Folk fire Min Jian She Huo
Folk society fire is a kind of folk entertainment popular in China during the Spring Festival. It is widely spread in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning and other provinces. On May 20, 2006, Folk Society Fire was approved by the State Council to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list .
As the oldest custom, social fire has a history of thousands of years in China. It originates from the worship of land and fire by the working people in ancient China. It is the product of witchcraft and totem worship in ancient times, and is a religious activity used by people to worship gods in ancient times. "Society" is the God of land; fire, the ancestor of fire, is the legendary god of fire. Can drive away evil spirits and take refuge. The worship of social gods, singing and dancing sacrifices, is intended to pray for good weather, good grain, national peace, and good luck in everything.
In China, which is famous for its agricultural culture, land is the foundation of people's life. It lays a material foundation for human survival and development. Fire is not only the source of cooked food and heating, but also an indispensable condition for human survival and development. In ancient times, people believed that fire also had "spirit" based on primitive thinking, and regarded it as a God with special meaning, and worshipped it, thus forming the concept of worshipping fire. From the worship of ancient land and fire, the custom of offering sacrifices and fire came into being. With the development of society and the improvement of people's cognitive ability, the ritual of offering sacrificial services has gradually increased the entertaining elements, and become a large-scale and complex traditional Chinese folk entertainment.
The social fire shows the wisdom and talent of the working people of China. It involves music, dance, opera, acrobatics, martial arts, opera, arts and crafts and many other arts. The word "social fire" began in the Song Dynasty. "Tokyo Menghualu" Volume 8 records: June 24, the birthday of Erlang God Huankou, Erlang Temple Terrace set up a music shed, there is "community fire on the terrace. During the Han, Wei, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui and Tang Dynasties and Southern Song Dynasty, on the eve of the New Year's Eve in the imperial city, there were still large Nuo rituals, which were gradually replaced by social fires and melted into social fires. It can be seen that the Song Dynasty folk society fire is all-inclusive, meteorological. The social fire at that time consisted of sacrifices, sorcery, Nuo yi, Bai opera, music and dance, military opera, folk juggling and so on. From the first to the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, the village club organizes and holds festivals of envoys and contests to greet gods, including poles, jumping ropes, sumo wrestling, drum boards, singing, cockfighting, muddling, juggling, business puzzles, combination of Sheng, Qiao Jingu, Qiao sumo, prodigal son, Zaju opera, like students, knives, dressing ghosts, drums, card sticks, Taoism and other juggling performances.
Face mask is indispensable for social fire performance. According to Shaanxi folk artists, during the Zhou Dynasty, King Wu led a military expedition to Kirin Mountain and was blocked by Wen Taishi who was stationed under the mountain. Jiang Zi put on his mind and let the soldiers wear the masks of divine soldiers and generals to go to battle and shout at them. They were all fierce and fierce, as if they had gone down to earth. Wen Taishi does not know the truth
He fled for God's sake. After this incident was introduced into the folk, the traditional folk custom of drawing faces to chase ghosts emerged, and gradually integrated into the social fire. Academic circles generally believe that the origin of Facebook is Nuo Dance in Zhou and Qin Dynasties. Nuo is a kind of religious ritual in ancient times. Nuo is a legendary bird of god. It has been personalized and become a sacrificial performance. Nuo dance is a kind of religious dance formed on the basis of Nuo sacrifice in Zhou Dynasty. The obvious feature of Nuo dance is to wear a mask to sing and dance.
Folk community fire is a traditional folk self-entertainment activity during the Spring Festival. It comes from the worship of ancient land and fire. Society is the God of land; fire, the ancestor of fire, is the legendary god of fire. In China, which is famous for its agricultural culture, land is the foundation of people's foothold, and it lays a material foundation for human survival and development. Fire is not only the source of cooked food and heating, but also the indispensable condition for human survival and development. In ancient times, people believed that fire also had "spirit" based on primitive thinking, and regarded it as a God with special meaning, and worshipped it, thus forming the concept of worshipping fire. The worship of ancient land and fire has produced the custom of sacrificial societies and fire. With the development of society and the improvement of people's cognitive ability, the ritual of sacrificial societies fire has gradually increased its entertaining elements and become a large-scale and rich traditional folk entertainment.
Social Fire Facebook
The social fire is often called "see a play", or "mime". The performers of social fire roles travel in the form of stage appearances, and the audience's recognition of the roles depends on facial makeup. The social fire facial makeup is based on the characters'appearance and personality characteristics, using different combinations of Sun-Moon pattern, fire pattern, whirlpool pattern and frog pattern to express the characters' personality; using color to identify the characters'loyalty, rape, good and evil, red for loyalty, white for adultery, black for righteousness, yellow for brutality, blue for rashness, green for chivalrous, wildness, gold and silver for loyalty, evil. God demon. Baoji Fire Facebook, with its long history, has become the highlight of folk activities during the Spring Festival in Shaanxi Province.
With its long history, mysterious, profound cultural connotation and huge momentum, folk society fire has attracted wide attention from academia and become the highlight of traditional folk activities during the Spring Festival. Reform and Opening-up Brings Fire Art to Folk Society
New vitality, social fire art has been carried forward and become a popular traditional cultural activity.
The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, the "folk social fire" was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. No. 502, No. IX-54. The declared area is "Baoji City of Shaanxi Province and Lucheng County of Shanxi Province". On June 7, 2008, the State Council approved the list of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage expansion projects established by the Ministry of Culture. The project name of "Folk Community Fire" is expanded to include "Taolin Ping Huafai Community Fire, Yongnian Huatai Community Fire, Benxi Community Fire, Yixian Community Fire, Chaoyang Community Fire, Junxian Community Fire, Yangxian Suspension Community Fire", and the declared areas are "Jinglong County, Yongnian County, Benxi Manchu Autonomous County, Yixian County, Chaoyang County, Henan Junxian County, and Yangxian County, Hebei Province". Yangxian County, Shaanxi Province.
The theme of social fire is traditional folklore and dramatic stories. A story is presented through one or a group of characters, and a story is a change of social fire. Characters should draw a fire face, wear a fire costume and hold a torch stick. The social Fire Games are usually conducted in front of the horse, followed by the social fire flag, the fire brigade (artillery brigade), the flag brigade, the social fire brigade, and finally the gong and drum brigade.
According to its performance form, social fire can be divided into two categories: model social fire and performance social fire. The model social fire mainly shows the shape and craft of the characters, while the performance social fire mainly performs fighting in the courtyard. The main types of social fires are cloth fires, back fires, horse fires, car fires, core fires, mountain fires, masks fires, platform fires, stilts fires, blood fires and underworld fires.
Taolin Ping Huafa Community Fire
More than 800 years ago, there was a fierce battle in Nanshuliang of Taolinping Village, Xiaozuo Town, Jinglong County, Hebei Province. Many generals fought in blood to defeat the enemy. Later, in order to reproduce the battle scenes at that time, the local people, according to the legend of the elderly, carefully organized and painstakingly rehearsed, set up a unique colorful social fire, and then continued to develop in the inheritance, adding content, according to the well-known battle stories of past dynasties, its practice into it. Because of the peculiar shape of Taolin Pingshe's fire face, vivid characterization, graceful shelf, smooth fighting and excellent martial arts, Taolin Pingshe was awarded the title of "Huanggang Guard" by the court during the Jiajing period. Taolin Ping Huafa Community Fire is different from other social fires. Every actor, like an ancient costume actor, paints a face mask on his face, wears an ancient costume, and performs with real knives and guns to reproduce the fighting scenes of ancient characters. Each actor's face is unique. It is painted by the village's old artists using ancestral secret recipes. One face represents a character. The pigments prepared by the ancestral secret recipe are bright in color such as red, white, black and blue. No matter how much sweat the actors make on their faces, each color will not be confused and will remain distinct all the time.
Xifu Community Fire
Baoji area in Shaanxi Province, commonly known as Xifu, is one of the representative areas of Shaanxi social fire facial mask art. Especially in Longxian and Baoji counties, the social fire facial makeup has a long history, unique shape, simple and lively color, strict decoration and complete spectrum, representing the highest level of Xifu social fire facial makeup.
The blood fire in Chisha Town, Chencang District, Baoji City, is the only type of social fire reserved in Shaanxi and even in the whole country. It is performed every leap year. Chisha Town Blood Society Fire is based on the story of Shuihu Wusong killing Ximen Qing as the Revenge of Wuda. The performance mainly involves axes, hacks, scissors, chain knives, cones and other instruments piercing into the head of Ximen Qing and other villains, making the content of the Society Fire horrible, bloody and very lifelike, so it is called Blood Society Fire. It is said that it is the village's unique work, the scene is confidential, make-up is generally in the village temple, the doorway is guarded, no other people are allowed to come near, and children are not passed on.
In Shaanxi, social fire is the general name of core, stilts, bamboo horses, dry boats, lions, dragon lanterns and so on. It is an art that wins by acting, modeling and skills. Through various difficult actions and rigorous concepts, it makes actors act as historical and modern figures, forming a combination of stories, giving people a kind of high-rise, breathtaking and surprising artistic appeal. Especially this kind of art is closely combined with Qin Opera, which originates from the ancient loess and has a long history and unique charm.
The social fire which has lasted for thousands of years has become an important cultural custom in Baoji District of Shaanxi Province in the first month of each year. Baoji is also known as "the land of social fire in China".
The core society fire can be said to be the plastic art of the artistic style of Chinese opera characters, which is mainly for children, dressing children in ancient costumes as various historical, mythological and dramatic figures, and mostly heroic and chivalrous characters; and putting children "bundled, bangled, and cut" on a solid design iron bracket (commonly known as core), which has three layers of characters overlapping on the bracket, and some more layers, clothing will cover the iron bracket, good. Like characters hanging overhead, small actors shaking in the sky, shaky, breathtaking spectacle, giving people a shocking feeling. The "core" pays attention to the characteristics of "high, frightening, dangerous and suspended". Its "core" was carried by several strong men in the early stage, but now it is installed on motor vehicles or directly under the core to install wheels, slowly show for people to watch.
The core community fire, also known as the stack, belongs to the static and thrilling plastic arts, which has a history of about 200 years. Generally, children aged 4 to 12 are chosen to dress up as various characters, fixed on iron cores and present different shapes. In Xiaojiapo Village, boys are usually allowed to stand below and girls are allowed to stand on top. It seems that the boy is holding up the girl in the shape. A core is a story of Qin opera.
Gongs and drums
The gongs and drums, characterized by strong and lively rhythm and magnificent scenes, fully demonstrate the simple and bold temperament of the people of the Loess Plateau. Yangko, some focus on singing, such as "umbrella head Yangko", "small Yangko", commonly known as Wenchang Yangko; others combine singing and dancing, mainly dance, commonly known as Wuchang Yangko. It not only has distinctive local characteristics, but also absorbs the advantages of foreign singing and dancing arts, such as Fengyang, simulating the dance movements of transplanting rice seedlings, which embodies the characteristics of compatibility of Chinese culture. Vehicles, boats and sedan chairs are decorated with exquisite techniques into the shapes of various kinds of folk transportation vehicles, showing rich contents of the times, mainly including "Car Club", "Dry Boat" and other programs. The characteristics of Shanxi lighting are: on the one hand, it inherits the art of traditional lighting, and has the common characteristics of lighting in all parts of the country; on the other hand, it gives full play to the advantages of Shanxi's geographical resources and has unique local characteristics, such as prosperous fire, the "light of the coal sea" lighting exhibition, which are all related to Shanxi's coal production. Simulating the folk social fires of animals and ghosts and gods, which have profound cultural implications, shows the struggle between human beings and the wild animals in ancient times, reflects the superstition and awe of human beings for evil spirits and ghosts, through which we can see the development process of folk entertainment from entertaining gods to entertaining people. Wushu has nine whips, whip boxing, sword dancing, knife dancing, heart-piercing bar, fire cage jumping, overlord whip and so on, attracting people with superb skills.
The most distinctive feature in the south of Shanxi Province is the Geqiao. It is loved by the masses for its exquisite prop making and breathtaking performance skills. Gao of Zhonghuang Village in Xiangfen County
Taiwan is one of them. Every year around the tenth day of the Spring Festival, performances are performed in the villages and neighboring villages, from the tenth five-year plan to county or district performances. According to legend, Zhonghuang Gaotai originated from sacrifice. People dressed up as gods first performed in temples, then walked out one after another and performed in the streets. The crowd followed the crowd. Sometimes the water was blocked and the people behind could not see it. Later, it was suggested that the actors of gods should be fixed on the wooden boards to lift up, which not only increased the Cubism of the performance, but also made it convenient for the audience to appreciate, thus resulting in Zhonghuang Gaotai. The performances of Zhonghuang Gaotai are as follows: the gongs and drums team opens in front of the platform, followed by many colorful flag umbrellas, followed by the wonderful platform. Generally, there are eight people on the platform. The iron crutches are designed according to the content of the performance. They are naturally ingenious and unexpected. For example, there are some actors holding out their arms and standing on top of another actor; some are lotus blooming, a child standing on the lotus revolving around; some are actors holding out their arms, one hand holding a child's braid, the child hanging motionless in the air, and another is an actor holding a chair upside down with his hands, and the other is standing on one leg of the chair. Actors. These folk artists, according to certain physical principles, make use of the psychological characteristics of people's illusion to form a mixture of false and real. They tie the iron rod with a fantastic structure into "air dance", which makes the viewers nervous, while the performers look at it freely. The content of the performance is mainly traditional opera, but also reflects the changing reality of life. Every year, there are high platforms, year after year. Taiyuan area will be similar to the art form known as "iron stick" and "back stick", some artists can bear three small actors at the same time.
Stilts, commonly known as "abductors", are performed on wooden stilts by dancers, which is a popular form of social fire in Shanxi. The height of wooden stilts varies, some as low as more than one foot, some as high as one foot five feet, generally four or five feet. Stilts can be divided into Wen stilts and Wu stilts. Wen stilts are accompanied by strings, dancing while walking, changing various formations and performing in the streets. Some dancers disguise themselves as dramatic characters, which not only show historical stories, but also modern life. They are rich and colorful, regardless of style. Wu stilts are accompanied by percussion music, mainly performing stunts. Pandao Village, Xiangfen County, is famous for stilts. The wooden stilts are as high as 8 feet to 10 feet. Generally, there are special venues in the center of the village. A square table or a table is set every two feet away. Four or five pieces are arranged continuously. After dancers have jumped one by one, they have to splinter, and the spectators hold their breath and watch quietly. They are always making cold sweat for the dancers'breathtaking performances. Gaocun, Zhuangli, Zhangjiahe and Firewall in Fushan County are also famous for Wu Stilts. The special performances include "crossing overpasses", "pedaling toward the sky", "falling eight forks", "jumping tables" and "jumping double stools", which are quite martial arts. The stilts in Hucun, Yuanqu County, besides the special performances such as crutching, crutching, fork falling and table jumping, also have the difficult lifting methods such as lifting two, three, sitting up, lifting up and combination lifting, which integrates the thrilling performances with the beautiful plastic arts. The Wu stilts show is thrilling, tense and touching, in sharp contrast to the warm and soothing atmosphere of Wen stilts.
Gaotai Community Fire is an art that wins by playing plastic arts. Through various difficult actions and rigorous concepts, actors are allowed to play historical and folklore characters, forming a combination of stories, giving people a thrilling artistic appeal. An actor must be a child, standing side by side or overlapping on a core 3 to 4 metres high, or standing side by side or upside down, thrilling, weird and dangerous. These are the folk volunteers who, according to the physical principles, make use of the psychological characteristics of people's illusion, mix the false with the false, tie the core of the wonderful structure into the "air dance", which makes the viewers nervous, while the performers are free-spirited, or graceful, or slow and comfortable sleeves.