Firing Techniques of Zibo Ceramics
Zibo ceramics firing technology, Shandong Province's traditional handmade ceramics technology, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Zibo began to produce porcelain. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, the technology of making porcelain was constantly improving. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Boshan became an important ceramic production and sales center in China. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Zibo ceramics developed and innovated to form its own characteristics. Now, domestic ceramics, architectural ceramics, art ceramics, industrial ceramics and other products have been sold to more than 70 countries and regions at home and abroad.
On May 23, 2011, the firing technology of Zibo ceramics was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China and listed in the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage list
Before Qin Dynasty
About 6010 years ago - about 5600 years ago (post-Li culture period)
According to archaeologists'textual research on pottery unearthed from the "Hou Li Site" of Hou Li Guanzhuang, Qiling Town, Linzi District, the earliest ancient cultural site in Zibo area, the ancestors living in this area began to make pottery about 8,000 years ago. Its early products are sanded pottery, mainly round-bottomed pottery, monotonous, are hand-made. It is one of the earliest producers of pottery in China.
About 5500-4300 years ago (Beixin Culture Period)
Pottery is produced near Fushan Yicun and Huangjiacun, Fujia Town, Zhangdian District, on the side of China's Fortune Ceramic City. The technological level of pots, tripods, pots and pots made by the pots has improved significantly compared with that of the later Li Culture Period. Muddy pottery has begun to be produced in large quantities. It has the distinct characteristics of the Neolithic Beixin Culture in Shandong Province and is about 7,000 years old. Right.
About 4040-2240 years ago (Dawenkou Culture Period)
The production of pottery has made new progress and the scope of production has been expanded. It mainly distributes in Zhangdian, Linzi and Zichuan. Up to now, more than 30 sites of this period have been found. Most of its early products are red pottery, while gray pottery, white pottery and colored pottery are in the middle and late stages. In the use of raw materials, shaping and firing, our ancestors have accumulated rich experience.
About 2010-1530 years ago (Longshan Culture Period in Shandong Province)
Ceramic industry has developed to a considerable level on the basis of previous generations. Pottery is made into a professional labor of clan tribes. Fast wheel forming is widely used. Black pottery and gray pottery are the main products, and there are many kinds of products. Among them, black and bright thin-walled pottery is the most famous, with a wide distribution of origin. There are more than 60 producing areas in Linzi, Zhangdian, Zichuan, Zhoucun, Huantai, Boshan and Yiyuan districts and counties.
Qin to Tang Dynasty
221-207 years ago (Qin Dynasty)
Qin unified China's Hooli County System, set up Qi County, governed Linzi, under the jurisdiction of most areas of Zibo today. Ceramic industry has not developed greatly. Daily pottery and building tiles are still produced.
The First 206-25 Years (Western Han Dynasty)
Ceramic industry revived, Zichuan area developed especially fast, the firing technology and varieties of building ceramics have made remarkable progress and expansion compared with previous generations. Ceramic sculpture is a new force.
25-220 (Eastern Han Dynasty)
Low temperature green glazed pottery was successfully made. Various kinds of pottery are produced in large quantities. Pottery making technology has entered a new stage.
220-420 (Three Kingdoms, Two Jins)
In addition to the short-term unification of the Western Jin Dynasty and the once-stable society, over a hundred years of wars and turmoil in the north have caused a series of disasters, and the ceramics industry in Zibo has once reversed. The production of pottery in Linzi and the northern part of the city declined gradually, and the pottery industry shifted from north to south.
534-550 (Northern Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty)
Zhaili Village kiln in Zichuan District has sprung up, pioneering Zibo porcelain by firing celadon glaze, which is the earliest producer of celadon in northern China.
550-577 (Northern Dynasty, Northern Qi)
The technology of making porcelain in Zhai Li kiln has made remarkable progress, and the product quality has been improved day by day. With the blue glaze lotus petal as the representative, its fetal bones are firm, glazed and lustrous, and its shape is graceful. It has a fairly high artistic level. At the same time, yellow lead glazed pottery was fired.
581-618 (Sui Dynasty)
Zhaili kiln continued to make glazed blue porcelain.
618-907 (Tang Dynasty)
After "Zhenguan Zhi", Zichuan Cicun kiln business (today's Cicun) has risen. In 713 (the first year of Kaiyuan), a large-scale Buddhist temple "Huayan Temple" was built in the south of the village. In the mid-term, tea unglazed was created by producing black glazed porcelain with innovative standards, green glaze and sauce glaze products. In the late stage, various glazes are pure, complex and varied in shape.
907-960 (Five Dynasties)
Cicun kiln is the first white glaze porcelain, and adopt high temperature green spot decoration.
960-1008 (early Northern Song Dynasty)
Due to the further development of agriculture, handicraft industry and commerce, the ceramic industry in Zibo has entered a new period of development, and new kilns are constantly emerging. Yanshendian (now Boshan), Badou, Slope Land, Wanshan and Gongjiawu, Zichuan, Haojiacun kilns have risen one after another.
1068-1077 (in the Northern Song Dynasty, Xining)
Yanshendian kiln households raised funds to build kiln temples in Beiling Village, and the kiln industry is flourishing. Cicun kiln mainly produces white glazed porcelain. The fuel of kiln was changed from firewood to coal, and the decoration was cut and carved.
1108 (the second year of Daguan in Northern Song Dynasty)
Yanshendian, Slope Land, Wanshan and Haojiacun have developed into major ceramics producing areas.
1205 (Jin Taihe, Five Years)
Cicun kiln technology has entered its heyday. Boxes, bowls and cages are used for firing, and decoration is the first to fir glaze color, grate pattern, powder bar, white glaze, black flower, tread and various sculptures. Yanshendian kiln industry is unprecedented, with a large variety and scale, comparable to Cicun kiln, and its celadon printing and low temperature tricolor glaze are unique.
1294 (from to 31)
Zichuan Slope, Wanshan, Yanshenzhen and Badou kilns continued to produce traditional products on the basis of previous generations. But the utensils are generally thick, heavy and monotonous in decoration. Black glaze, white glaze and black flower ware are common.
1365 (Yuan Zhizheng 25 years)
Zibo has suffered many years of war and natural disasters, and the people are not bored. Ceramic industry has been seriously damaged. Rain Porcelain, Tea Fine Glaze and the excellent skills of previous generations are all lost. The famous magnetic kiln kiln is in a slump.
Ming and Qing Dynasties
1393 (26 years of Ming Hongwu)
Ceramic production has been restored and developed. The main producing areas are concentrated in Yanshen Town. The larger kilns are Lijiayao, Beiling, Shantou, Yaoguang, Badou, Xihe, Fushan, etc.
1558 (36 years of Ming Jiajing)
Yanshenzhen kiln industry is flourishing unprecedentedly. "Pottery is in thousands," four vendors, gathered here, Badou kiln to produce glazed tiles do their best.
1662 (Ming Tianqi 2 years)
Xihe kiln is very prosperous. There are 100 kilns, producing cylinders, basins, and black glazed bowls. The potters built kiln temples in the east of the village.
1642 (15 years of Ming Chongzhen)
White enamel stone (Baiyaoshi) was found in the Xishan area of Dakunlun, Zichuan. The kiln near Yanshen Town was used to make white glaze products.
1652 (Nine Years of Qing Shunzhi)
Yanshenzhen ceramics industry recovered rapidly. South of Zhennei Street, Lijiayao and Shantou kilns, wide kilns and Badou kilns are flourishing day by day.
1662 (the first year of Qing Emperor Kangxi)
Yanshen Town and surrounding ten-mile rural kilns are all around, the kiln goods in the town are set up in the city, the kiln goods in the hilltop and Xihe Village are set up in the city, and the products are sold in several counties around the town.
1665 (Four Years of Emperor Kangxi in Qing Dynasty)
Yanshan Zaji written by Sun Tingquan, a native of Yanshenzhen Town, records the production of local ceramics, glaze and coal in detail. It is an important work to study the early history of Boshan ceramics in the Qing Dynasty.
1670 (Nine Years of Qing Emperor Kangxi)
Ye Xiandeng usurped Yanshen Zhenzhi into a book, and his "property" chapter has a very detailed record of local ceramics.
1735 (13th year of Qing Yongzheng)
Sun's kiln in Yutouhe Village, Zichuan (now Weitouhe Village) is the earliest pottery manufacturer in this area to produce black pottery bowls.
1753 (18th year of Qing Qianlong)
Boshan ceramics industry was flourishing unprecedentedly. Beiling, Wudian, Shantou, Yaoguang, Badou and Fushan were the seven largest kilns at that time. Their products had their own characteristics and were full of competition. Boshan City business travel to, has become a very prosperous ceramics production center and sales and transportation.
Shi Jinyuan founded Yixiang Kiln Factory in Beiling Village, Boshan, and Yang Lingfu founded Futongde Kiln Factory in Shantou.
1905 (31 years of Qing Guangxu)
The Prince of Antique Merchant of the Huanghua Committee, the general office of Shandong Institute of Technology, has long established a workshop of technology in Xiahe Street of Boshan (near the present Boshan Fire Brigade) to study and improve Boshan ceramics. This is the first official kiln factory in Shandong Province.
1906 (Qing Dynasty, Guangxu 32)
Boshan County set up a chamber of commerce, kiln banks, furnace behavior branch.
1909 (the first year of Qing Dynasty Xuantong)
Hou Zhaoliang, a Shantou kiln worker, tried to make brown, green and blue glazes.
1910 (Second Year of Qing Xuantong)
Chen Xiling, a ceramic artist, successfully developed tea final glaze at the Boshan Institute of Technology, which restored the production of this historical glaze, which has been lost for hundreds of years.
1911 (three years of Qing Xuantong)
The white porcelain and baked flowers studied by Boshan Institute of Biography and Technology were of good quality, but could not be popularized due to the limitation of pigments.
Early 20th century
In the early 20th century, the production of Zibo ceramics, in addition to the improvement of production technology and the introduction of fine ceramics, also has the rise of industrial ceramics. Around 1918, the production of pottery pipes, steel bricks and steel tiles began in Boshan Wulong and refractories began in 1930. In the autumn of 1944, Li Jingshan, formerly operating Dade Iron Works in Qingdao, built Dingfeng Kiln Factory (the predecessor of Zibo Industrial Ceramics Factory) in Lizigou, Wulong Village. After liberation, it produced refractories, acid-resistant altars and pipes.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, under the leadership and support of the Party and the government, Zibo ceramics production has developed rapidly and revitalized in an all-round way through the socialist transformation of the whole industry. Most of the production equipments have been modernized. Besides the traditional producing areas, the scale of production has been expanded. Varieties of designs and colors have been increasing, and the quality of products has been improved day by day. Ceramic raw materials, ceramics machinery, ceramics production, scientific research, personnel training, basic supporting. Zibo ceramics production has become an important base with reasonable layout, coordinated production, diversified products and complete categories.
The old kiln temperature measuring instrument is far from being invented, only the "medicinal chicken" made of "medicinal soil" can be seen as "medicinal chicken" to master the firing temperature and operate by experience. The firing time is determined by the content and coal quality of the kiln. The maximum firing time of the kiln is 7 days, and the minimum firing time of the kiln is 2 days. The temperature of the kiln can reach 1300 degrees, the temperature difference in the kiln is very large, generally about 200 degrees, so various kinds of ceramic products with different refractories can be fired. Local people have been accustomed to referring to experienced firing workers as "living kiln gods".
After placing the body in the saucer, the body is loaded into the kiln truck, and the temperature rises slowly from the inlet into the pre-tropical zone of the tunnel kiln body to the middle of the kiln body through the high-temperature firing zone to complete the transformation from the blank to the finished product, and then cooled out
Inheritance and Protection
Zibo ceramics have a wide range of themes, from commodities to furnishings to Tonglin architectural ceramics, reflecting the social, economic, cultural background and outlook of the central Shandong region at that time.
Current situation of inheritance
With the development of modern industry, Zibo ceramic firing traditional technology is also facing the impact of mechanization and high technology: in the 1980s, Zibo ceramic kiln (commonly known as "steamed bread kiln") which has lasted for a hundred years gradually withdrew as a symbol, traditional ceramic firing technology is also facing the retirement and death of old artists, handicraft technology. It is urgent to carry out comprehensive protection and inheritance in the situation of being on the verge of being lost.
In 1990, "China Zibo Ceramic Glass Art Festival" was held, which attracted a large number of customers at home and abroad. Zibo ceramics, as a traditional industry, has a long reputation and a bright future.