi Khan's death, his descendants gave him a very special funeral.
Buried the special characters in this world history. He did not leave his mausoleum and Baoding. Only a circle of arrows was placed 30 miles around his cemetery, sending heavy troops to guard the forbidden area. Since the time has passed over 700 years, the location of Cheng Ling has become a mystery.
Grave Mausoleum of Genghis Khan The tomb is located on the grasslands of gudley, Yijinhuoluo, Inner Mongolia, central Ordos grassland, 185 kilometers away from Baotou. The mausoleum covers an area of more than 50 thousand square meters, and the main building consists of three Mongolia style hall and the corridor room connected with it. The cemetery is divided into six parts: the main hall, the bedroom hall, the East Hall, the West Hall, the East corridor and the western corridor. The whole cemetery is like an eagle eagling to fly and has a strong Mongolia national art style.
Doubts and disputes
The mystery of birth
Gen Gi Khan's birthplace is different from Mongolia historians.
The "de run Bao de Ge Shan" on the southern bank of balago River in Dal Le Su mu, Kent province. One said "Delenpoli Deger Sean" in the West Bank of the river on the river in BD. Russian scholars also suggested that the birthplace of Timogen Genghiskhan was in the Russian territory, five km from Chai Su Cai village. But there are few scholars who identify with it. Dal Le sum wood and bdel Su Mu are fighting for the honor of "Gen Gi Khan's birthplace". They say, "we are the birthplace of Gen Gi Khan."
Therefore, Song Lin Meng Many visits to the river basin have gone through many times. The e en River The upper reaches of the forest, grassland, rivers, streams, and five crossing Kurokawa, many times to the upper and lower reaches of the Nen River, and even the inner river of Chita, Russia. After consulting a lot of historical data, and through repeated field visits and comparisons, he thought that the place of Timogen Genghiskhan, the real place of birth, is located on the edge of the bel del Su Mu River (Eren River). ! It is because "only the bairdal, which is near the side of the de la Pao" de The DAL Shek woods, surrounded by a mountainous area, surrounded by narrow forests and dense forests, is 26 kilometers away from the river of the river, and it does not have the territory to be the leader of the beggar head in Mongolia. Thus he convincingly supported the view of Su Shi, a historian in Mongolia.
The mystery of names
Gen Gi Khan or Genghisko Han, the most detailed and important historical source of the history of the former four Khan, is the most important historical source of the Yuan Dynasty's secret history. He wrote the title of Yuan Tzu's name "Cheng Ji Si he Han", Bashi and his book "Marco Polo". Today's "Yuan Zhaomi history" is actually a transcript of a certain period in the Yuan Dynasty. It is the scribe who wrote the "Gen Gi Khan" in the original text as "Cheng Ji Si he Han".
On the other hand, a scholar's understanding of the first line of the opening ceremony of the secret history of Mongolia is written in the phrase "Genghis and hamanuzuer". It is generally believed that: first, the title of the original book of the secret history of Mongolia; two, the secret history of Mongolia. The title of some chapters; three, the title of an independent historical document; four, a sentence component (subject) belonging to the next sentence. The main reason why people put forward the above ideas is related to the major issue of the title of the book of the secret history of Mongolia. In addition, there is a view that the "secret history of the Yuan Dynasty" is the title of the transliteration of the Yuan Dynasty. The book "secret history of the Yuan Dynasty" has been published in the two secrets of Mongolia. It is a mono translation of Chinese titles, no matter which one is the title of the original book of the secret history of Mongolia. From this, it will be complicated to understand people's understanding of "Genghis and hamuenuzuer".
Mystery of death
In the official records, Gen Gi Khan died of illness. But because of the long history and the discredit of political opponents, Gen Gi Khan's real cause of death has not been tested. Here are some statements for reference.
· Princess Xixia killed herself
"The origin of Mongolia" records that Gen Gi Khan attacked Xixia, Xixia, beg to surrender, and presented some beautiful women according to Gen Gi Khan's request, including the Xixia princess. The Xixia Princess deeply repugnated Gen Gi Khan. When Gen Gi Khan molested her, he bit off Gen Gi Khan's lower body. Gen Gi Khan was bleeding and died on that day.
· Killed by thunder
The Mongol superstition "God warned the filial piety with thunder and lightning". Gen Gi Khan's mother died because of his mother's anger, so he was very afraid of thunder and lightning. In the summer of 1227, Gen Gi Khan went into the minefield and was killed by lightning.
· Trampled to death by horse
The Mongolia Secret History Volume fourteen, written by the Mongolian people, records that "Chingis lived in winter and wanted to speak Tang Wu." From a new army horse to a dog in the autumn, to levy Tang Wu, so did his wife. In winter, at the same place, Chingis's red sand horse was surprised by wild horses, and Gen Gi Khan fell down. After falling down, the horse was trampled to death.
· Arrow theory
At the beginning of 1227, Gen Gi Khan was poisoned by his poisoned knee in Xixia. Marco Polo, a famous traveller in Italy, believes in his works that Gen Gi Khan died of arrow injuries. "The Holy Father's record" said that Gen Gi Khan suffered three times of arrow injuries: the battle of Kui Yi altar in 1202, the battle against Xijing in 1212, and the mid summer knee in 1212. It is estimated that the last arrow injury has a greater impact on the body. "The world invaders' biography", "history collection", "translation of Yuan history", "outline translation" and other foreign and domestic books all say "Khan died on the eight day".
· Poisoning theory
There are other folk legends. "Poisoning theory" is derived from the travels of Marco Polo. Marco Polo, a merchant of Italy in thirteenth Century, arrived in China in 1275. It was the time when Kublai was in office in the Yuan Dynasty, and had had 17 years of association in the Yuan Dynasty. In his travels, Gen Gi Khan's death was recorded: when he attacked Sixia in the Western Xia Dynasty, he was attacked by the Xixia warriors. As a result, it is easy to imagine that poisoned arrows attack the heart. But there are other folk legends. Gen Gi Khan died of poisoning. Gen Gi Khan was more and more dissatisfied with Wu Guang Tai. He wanted to change his Torre to save sweat. To protect his sweating place, he was poisoned by Gen Gi Khan when he drank with Gen Gi Khan.
Place of burial
There are basically four versions of Gen Gi Khan's cemetery over the years:
One is located in the north of Kent Shan South and the north of the klow River in Mongolia.
The two is located in the territory of Erdos banner, Ordos City, Inner Mongolia.
Three is located in the northern part of Taishan, Xinjiang.
The four is the six Panshan in Ningxia. For more than 700 years, the main reason why Mausoleum of Genghis Khan has never been found is that the imperial court practised a burial system, that is, the burial sites of emperors' tombs are not set up, not published or recorded.
On the basis of the Kent mountain in Mongolia, according to historical records, Gen Gi Khan once sat down in a elm tree on Kent Hill some days before he sat down for a long time, then suddenly rose and his opponent's attendants said, "I am buried here after my death." In the notes of the literati in the Southern Song Dynasty, Gen Gi Khan's body was transported to a place below the north mountain of Kent and buried in a deep pit on the ground after his death in Xixia. Its remains are stored in a single wooden coffin. The so-called wooden coffin is a section of the interception of a large tree, and will be emptied into coffins. After the burial of a single wooden coffin, the earth is filled back and then "ten thousand horses step down".
Near the three sea of Qing County in the northern Aletai mountains in northern Xinjiang, archaeologists discovered an artificial mountain in the area, presumably the tomb of Gen Gi Khan. One of the proofs is that in his travels of Marco Polo, Marco Polo wrote, "on the way of carrying the coffin of the monarch to Alle Taishan, the escort will take all the people along the way as martyrs".
On the basis of six Panshan in Ningxia, it is recorded that Gen Gi Khan died in the middle of 1227 when he attacked Xixia and died near six Panshan. According to the archaeological experts, according to the past customs of the Mongols, people should be disposed of in 3 days, or celestial burial, or burial, or cremation, so that the body can not decay and the soul can not live in heaven. Therefore, the possibility of burial after Gen Gi Khan's death is very great.
Song Lian Yuan history, Volume 1, the first emperor of Tai Ji.
Ke Xiao - "New yuan history, Volume II, second," emperor Tai "," new yuan history, volume three, third yuan. "
Film and television image
1976 TV play "carve"
Heroic biography: Ling Han plays Gen Gi Khan.
1983 TV series Legend of Shooting Heroes ": Paul Chun Gen Gi Khan;
1987 TV series Genghis Khan ": Liu Yong Gen Gi Khan; 1987 TV drama "Gen Gi Khan": Alex Man Gen Gi Khan;
1988 TV series Legend of Shooting Heroes ": Zhi Jian Li Gen Gi Khan;
1994 TV series Legend of Shooting Heroes ": Liu Jiang Gen Gi Khan;
1997 TV series Genghis khan ": Tu Men Gen Gi Khan;
2000 TV series Genghis Khan ": Bassenge , Khorchin Bi SHG, Xilin man Da, Da Leng Zhao Ge Ge after playing iron Mu Zhen;
2003 TV series Legend of Shooting Heroes ": Bassenge Gen Gi Khan;
2005 movie Mongolian King ": Asano Chunobu Gen Gi Khan;
2007 movie Wolf ": Takashi Sorimachi Gen Gi Khan;
2008 TV series Legend of Shooting Heroes ": Bayin Gen Gi Khan;
2013 TV series Fengyun ": Tang Guoqiang Gen Gi Khan;
2013 movie Killing order ": Tu Men Gen Gi Khan;
2016 movie Legend of iron wood ": William Chan Play Gen Gi Khan.
2017 TV series Legend of Shooting Heroes ": Tay Ping Hui Play Gen Gi Khan.
2018 movie "ares": William Chan Decoration Tie Mu Zhen (Gen Gi Khan)