Four Seasons Production Adjustment
Four Seasons Production Dialogue, the traditional folk literature of Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Honghe, Yunnan Province, is one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Four seasons production tune includes five units: introduction, winter, spring, summer and autumn. The introduction emphasizes the significance of the four-season production tune inherited by the ancestors for the survival of the Hani people. The rest describes the procedures and technical essentials of terrace farming in seasonal order, as well as the corresponding knowledge of astronomy and calendar, the law of natural phenology changes, the knowledge of festival ceremonies and the rules of life etiquette. It is not only a comprehensive summary of terrace production technology, but also a masterpiece of Hani social ethics and ethics.
On May 20, 2006, the Four Seasons Production Regulation was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage catalogues, numbered I-24.
Four seasons production is distributed in the Hani nationality inhabited areas of Honghe, Yuanyang, Luchun, Jinping and Jianshui counties in Honghe Hani Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province. The lower limit of its origin time is not later than the Tang Dynasty. When did the production tune of Four Lies of the Hani nationality originate? Because the ancestors of the Hani nationality had no words, the specific time of its origin was not recorded in the literature. This problem can not be corrected. However, the Hani nationality is a very ancient nation, and the terraced rice culture of the Hani nationality is also a very ancient culture. The Four Seasons Production Dialogue is also a part of its terraced rice culture. It should be said that the appearance of the Four Seasons Production Dialogue is quite remote.
Discussing the origin of the Four Seasons Production Dialogue should start with the historical origin of the Hani nationality. There are many opinions about the historical origin of the Hani people in the academic circles, among which the popular one is the theory of "Diqiang system" moving southward, which holds that the mainstream of the Hani people originated from the ancient Qiang tribal groups. According to historical records such as Historical Records, Hanshu and Post-Hanshu, the Diqiang people were nomadic in the eastern and southern parts of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. During the period of Qin Xiangong (384-362 B.C.), the Qin Dynasty expanded rapidly, constantly conscribing neighbouring nomadic tribes and forcing Diqiang ethnic groups to migrate. The Qiang people who migrated to the South merged with the local indigenous people and continued to multiply, forming a number of new tribal groups. These tribal groups mainly live in the southwest of Sichuan, northwest of Yunnan and the vast area of northeast Yunnan, which is called "Heyi" in historical books. "Heyi" is not a single ethnic group, but refers to the ethnic groups and tribes that are active in this area, including the Hani ancestors.
Hani folklore also confirms the above view. According to the Hani migration epic "Hani Abe Tsongpo" and "Janiya Gazanga", Hani ancestors have migrated on a large scale many times in history, from the eastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to the Ailao Mountains between the Red River and the Lancang River, and a group of people moved to Xishuangbanna and other places. The migration of the Hani ancestors was sometimes due to inter-ethnic wars and sometimes to the spread of plagues. During the migration, the Hani ancestors stayed for a long time in some places and learned advanced production technology from other tribes. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the ancestors of the Hani and Yi nationalities were generally called "Wu Man" in historical books. In the early Tang Dynasty, the Hani ethnic group was separated from the "Wuman" ethnic group, among which the Hani ancestors who lived in Ailaoshan and other places were called "Heni". At that time, the Hani ancestors had developed into a relatively independent nation.
The production and life style of the Hani ancestors changed from nomadism to farming, which happened on the way of migration. During the migration, the Hani ancestors learned agricultural production technology from their economically developed brothers and nationalities, and basically completed the transition from nomadic to farming nationalities. Some scholars speculate that the Hani ancestors had learned agricultural production when they migrated to "Norma Ami" (the area around Xichang today). But the agricultural production technology grasped by the Hani ancestors at that time was not terraced rice cultivation technology. Hani ancestors mastered terraced rice cultivation technology, should be migrated to northwest Yunnan, northeast Yunnan, after the birth of its terraced rice culture, should also be in this period.
According to the migration history of the Hani ancestors, it can be inferred that the transformation from nomadism to farming of the Hani ancestors should be no earlier than the Western Han Dynasty and no later than the Tang Dynasty. Sima Qian divided the social economy of "Southwest Yi" before the Han Dynasty into three types, i.e. farming land with yi, migrating with livestock and "or indigenous or migrating". The term "Southwest Yi" here refers to all ethnic groups living in Southwest China, including the Hani ancestors of course. However, it is difficult to determine what type of social economy the Hani ancestors belonged to. However, in the early Tang Dynasty, the Hani ancestors had settled in the Ailao Mountains on the South Bank of the Red River. Fan Chuo of the Tang Dynasty wrote in "Manshu. Yunnan Inner Tube Specialty" that "Manzhi Mountain Fields are exceptionally good." The terraced fields here refer to terraced fields; the "barbaric" here refers to the ancestors of the Hani people, because in Yunnan, only the terraced fields of the Hani people are first-class, which can be called "excellent". This shows that in Tang Dynasty, the technology of terraced rice cultivation of Hani ancestors was very mature. It can be concluded that the Four Seasons Production Dialogue was born before the Tang Dynasty.
The Four Seasons Production Dialogue is a very mature ballad in Tang Dynasty, which is a summary of the experience of rice cultivation technology in Hani terraced fields. "Four Seasons Production Dialogue" originated from today, has been circulated for more than a thousand years.
Four seasons production tune includes five units: introduction, winter, spring, summer and autumn. The introduction emphasizes the significance of the four-season production tune inherited by the ancestors for the survival of the Hani people. The rest describes the procedures and technical essentials of terrace farming in seasonal order, as well as the corresponding knowledge of astronomy, calendar, natural phenology, festival ceremonies and rules of life etiquette, including paddy fields, ridges, breeding, seedling scattering, transplanting, transplanting, transplanting and transplanting. The process of picking up rice seedlings, beating millet, backing millet, entering warehouse and other related folk activities. The four seasons production tune system is tidy, easy to understand, can be recited and sung, the language is lively, close to production and life, and has a long history of inheritance, with a broad mass base. It is not only a comprehensive summary of terrace production technology, but also a masterpiece of Hani social ethics and ethics.
In terms of expressive techniques, "Four Seasons Production Dialogue" uses a lot of contrast. Associative, white and personified expressive techniques have vivid implications and long lasting charm. The most frequently used artistic techniques in Four Seasons Production Dialogue are sketch and personification. For example, "Song of the Winter Moon": "The fog of the dam flies like long wings, the cold wind blows into the stockade, the thatch on the head of the house is turned over, the birds are huddled in the corner of the wall, and the leaves of the trees are running all over the ground." Although straightforward and simple, it is full of poetry and painting, and has a strong artistic appeal. Another example is the song of the first month: "When the first month comes, the birds and animals in the mountains move; the pine parrots fly, the grass cranes and magpies call, the wapit deer leap, the concave grass leopard call, the ravine wild boar make a noise, the cliff side partridge jump... Just a few lines of white sketch, it outlines the charming side of the mountains in early spring.
The distinctive linguistic features are an important achievement in the art of Four Seasons Production Dialogue. Its lyrics adopt free style, long and short sentences, nothing to carve, simple and natural, concise, but give people a unique aesthetic enjoyment. For example, "June Song" sings: "Quickly pick up the hoe, to shovel the ridge smooth. When weeds and fertilizers are shoveled down, rats dare not make nests, and pests dare not come to eat seedlings. Kill a chicken to sacrifice the God of grain. The God of grain is always flourishing in the seedlings. Every lyric is a daily language, fresh and natural, simple and plain, easy to remember and understand, is a favorite language of farmers.
The regular singing of "Four Seasons Production Tune" usually takes place in important public places, such as mass gatherings on New Year's Day, village sacrificial activities, or other public gatherings. When people gather in the field, Mo Bi (the true heir of "Four Seasons Production Tune") sings "Four Seasons Production Tune". The most common singing is at a feast full of guests. At this time, while drinking, eating meat, riding the wine, Mobi will be emotionally singing "Four Seasons Production Tune". The usual way of singing is to sing by Mo Bi alone. Everyone agrees. Every time Mopi finished a paragraph, the audience would say "Sa-Sa-Sa" or "Sa-Yi-Sa-Sa". This kind of harmony is a praise of Mobi's singing, similar to "good ah good" and "good sing ah".
"Four Seasons Production Tune" is an unaccompanied song, singing without accompaniment of musical instruments, nor acting. This kind of singing, to a large extent, belongs to singing, there is singing, there is reciting, because there is no instrument accompaniment, such singing, the singer's voice, singing skills and memory are very high requirements. Among the Hani people, many people are familiar with the lyrics and tunes of "Four Seasons Production Tune". Every wrong sentence of Mo Ba will be remembered. Therefore, in a sense, Mo Bi is like a singer, "Four Seasons Production Tune" singing well, people have a scale in mind, "Four Seasons Production Tune" singing well Mo Bi, there will be a large number of admirers and followers. The same "Four Seasons Production Tune", different Mopi will have different singing styles. This singing style is determined by Mo Bi's own conditions, and also by Mo Bi's understanding of "Four Seasons Production Tune". Momo's different styles of singing usually get people's approval. The lyrics of "Four Seasons Production Tune" are straightforward and simple, with a humorous and lively style. The tune is smooth, steady, deep and simple. Regardless of Mobi's singing style, the tone of "Four Seasons Production Tone" will not change.
Inheritance and Protection
Four-season production has witnessed the evolution of rice terrace civilization of the Hani nationality, and has important reference value for the study of the historical and scientific value of rice terrace civilization of human beings. At the same time, its frank, simple, humorous and witty language style gives people a kind and touching artistic enjoyment and aesthetic experience. Whether in the past or now, the four seasons production tone taught orally and heartily plays a guiding role in the production and life of Hani society.
The four seasons production tone not only has the value of literature and music, but also plays a guiding role in the production and life of the Hani society. It also witnesses the evolution of the rice terrace civilization of the Hani nationality, and has an important reference value for the study of rice terrace civilization of human beings.
Practical Value of Life
The biggest difference between Four Seasons Production Dialogue and other folk literature works lies in the practical value of production and life. The Four Seasons Production Dialogue is not only a textbook of Hani agricultural production, but also a textbook of Hani daily life.
Almost all the lines in Four Seasons Production Dialogue are about the knowledge of agricultural production and common sense of life. Taking production knowledge as an example, Four Seasons Production Dialogue describes in detail the procedures of rice terrace cultivation in every season and even every month, from paddy fields and ridges to breeding, seedling scattering, transplanting, pulling, transplanting, seedling, stumping, cutting, threshing and warehousing, and explains rice terrace cultivation in detail. Each process and technical requirements, precautions. Hani peasants hum the "Four Seasons Production Dialogue", while carrying out paddy field cultivation in accordance with the paddy field cultivation procedures and technical requirements of the "Four Seasons Production Dialogue". As for the common sense of life, it can be seen everywhere in the Four Seasons Production Dialogue. Such as when to come, what birds, what time to blossom, when chickens and ducks are in estrus, when livestock are in love, when people should do something, and so on, all have to be explained. The practical value of Four Seasons Production Dialogue in production and life is unique in folk songs.
The Value of Folklore Studies
The Four Seasons Production Dialogue describes in detail the festival activities, religious sacrifices and living customs of the Hani people. It is an irreplaceable folklore material for the study of rice terrace culture of the Hani people, and has a very high value for folklore research.
Festival activities play an important role in the life of Hani people. Almost all the important festivals of the Hani nationality are reflected in the Four Seasons Production Dialogue, such as sacrificing the village gods, June and October. "Four Seasons Production Dialogue" not only vividly and delicately describes what time and festivals, but also describes what to do and how to do during the festival. These descriptions have guiding significance for Hani people to carry out Festival celebrations, and are also important materials for studying Hani people's Festival customs. "Four Seasons Production Dialogue" also describes a series of large-scale sacrificial activities, but also describes many small-scale sacrificial activities, and the time, methods, sacrifices, and even the shape and color of sacrifices, and so on, have made specific provisions.
The Value of Scientific Research
"Four Seasons Production Survey" summarizes many unique and objective knowledge of agricultural production and ecological environment in the production process of Hani terrace. These knowledge have important scientific value for understanding the rice production in terraced fields of Hani nationality and studying the development of rice production in terraced fields. The production knowledge recorded in the Four Seasons Production Survey is accumulated by the Hani people in their long-term production practice. It is not only the experience of production practice, but also valuable scientific knowledge, and has important scientific research value.
Aesthetic value of Art
As a long folk ballad, "Four Seasons Production Tune" has its own artistic characteristics and high aesthetic value.
Current situation of inheritance
With the changes of society and the advent of economic globalization, especially with the influx of powerful foreign cultures, the values of young Hani people have changed, and the inheritance of Hani's four-season production tune has been lacking in succession. Few elder artists and priests can systematically sing the four-season production tune. Few young Hanis are dedicated to learning the four-season production tune. The rescue and protection of seasonal production adjustment is imminent.
For various reasons, most of the existing Chinese versions of the Four Seasons Production Dialogue are of poor translation quality, and their sentences are harsh, thus losing their original characteristics and charm, thus affecting the dissemination and appreciation of the Four Seasons Production Dialogue.
Zhu Xiaohe, male, was born in September 1940. In June 2007, Zhu Xiaohe was selected as the representative successor of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province. Project Name: Four Seasons Production Adjustment.
In 1989, Yunnan People's Publishing House published Hani's Four Seasons Production Tune, which was collected by Bai Zuer and translated by Duan Rule.
In July 2010, Yunnan Ethnic Publishing House launched the latest edition of Hani Four Seasons Production Dialogue, which is published in the form of Hani, international phonetic symbols, single-sentence literal translation, single-sentence free translation and overall free translation. On the basis of the previous version, Bai Menpu's singing was added. This part of Hani record was completed by Yang Xuezhen, Chinese translation was completed by Buckingshan, Longyuanchang, and international phonetic symbols were completed by Chen La. Although there are different versions of "Four Seasons Production Modification", the main contents are the same.
From February 10, 2018 to March 18, 2018, the relevant departments of Yunnan Province and Foguangshan, Kaohsiung, co-sponsored the "Seven Colors Yunnan and Make an Appointment with Taiwan" Cultural Month. During the Cultural Month, on February 28, 2018, the theme day was held in Foguangshan, Kaohsiung. In the theme day activities, Chen Xialing, who is good at the performance of Hani's Four Seasons Production Tune, shows Yunnan's traditional exquisite craftsmanship and simple artistic style through static display, on-site production and interactive experience.
On July 6, 2018, the first batch of outstanding achievements of salvage records of representative inheritors of national intangible cultural heritage was held in the National Library. One of the 25 salvage records of representative inheritors of national intangible cultural heritage was awarded as an excellent project.
The radio feature "Terrace Family" selected by Central Radio won the 15th Merulidge Award. Terrace Family recorded the life of Zhu Xiaohe, an old man in Hani, during the spring drought in 2010 with his voice. It is true that he kept water, prayed for rain, farmed and transplanted rice seedlings, and inherited Haniko's song "Four Seasons Production Tune" to young people in his work.