Gao Jia Opera
Gaojia Opera, a local traditional drama in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province, is one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Gaojia Opera, also known as "Gojia Opera", "Jiujiao Opera", "Daban" and "Tuban", originated in Quanzhou, Fujian Province. It originated from a masquerade parade popular in the rural areas of southern Fujian in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties to dress up Liangshan heroes and perform martial arts techniques. There are more than 900 traditional operas of Gaojia Opera, while the performances are divided into "Atmospheric Opera" (Ting Opera and Wuxi Opera), "Embroidery House Opera" and "Ugly Dance Op ” There are three main categories: Gaojia Opera's role originally consisted of Sheng, Dan and Ugly, and then increased to Jing, Tie, Wai, Wu and Bei (Jing) and Zaochuan; Gaojia Opera's performing arts come from Liyuan Opera, Puppet Opera, Yiyang Opera, Hui Opera and Peking Opera; Gaojia Opera's musical singing is dominated by Nanqu Opera, with both "puppet tune" and folk minor; Gaojia Opera's musical instruments are divided into Wen and Wu Music. Species.
On May 20, 2006, Gaojia Opera was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage, numbered IV-48.
Gaojia Opera was predecessor of Songjiang Opera. According to the old artist Chen Ping (1884-1957), it is said that in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, farmers and fishing villages along the coast of southern Fujian Province celebrated festivals every time they greeted the Shen Competition. Villagers paraded in villages dressed up as Liangshan heroes, occasionally performing on the spot. From this, children perform Song Jiang stories, sometimes called "Song Jiangzi". After Qingdaoguang (1821-1850), theatres played by adults were called "Songjiang Opera" by the masses.
The "Song Jiang Opera" artists from Ducun, Nan'an Mountains, and the bamboo circus artists from Zhangzhou and a returned overseas Chinese jointly organized a theatre troupe with the name "Sanhe Xing". It breaks through the limitations of special performance of Songjiang stories, performing half-text and half-martial Arts drama. The repertoire includes Guo Ziyi Baishou, Dilemma River East, Cutting Huangpao, Imperial Palace and so on. After the emergence of Hexing Opera, it was welcomed by the masses and the number of theatre troupes increased.
In the process of development of Hexing Opera, Songjiang Opera still exists. Besides repertoire, basic skills and performance programs can also be absorbed. At that time, it was stipulated that artists entering Hexing Opera must be able to perform "barrel inside opera" (that is, the finalized drama of Songjiang Opera) in order to enter Hexing Group to perform "barrel outside opera" (that is, the curtain of Hexing Opera). The two operas gradually merged. By the end of Qing Dynasty, Songjiang Opera and Hexing Opera were collectively called Gaojia Opera.
As for the appellation of Gaojia Opera, it is said that the audience is called "Gojia Opera" ("Go" is the same as "Gao" in southern Fujian). Another argument is that the theatre troupes perform overseas. Overseas Chinese call the theatre from their hometown a top-class theatre. When the theatre troupes return, they call themselves "top-class theatre". Another point is that Gaojia Opera has nine characters, so it is called "Nine Corners Opera". Audiences in southern Fujian call them "big class" and "Tuban".
From the 1920s to the 1940s, Gaojia Opera developed rapidly. There were more than 400 theatres in Jinjiang, Nanan, Huian, Tongan, Anxi, Yongchun and Dehua. Every year, there were theatres performing in the Philippines, Singapore and Indonesia. Competition in each class is fierce, and "ten tiger classes" emerge successively: "the first five tigers" are "Fuqing Cheng", "Old Dafu", "Fushengxing", "Fujin Sheng", "Jinxiuchun"; "the latter five tigers" are "Xinxiuchun", "Daxiangchun", "Jinchengxing", "New Dafu" and "Fulian Xing". The best one is called "Longban", or "Jinlian Sheng", so there is the saying of "one dragon breaks five tigers".
In the 1930s, some Gaojia opera troupes were not satisfied with their mobile performances on the grass-roots in the countryside, and went abroad one after another, with footprints all over Southeast Asia. During this period, theatre troupes abroad reached a climax. Total: Xin Lianxing (1929-1935), Sanmei Class (1929-1938), Fu Lianfang (1930-1933), Xikeng Class (1934-1937), Sanglin Society (1934-1937), Quanhe Xing (1934-1936), Xieyi Society (1937), Fushun Xing (1936-1937), Jin Chunbao (1936), Shangyi Society (1936-1937), Xiaoding Class (1936), Xin. Jinchun (1936).
In 1938, the outbreak of the Second World War led to the return of classes who left the country in the 1930s before and after the war.
In 1950, Quanzhou City concentrated the study of Gaojia opera artists in stages and batches. "Quanzhou Gaojia Drama Troupe" is composed of five professional folk troupes, namely "Xinxiu Spring Class", "Sanhe He Class", "Fuqing Chengban", "Xinlian Promotion Class" and "Tonghua Xingban". The troupe is composed of dozens of excellent performers. They are: Dong Yifang, Wu Yuan Song, Shi Chunzhi, Xu Yangchuan, Ke Xianxi, Liu Shengxuan, Lin Xiulai, Chen Ziliang, Ke Xianke, Cai Xiuying, Huang Xiulang, Lin Guzi, Chen Yuyan, Lin Xiandian, Shi Yifen, Cai Wenhuang, Tian Jizi, Wu Zunrong, Xiao Difen, Xiao Guangben, Jiang Jinlong, etc. Later, a number of new literary and artistic workers with professional level, such as writers, directors, composers and dancers, were recruited. They are: Wang Dongqing, Lv Wenjun, Yang Bo, Zhang Boping, Chen Meisheng, Wang Zhenquan, Wang Dabi, Cai Zhanlong, She Model and others. As a result of long-term cooperation with artists, Gaojia Opera began to change from grass-roof art to theatre art.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Gaojia Opera has been revitalized and developed.
In 1950, Quanzhou set up the Drama Reform Commission.
In 1951, famous actors from various theatre groups were selected to form the Quanzhou Popular Theatre Society (changed to Quanzhou Gaojia Theatre Troupe in 1957). Actors include Dong Yifang, Wu Yuansong, Xu Yangchuan, Xiao Diping, Lin Xiulai, Cai Xiuying and more than 40 others. Since then, Jinjiang Folk Gaojia Opera Troupe, Xiamen Jinlian Gaojia Opera Troupe, Huian Gaojia Opera Troupe, Nanan Gaojia Opera Troupe, Yongchun Gaojia Opera Troupe, Dehua Gaojia Opera Troupe, Anxi Gaojia Opera Troupe, Tongan Gaojia Opera Troupe and Datian Gaojia Opera Troupe have been formed successively. From then on, Gaojia Opera changed its habits of acting on stage, and began to enter a new era of new repertoire and modern drama compilation.
During the "Cultural Revolution" period, Gaojia Opera "Lian Sheng III" was first hit and was publicly named and criticized as "poisonous weed" in newspapers and magazines. Author Wang Dongqing was dragged into a cowshed. The troupe was forced to disband, and a large number of famous veteran artists and literary and artistic workers were decentralized to the countryside. After the crushing of Jiangqing Anti-Revolutionary Group, Gaojia Theatre Troupes in Southern Fujian recovered and entered a period of revitalization.
The music of Gaojia Opera uses "Nanqu", "puppet tune" and folk minor, with Nanqu as its main part, puppet tune and folk minor as its main part, and carries out necessary reforms in melody rhythm, so as to make it suitable for the needs of performing various characters on the stage with strong local charm. Singers use their own voice, singing lines are vigorous and high, but also have a delicate and delicate rhyme.
The instruments used in Gaojia Opera can be divided into Wen music and Wu music. Wenyue mainly consists of Haona, accompanied by Dongxiao, three strings and two strings, and later joined Pipa, Yangqin, Erhu, Zhonghu, Violin and cello. Wuyue has hundred drums, small drums, Tonggu, handcuffs, gongs, cymbals, especially sonars and cries, which have strong local characteristics and are indispensable percussion music for uguan operas or relaxed scenes.
The performing arts of Gaojia Opera are partly from Liyuan Opera and Puppet Opera, and partly from Yiyang Opera, Hui Opera and Peking Opera.
Gaojia Opera is the predecessor of Songjiang Opera. Songjiang Opera is mainly composed of martial arts. The number of sets of Songjiang Opera mostly adopts folk "lion-shaving" (that is, artists dressed as warriors, armed with various weapons, fighting with male lions respectively). There are several sets of martial arts on the existing stage, such as "cold frying pan", "big encounter field" and "Fengwei pendulum", which retain the traditional performances of "lion-shaving", and also absorb the martial arts of puppets with string, which are called "lion-shaving". "Salute beating".
The roles of Gaojia opera originally consisted of three acts: raw, Dan and ugly. Later, the roles of Jing, Tie, Wai, Wu and Bei (Jing) and Miscellaneous acts were added one after another. Among these lines, ugliness is the most prominent. There are two kinds of ugliness: male ugliness and female ugliness, while male ugliness is penny-wise and military ugliness. The literary clown has the clown of long shirt and short shirt, the clown of martial arts has the clown of master and the clown of tie-up. There are dozens of ugly women, such as wife, matchmaker, wife and maidservant.
As of 2019, Gaojia Opera has more than 600 traditional plays, including "Da Nao Huafu", "Jiu He Dong", "Cutting Huangpao", "Lin Wensheng Sue Royal Notice", "Guanfu Zhi", "Xing Yuan Sichai", "Meng Jiangnu", "Fan Po Nong", "Tang Erbie" and "Three Kingdoms" and "Yue Zhuan". Some of them are also adapted by artists according to folklore, such as "Three Kingdoms" and "Yue Zhuan". "Fan Po Nong", "Tang Er Biao", "Guan Fu Send" and so on.
Gaojia Opera takes the imitation of the typical behavior of different characters or the imitation of puppet shows and animal movements as the means of expressing characters'personality. It is relaxed, humorous, interesting, exaggerated but not false, and has a strong flavor of life. It also absorbs the skills of puppet and lion dance, forming unique actions such as "cold frying pan", "big encounter field", "phoenix tail swinging". Gaojia Opera, as a unique Chinese traditional opera, is a typical representative of local culture in southern Fujian, and has a great influence at home and abroad.
With the changes of the times and the rapid development of science and technology, there are fewer and fewer people going to the theatre nowadays.
Lin Shizhong, head of Gaojia experimental theatre troupe in Shishi City, said: "In recent years, new actors have been recruited every year, but nobody has signed up. Now everybody's life is all right. They are unwilling to let their children play. The future is worrying.
Lai Zongmao, male, Han nationality, born in Quanzhou, Fujian Province in 1947. The second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects are representative successors of Gaojia Opera and first-class actors. At the age of 13, Lai Zongmao was admitted to the Jinjiang Gaojia Drama Troupe's actor training class. He was taught by Ke Xianxi, the founder of the Gaojia Drama Ke School's ugly performing art. He was a true biography of Ke Pi and was good at playing male clowns, especially in disguising female clowns. His performance is hot, warm, exaggerated, humorous and full of rich mountain atmosphere. His representative works include: Jin Kui Xing, Da Nao Huafu, visiting relatives on donkeys, Mandarin Duck Fan, Tang Dynasty's Second Wife and so on.
Zeng Wenjie, male, Han nationality, born in 1955 in Jinjiang, Fujian Province. The second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects are representative successors of Gaojia Opera, head of Gaojia Opera Troupe in Jinjiang City, Fujian Province. Zeng Wenjie was admitted to Jinjiang Gaojia Theatre Troupe in 1978. He was taught by Ke Xianxi, the founder of Gaojia Theatre's ugly performing art. After graduation, he remained in Jinjiang Gaojia Theatre Troupe as an actor. He was well versed in the genuine biography of Kepai and was good at performing ugly actresses, especially ugly princes and puppets. His performances are humorous, funny and full of life. Especially puppet and ugly performances imitate lifelike and vivid, especially the portrayal of characters. His representative works include: Jin Kuixing, Teahouse, Fish Pursuit, Ou Po Da, Probe into Prison, etc.
Yan Peiqiong, female, Han nationality, born in 1944, died in 2012, Fujian Anxi people. The second batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects are representative successors of Gaojia Opera and first-class actors. Yan Peiqiong entered Quanzhou Gaojia Opera Training Course at the age of 13. She was taught by Xiao Dibin and Cai Xiuying, and was the main worker in Qingyi and Boudoir Dan. Since 1972, Yan Peiqiong has worked in Quanzhou Gaojia Opera Troupe, Fujian Art School, Quanzhou Art School and other units, dedicated to Gaojia Opera performance and inheritance. On the basis of inheriting the tradition, she boldly absorbs the performance characteristics of sister plays and enriches the performing arts of Gaojia Opera, especially chanting and singing. His representative works include Pearl Tower, Chen Cui'e, Pearl of the South China Sea, Zhaojun Out of the Fortress and so on.
Quanzhou Gaojia Theatre Troupe, Xiamen Jinlian Gaojia Theatre Troupe, Jinjiang Gaojia Theatre Troupe and Anxi Gaojia Theatre Troupe, which are active in the urban and rural areas of southern Fujian, are all important bases for the inheritance and development of Gaojia Theatre. In recent years, they have also been listed to set up study centers. Quanzhou Art School and Xiamen Art School, as well as the private Xiang'an Lutang Opera School, which has risen in recent years, are important gardens for training reserve talents of Gaojia Opera. Over the years, they have provided a lot of fresh blood for the public Gaojia Opera Troupe and the folk professional theater troupe. In addition, there are many folk professional troupes of Gaojia Opera, which are active in the urban and rural areas of southern Fujian, tenaciously continue the inheritance of Gaojia Opera, and integrate into the lives of local people. At present, nearly 20 inheritors of Gaojia Opera national and provincial intangible cultural heritage have been announced, including 8 inheritors of national intangible cultural heritage.
In the early 1960s, the newly compiled ancient opera Liansheng III was toured to Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Tianjin and Beijing. Chairman Zhu De, Premier Zhou Enlai, Vice Premier Chen Yi, Tan Zhenlin, Guo Moruo, Mao Dun, Deng Tuo and drama experts Cao Yu, Tian Han, Zhang Geng, Lao She and Lin Mohan all came to watch. Guo Moruo, Lao She and Deng Tuo all wrote poems in praise after watching Lian Sheng III.
In 1982, the Quanzhou Gaojia Theatre Troupe went to Hong Kong to perform, bringing with it the repertoire "Lien Sheng III", "Real and Fake King's Head", "Da Lao Huafu" and an ugly little drama.
In 1986, Quanzhou Gaojia Theatre Troupe hosted several foreign students from Britain, France, Italy, Japan, the United States and Germany to watch the clown performance.
In 1986, Quanzhou Gaojia Theatre Troupe went to Shanghai to attend the first Chinese Art Festival and performed comedies such as "Shoot Shoot River Wave", "Guanfu Send", "Wang Haixing", "Water Rice", "Visiting Family by Donkey". Gaojia Opera clown's performance won high praise.
In 1989, Anxi Gaojia Opera "Jade Pearl Strings" and Quanzhou Gaojia Opera "Wang Haihang" participated in the Provincial Art Festival performance.
In 1994, at the invitation of the Art Bureau of the Ministry of Culture, he went to Beijing to perform. On March 5 of the same year, Xiamen Jinlian Shengjia Theatre Troupe went to Taiwan and Jinmen to perform.
In October 1997, Jinjiang Gaojia Theatre Troupe went to Chengdu to attend the Fifth China Art Festival. In December of the same year, he participated in Fujian Opera Exhibition in Beijing.
In 1983, the Fengguan Dream, written by Zhuge Gu, Gaojia Drama Troupe of Anxi County, participated in the 15th Fujian Drama Conference. The performance won the first prize for script, seven awards for director, music, performance, dancing beauty and actors, and the National Excellent Drama Award from 1982 to 1983.
In the 1980s, a large number of new plays created by old, middle and young writers, such as Reversing the Heaven and the Earth, Real and False Wang Xiu, Gao Pingguan, General Shi Lang, Tang Zong Yi Shi, Kaiyuan Prelude, Nanhai Mingzhu and Tangshan Situation, won provincial prizes for dramas.
In 1985, he participated in the 16th Fujian Opera Festival and won the third prize for script. Cai Youhui and Liu Jide won the first prize for actor.
In August 1987, "Yellow Volume and Mosquito Poetry" participated in the 17th provincial drama show. Yan Peiqiong and Liu Jide won the Excellent Actor Award; Cai Youhui won the Performance Award.
In December 1987, the traditional operas Guanfu Send and Qing Sweeping participated in the Fujian Narcissus Grand Prix. Li Zhenrui and Liu Jide won the actor prize.
In September 1990, "Guanhua Chopper" participated in the 18th provincial creative repertoire performance, and Zhang Tianpeng and Lin Jinqing won the script prize.
In March 1991, Zheng Boping participated in a TV Comedy Competition in six provinces and cities in East China. Zhang Boping was awarded the first prize for director and music.
In October 1993, Dahe Ballad participated in the national local opera exchange performance (Southern Film) and won the Excellent Play Award (collective); Xu Yiwei won the Excellent Screenwriter Award; Zhang Tianpeng and Zhang Boping won the Excellent Director Award; Cai Youhui and Wu Di won the Excellent Performance Award; Chen Jingping and Ke won the Performance Award; Wu Zhenshi won the Dancing Design Award; She Model and Chen Sixuan won the Fashion Design Award; Su Zhaoping won the Fashion Design Award. Lighting Design Award.
In December 1993, Dahe Ballad participated in the 19th provincial drama creation and performance, and won the "Special Honor Award".
In November 1994, "Dahe Ballad" won the "Cao Yu Literary Works Award" of the Chinese Drama Association.
In 1994, Nan'an Gaojia Theatre Troupe created and performed The Soul of the Big Han, which won the awards of Excellent Drama, Director and Music in the First Cross-Strait (Fujian and Taiwan) Drama Festival and the 19th Fujian Drama Festival.
In 1995, "Dahe Ballad" won the special honor award of the first Hundred Flowers Literature and Art Award of the province, "Dahan Soul" won the national "New Cultural Drama Award" and "Jade Pearl String" won the Cao Yu Drama and Literature Award.
In 1996, "Jade Pearl String" won the 6th National "Wenhua New Drama Award" and the "Five-One Project" Award of the Central Propaganda Department in 1996. Meanwhile, at the 4th Yingshan Red Folk Drama Festival of China (Hunan) in 1996, Xiamen Jinlian Shengjia Theatre Troupe won the first prize for comprehensive performance and awards for script, director, music and dancing beauty.
In 1996, at the 20th Provincial Theatre Congress, Jinjiang Gaojia Theatre Troupe performed "Jinkuixing" and won awards for excellent plays, excellent directors, music and other awards.