Yue Diao, the local traditional drama of Henan and Hubei provinces, is one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
In addition to the form of opera, Yue Diao has two branches, namely, opera and puppet. In 1942, there was a severe drought in Henan Province. During this period, many cross-tone artists (such as Zhang Guilan) had turned to floor stalls to rap and sing. After the disaster, they returned to the stage to sing operas. The offshoot branch of puppet is very popular in Nanyang area, some of which are still very active among folk professional puppet artists. The main musical instrument of Yue Tune was Elephant Trunk four strings in the early stage, and later it was usually used to drop a beard. When Yue Diao was spread from the four places where it was born, the regional schools such as "going up", "going down" and "going south" were formed. Nanyang is the center of Shenglu Yue Diao, which is the mother tone of Yue Diao. The singing style is simple, tactful, delicate, elegant and bold, rough and atmospheric, with elements of Qin Opera. Xuchang, Luohe and Zhoukou are the centers of the downstream Yue Diao, also known as "Xiaoyue Diao". The singing voice has the characteristics of explosive, lively, high-minded and bold. The South Yue Diao spread from Xiangyang to Shiyan and other places, which is similar to the upper Yue Diao.
On May 20, 2006, Yue Diao was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage lists. The number of heritage is IV-27.
There are many theories about the origin of overshoot. One of them is said that Yue Diao, originally known as the "Moon Diao", is one of the four tunes of "Ping, Back, Side and Moon" shared by common local operas in ancient Chinese operas. According to the existing data, the overtone in Qianlong period of Qing Dynasty (1736-1795) has been widely popular in Nanyang area. Especially in the area of Nanyang, his folk song "Four Strings" was singing in the lunar tune, and then gradually evolved into a special opera, which is now called "Yue Diao". In fact, its origin is a variant of Nanyang Bangzi. At the earliest time, the singing style was originally a system of opera plate format. Afterwards, due to the influence of Bangzi and other operas, it became more and more regular in the repertoire. Its specific form changed with the process from "Zhengzhuang opera" (i.e. robe with opera) to "Waizhuang opera" (mostly traditional folk life opera). Overtone performances began to transit from music plate to plate cavity, and the band also transited from suona and bamboo flute to four-stringed instruments.
After the mid-19th century, in order to meet the aesthetic needs of the masses, great changes have taken place in the content and form of YueDiao opera repertoire. Among them, the opening of festivals and temple fairs promoted the emergence of actresses, and the number of "small three-door" operas and "official case" operas with the theme of reflecting real life, folklore and traditional stories increased rapidly, thus replacing a large number of "Zhengzhuang operas" with "outer octagon" as the main theme. Out. Because these "Waizhuang Opera" repertoires are mostly compiled by artists themselves or adapted from opera rap, singing in slang dialect, rich local flavor, strong life, easy to understand, less white, more live words, flexible and changeable length, they are welcomed by the masses. Among them, the representative plays are "Li Shuangxi Borrowing Grain", "Fire Embroidery Tower", "White Granny Drunken", "Yang Bajie Running Hotel", "Zhang Tingxiu Private Visit", "Li Tianbao Hanging Filial Piety", "Liu Gong Case" and so on. The changes in the repertoire of performances have led to changes in music. Apart from retaining a small number of commonly used music plates, most of the Musical Singing tunes have been replaced by plate tunes, and new plate tunes have emerged as the times require. The plate tunes, and have greatly enriched the plate tunes and made the plate tunes from the original and . Water is the main transition to the use of adagio, running water, copper tuning and random bullets. The rise of "Waizhuang Opera" broke the situation that "Zhengzhuang Opera" is not easy to "work together", promoted the exchange of repertoires, talents and all aspects of art, and promoted the overall development of overshoot art. Since then, YueDiao opera has entered its heyday and become one of the largest operas in Henan Province.
YueDiao developed into its flourishing period in the late Qing Dynasty, and many professional classes and associations appeared in the southwestern part of Henan Province. Earlier there were Santai Ban in Xixia before and after Tongzhi four years (1865), Qingping Ban in Xichuan Six Fangs before and after Tongzhi 13 years (1874), Neixiang before and after Guangxu three years (1877), Yonghe Ban in Xichuan (Yang Ying), etc. In addition to the development of Henan Province, some class clubs also spread far to other provinces and cities to perform. For example, on the dance floor of Liulin Piluo Gongmiao in Yunyang, Hubei Province, there are "three years and two months of Guangxu, two months of Yangyi (Yangying) Yonghe Banyuehang (Yueyue Diao) on the wall of the opera troupe." According to the recounts of the local artists, it is said that at that time, there were more than one hundred Yuejiao shift clubs in Ruzhou, Baofeng and Jiaxian, and dozens of classes in Dengxian. During the Revolution of 1911, Yue Diao also made great progress. Suona was also used as accompaniment instrument in the plays such as Burning Maybe, Zhao Gongming's Return to Heaven and Three Immortal Sisters. In 1917, the Nanyang Dayue Dialogue troupe also performed at the Laoyang Theatre in Kaifeng. Since then, the well-known social accountants of Yue Diao Class include Lao Yue Diao Class in Dengxian County, Changge County Changqing Class, Dangyang Dayue Diao Class, Xuchang Dayue Diao Class, Xiangcheng Shihang Class and Class 7, Yuzhou Car Factory Class, Xinzheng County Fourth Street Theatre Class, etc. During this period, a group of actresses headed by Lao Guihong of Dangyang Ban began to appear on the stage of overshoot. In the period of the Anti-Japanese War, the number of professional class societies in Henan decreased gradually, and the spread of the more tunes was limited. By the eve of liberation, few professional class societies had been retained.
Around 1950, with the support of the people's government, Mao Ailian and others established the Red Light Opera Society. Other performers have organized the Nine Women's Club, Victory Theatre, Freshman Professional Theatre Club, Popular Theatre Club and so on. In 1955, the folk professional troupe carried out census registration. On the basis of the original folk Yue shift club, Henan province has established sixteen professional groups, namely, the Zhengzhou Yue Opera Troupe, the Shangqiu special district Yue Opera Troupe (later transferred to Zhoukou area), the Xuchang area's Yue Opera Troupe and the Deng County's Yue Opera Troupe.
In 1956, YueDiao participated in the first Henan Opera Performance Conference. She performed the traditional operas such as "Scraping the Sea", "Harvesting Jiangwei", "Crying Hall", "Sending Lamps", "Dabao Guo" and so on, which were processed and sorted out, and won many awards from scripts, performances and actors. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Henan Yue Diao Opera Show was held in 1959, bringing together sixteen professional Yue Diao Opera Troupes from all over the country. More than one thousand Yue Diao workers gathered in Xuchang, which is an unprecedented grand gathering of Yue Diao boundary. In 1963, Shen Fengmei led Zhoukou YueDiao Opera Troupe to perform in Beijing. Premier Zhou Enlai saw Shen Fengmei's "Taking Jiang Wei" and met all the performers, praising "Zhuge Liang of Henan Province will do ideological work". Just as YueTiao was moving forward vigorously, since the "Cultural Revolution" in 1966, many YueTiao opera troupes were abolished. Most YueTiao opera troupes were gradually disbanded. Most of the performers were forced to devolve to the countryside, which caused serious setbacks to YueTiao art. It gradually recovered after 1976. Nowadays there are thirteen professional YueDiao Opera Troupes in Henan Province. After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in 1978, the Vietnam Opera Troupe resumed 11 professional groups. In 1982, Shen Fengmei once again led Zhoukou YueDiao Opera Troupe to perform in Beijing.
Music for voices in a Chinese Opera
The singing style of Yue Diao was originally Qupai style, and gradually changed to plate face after the middle of Qing Dynasty. Accordingly, its mode is mainly Palace mode, which is usually played only occasionally in the tunes of interludes. Overtone singing is elegant and simple, and its board style includes slow, medium, fast, loose and other forms of rhythm, such as adagio, guide board, bronze tune, praise words, crying cavity, running water, flying board, tightly beating and slow singing. In addition, there are other forms such as blow cavity and miscellaneous tones, such as dental teeth, doll cavity, a ring of bells, calf calf, Tongguan tune, Yin Feng song, visiting relatives, plum blossom wine, God-God order, children's God order, children's God order, children's God order, and so on.and so on.
The pitch used in overshoot is generally 1 = E or 1 = F. The aria is composed of upper and lower sentences. The upper sentences are mostly on the other tones besides the main tone of the mode, while the lower sentences are generally on the main tone of the mode. Overtone lyrics are mainly composed of seven characters and cross. Its syntactic structure has many forms, such as eye-lifting and eye-dropping, eye-lifting and eye-dropping, etc.
In terms of lyrics, Yue Diao's original traditional opera has a very tight structure, fewer lyrics, more Tao Bai, relatively elegant and profound sentences, and also sings according to certain tunes and tunes. Most modern dramas are based on stories of rap and new repertoires of fiction. They have more lyrics, fewer words, and are easy to understand. Overtone has always been said to have nine eighteen tunes and seventy-two tunes on the singing board. Overtone singing is mainly true voice, supplemented by false voice. As early as in the late Qing Dynasty, the form of "tail-tail" was prevalent, and the singing method of "fake voice eight degrees" was seldom used nowadays. Jing Xing's active vocal area is five degrees higher than other corresponding lines, so most of them sing in a fake voice. Because all the lines of Yue Diao were male actors in the Qing Dynasty, it was easier to adopt the same palace with the same cavity. After the 1920s, with the onstage singing of actresses, the method of coexistence of male and female has gradually been adopted in Yuetong.
The elephant trunk four strings are the main accompaniment instruments in the literary arena. Later, in the early 20th century, they were gradually transformed into short poles. The tuning of the strings also changed. In addition, with the stringed instrument Moon Qin, they constitute the "three major pieces" of the accompaniment in the overtone. In addition, accompanying instruments such as bamboo flute, three strings, suona, Sheng and so on. After the founding of the People's Republic, Erhu, Zhonghu, Zhongruan, Guzheng, Pipa and Cello were added. The accompaniment of Yue Tune is mainly drum board, bracelet, big gong and small gong. It is accompanied by hall drum and bass gong. Later, it gradually adds many kinds of color and effect percussion instruments to make it expressive.
The music of Yue Diao is rich, and it has the saying of "seventy-two hums in nine tunes and eighteen tunes".
Nine chambers: The first five chambers are called one chamber, two chambers, three chambers, four chambers and five chambers, all of which belong to Adagio. Turn from the sixth chamber. But it can also be switched from the second cavity to the third cavity or from the fourth cavity. The sixth cavity is called color cavity. The seventh chamber is called blowing chamber, which belongs to the form of music. The eighth cavity is called Kunqiang. The ninth cavity is called crying cavity, which is faster.
Eighteen tunes: crosshead, random bullet, bronze tune, armor tune, Lama tune, Tongguan tune, pull tune, iron tune, four river tune, fixed bar tune, monkey tune, two reeds tune, Qingxi tune, Luoxi tune, silver thread, dragging tune, frightening tune, rolling white.
Overtone music system has two kinds: Qupai music and Banqiang music.
Qupai music originated from local music such as Ci, Song and Miscellaneous Music of North and South China. There are also stringed music cards, Suonaqu cards and so on.
The slab music includes:
1. Adagio. This is the most representative music system of Yue Diao. There are "Big Adagio", "Yin Four" and "28" boards (such as "Xiaoqiao sitting in the house" in "Zhuge Liang hanging filial piety", "Chungyang chrysanthemum yellow in September", "embroidery screen" in "Falling Print" and "wind and sunny day", "Gao Sicai" (mostly used for black head, flower chamber) and so on. This kind of words are few in tone and three in eyes, expressing feelings of grief, sadness, longing, lament and so on.
2. Running water. This is one of the most widely used in the creation of overshoot music. There are slow running water, , , , , and so on.
3. Classification of bronzes. When using such music, the bronze wares are hit when crossing the door, and there are many crossing doors, so the rap is strong. The upper and lower sentences strike the bronzes once every two sentences. Its derivative tunes are: (10 words per sentence, three-three-four structure, the most famous is that "you should not be ashamed of being four thousand years old", [random bullet] (each sentence is seven words in general, 223 structure, such as "clouds scattered in the sky", "old friends worship loyal souls before the soul", "sunset west mountain to the east, our Yang family to protect the country. Dai Dai Zhong".
4. The stack subclass is also called the accumulation subclass. The main slab type is the stack, and the roof sings. There are few words and many tones, flexible sentences and lining words. Mainly used in narrative, accusation, argument, grief, painful complaint and other plots. "Open mouth board closes eyes", sings to the board to call the roof singing, that is, the stack, sings to the eye is random play. The derivative platforms of the stack category include "Hua Duo Zi" (such as "Tongue Warfare Group of Confucians", "Mo Dao, the Yangtze River is full of storms and storms"), and "Duan Ju Duo Zi Zi" (such as "sitting on a hill" in "Liu Jinding Xia Nantang Dynasty").
5. Scattered board. There are "non-board" (rhythm is free, can be independent), "rolling board" and "inverted board" (is the introduction of a aria, such as "taking the long wind to the east of the Yangtze River to the heavens and surges" in "Tongue Warfare Group Confucianism". Its derivative board style is called "soft inverted board". It is often sung by Danjiao, such as "the wind and fog are dim in the stars" in "Yang Men Nu Jiang", "the big board" and "the shouting board" (mostly singing behind the scenes, such as the prelude "daughters, follow their mothers" in "Chop Yang Jing" and so on.
6. Crying. There is no eye, tight slow singing, free singing.
7. Cross the board. The first sentence does not exist independently. Percussion instruments play like ladders, so they are also called ladders, such as "Pickled melon garden" and "Old man planted melons for the team".
8. Black tone.
9. Touch board, also known as Lama tune. Top singing is mostly used in lyric and duet singing.
10. Touch the stack. It is a combination of touchpad and stack, which is mostly used for lyric and slow emotional expression. For example, "Kong Ming Sacrifice Lamp" is folded in "Qi Shan of Ji Huo".
Zhao Diao in Yue Diao also has some special skills in its performance skills, such as Jia Douwa (pretending to be crisp) playing the role of Da Jing can bleed seven orifices, Fan Shuyun playing Zhou Yu can bite his teeth, Du Tianyun playing Zhao Gongming can produce tusks, Liu Jinzhong playing Li Jun can also change his face.
The role of Yue Diao is complete, including Dahong, Erhong, Wensheng, Wusheng, Dajing, Ermao, Sanhualian, Zhengdan, Huadan, Boudoir Dan, Langdan, Wudan, Lao Dan and more than a dozen, each of which has a distinct personality.
Inheritance and Protection
As a traditional virtual theatrical performing art, Yue Diao also has a great influence in Xiangyang, Nanyang and southern Shaanxi. The traditional drama of this kind highlights the theme of the theatrical thought of punishing evil and promoting good, and demonstrates the educational function of Chinese theatrical art. With its own advantages of theatrical board, musical tune and accompaniment mode, it has created a complete system of theatrical music stylization, which provides important information and clues for the study of the formation and development of folk operas and local operas.
Current situation of inheritance
As of 2009, only two professional performing groups, Henan YueDiao Opera Troupe and Xuchang YueDiao Opera Troupe, were left in Henan Province. They lacked funds, made new plays difficult and left artistic talents behind. The most urgent task is to strengthen the policy support and mobilize all kinds of forces to rescue and protect them. The first task is to rescue and excavate the outstanding artists.
He Quanzhi, male, born in May 1936, was listed in the second batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage projects as the more important successor. He Quanzhi declared in Zhoukou City, Henan Province.
Yuan Xiulian, female, Han nationality, was listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage inheritors, Xuchang City, Henan Province declared.
Mao Ailian, female, born in March 1930, was listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage inheritors, Xuchang City, Henan Province declared.
Ye Xiangcheng, male and Han, was listed in the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage inheritors, declared in Gucheng County, Hubei Province.
In order to support local operas such as Xuchang YueDiao, Xuchang City has designated "stage art for farmers" as one of the "ten livelihood projects". Since 2010, according to the principle of "government purchase, Academy performance, farmers benefit", 400 public welfare performances have been purchased from four professional theatre troupes every year, with a subsidy of 3,000 yuan each, so as to stabilize the troupe at one stroke. The foot relieves the actors'worries.
On February 6, 2013, Xuchang Opera Art Development Center (Xuchang YueDiao Art Protection and Inheritance Center) was set up to devote energy to drama creation and talent training.
On the morning of June 5, 2018, in the Flying Sky Dance Art School of Shuncheng Street, Gucheng County Non-Heritage Conservation Center officially awarded a licence to establish a national non-heritage project "Hubei YueDiao" heritage base.
On March 23, 2018, a seminar on the script of the Vietnamese modern drama Ugly Niang was held at Jinyu Rose Manor in Yanling, Xuchang City.
On April 25, 2018, China YueDiao Network and Henan YueDiao Cultural Communication Co., Ltd. invited Henan Star Master Grand Love Opera Troupe to perform in Beijing. At 2 p.m., the traditional YueDiao opera "JianJiangwei" was performed in the Beijing Shijingshan Cultural Museum Theatre.
On the evening of January 15, 2019, the large-scale revolutionary historical drama "Ji Hongchang" was performed at the Grand Theatre of Henan Art Center in Zhengzhou.
On the afternoon of March 17, 2019, the non-hereditary performance of provincial and municipal operas in the Great Canal Cultural Belt organized by China Opera Academy opened at Meilanfang Grand Theater in Beijing. Wang Fuchun, a non-hereditary heir of Henan Province's cross-tone project selected by the YueDiao Opera Troupe of She Qi County, won the live view of "Seeing the Emperor's Aunt" in the cross-tone performance of "Qin Xianglian". Warm applause and applause from the public and experts.