End drum cavity
Weishan Lake Drum Tune, also known as Duangong Tune, is a traditional folk art of the Han nationality originating in Weishan County and Dongping County of Shandong Province along the lake. The original "end drum tune" accompaniment instrument is several sheepskin drums, the monotonous sound can not set off the atmosphere. "Weishan Lake Drum Tune" is an important material for the study of ancient Han folk music because of its numerous repertoires, rich music cards and beautiful melody. The first batch of provincial intangible cultural heritage and the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage in Shandong Province are listed.
"Weishan Lake Drum Tune" (Duangong Tune) originated in the area along the Weishan Lake in Weishan County, Shandong Province. Its origin has not been accurately recorded in historical documents, but experts speculate that it can be traced back to the ancient "Nuo villagers". It is the ritual and custom of fishermen in Weishan Lake to pray and sacrifice in social production and life, to retrospect history, to bless their birthday and to celebrate a bumper harvest. In the long process of inheritance and evolution, "Duan Gu Tune" has gradually formed a unified melody, a unified form of dance expression and a unified content of singing, which has promoted this rough and bold traditional singing art of the Han nationality with unique characteristics of water townships to maturity.
Forms of expression
Duan Gu Tune (Duan Gong Tune) is an important material for the study of ancient Han folk music because of its numerous repertoires, abundant music cards and beautiful melody.
"Duan Gu Tune (Duan Gong Tune)" is mostly sung when the meeting is set up. Almost every month in a year, there are lantern festivals in the first month of the lunar calendar, land festival in February, Notre Dame in March, Taishan Congress in April, Taiping Congress in May, Leizu and Mawang Congregation in June, Peace Prayer in August, Great King's Congress in September, Winter Closure of Lake in December, Shipbuilding and so on.
"Duangong Cavity" is divided into four sections, each section has different manifestations. Its procedure is to open the altar, display drums, worship the altar and invite God. "Duangu Tune" is a solemn, pious and prayer-like singing. The performance includes talking, singing, sitting and dancing, singing in groups, leading the crowd, singing in groups, singing in groups, singing in groups, singing in groups, singing in groups, singing in groups, singing in rhythm and rhyme in exquisite and varied ways, with beautiful tunes, warm, light and unique steps, such as "two dragons out of water", "wearing flowers", "round field", "walking lamp" and "walking in eight characters". The content of the singing depends on the purpose of setting up the altar.
The lyrics of Duan Gu Tune (Duan Gong Tune) are rich in content. They can sing festive and harvest scenes in an old and innovative way. In modern performances, no matter which performance should be performed first, we should sing "Ten Thanks" and "Long Live the Communist Party", "Two Thanks for the prosperity and wealth of the Chinese nation", "Three Thanks for the Dragon Bed of the North Prince", "Four Thanks for Money" and "Heart Disciples" to burn incense; Five Thanks for doing good and five mountains; Six Thanks, Six, Six, Six, Six, Six, Six, Six, Six, Six, Six Thanks, Taishan Royal Grandma (Empero ) Ten thanks to all the gods in the case. In Weishan Lake, the lotus flower, the eucalyptus, the carp, the lake grass, the fishing boat and so on all compiled the lyrics, such as "the lotus flower blossoms one leg, the fruit blossoms with a pursed mouth", "the carp and the silver carp live together with their mother", "the white rice shrimp flees in the waves, the bamboo knot (shrimp) grass shrimp along the grass tip" and so on.
The local style of Duan Gu Tune (Duan Gong Tune) is strong, and its singing characteristics are very prominent. The structure of the aria is based on the repeated body of the board cavity, and the mode structure of the transformation of "palace" and "symbol" of the five-tone scale. The lyrics are mostly ten-or seven-tone poems and praises. There are plenty of music cards and performances. The whole performance includes Han folk music, folk dance, paper-cut, painting and other artistic forms. It is a unique comprehensive art. According to the characteristics of different characters in the play, they are divided into different roles such as Sheng, Dan, Jing and Ugly, and the emotions of singing are divided into different emotions such as joy, anger, fear, thinking, worry, sadness and sadness.
The original accompaniment instrument of "Duan Gu Tune" (Duan Gong Tune) is several sheepskin drums, whose monotonous voice can not set off the atmosphere. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the orchestra has been improved, including dulcimer, sheng, erhu, flute, pipa, three-stringed and Zhongruan instruments. Especially, Gaohu is used as the main chord, with 3 to 7 fixed strings. Its voice is clear and crisp, and it has the flavor of Shuixiang. The only accompaniment instrument of "end drum chamber" is a single sheepskin drum with several facets, such as a band fan. The drum handle is about 10 centimeters long, and the end of the drum has an iron ring about 10 centimeters in diameter. There are nine small iron rings in the ring, called "nine links" or "three links and nine buckles". In accompaniment, the left hand holds the drum in hand, while the right hand strikes the drum surface with a bamboo drum stick. The iron rings at the bottom of the drum will make a pleasant sound as different drum points shake.
"Duangu Tune (Duangong Tune)" has a large number of performances, which can be divided into three categories: one is small passages, such as "Little Barren Lounge"; the other is medium-length stories with strong folklore, such as "Liu Wenlong Catching Examinations", "Zhang Lang Hurrying up His Wife"; the third is legendary fairy stories, such as: 10 fairy books "Wei Zheng Meng Chopped Little White Dragon", "Five Ghosts Make Royal Palace" and "Tang Dynasty Day and Night Dynasty". Wishing in the Royal Palace, Yuan Tiangu Chang'an Selling Diagrams, Lao Wei Zheng Rejecting Imperial Imprisonment, Nine Wei Officials Seeing Tang Wang at the Age of Nine, Nine Langs Inviting God for His Father, Dragon Palace Borrowing Horse Anchor, Nine Wei Officials Skillfully Getting Divine Whips, Tang Xuanzang's Western Heaven Drawing Sutras Sutra.
Inheritance and protection
Duan Gu Tune embodies the talent and wisdom of the people in Weishan Lake area, runs through the historical process of Weishan Lake area, retains the Han folk art and folk customs in the lake area which are on the verge of being lost, has precious historical and cultural value and rich cultural heritage, and is a unique regional culture and folk culture.
Duan Gu Tune is a comprehensive art, which is mainly composed of rap and singing, mixed with Han folk music, folk dance, martial arts, acrobatics, painting, paper-cut and other forms of expression. The whole performance is full of rich ancient flavor and has important cultural and artistic value. It carries many important cultural information and original memories of the lake area, and retains the people of the lake area who are on the verge of losing their heritage. Inter-artistic and folk customs are the witness of the history and culture of Weishan Lake area. Meanwhile, the culture of Weishan Lake area is a part of the canal culture, which is of great significance to the study of the development and change of the lake area and the promotion of the canal culture.
Duan Gu Opera can not only entertain, but also educate people. Through Duan Gongqiang stories, people no longer use righteousness and emotion, but treat people more kindly, and the folkways become more simple and civilized.
On December 30, 2006, Weishan Lake Drum Cavity was approved by Shandong Provincial People's Government as the first batch of provincial intangible cultural heritage. Project Number: 6-9, Approval Number: Lu Zhengfa (2006), No. 149, Project Name: Duangqiang, Project Category: Quyi, Applicant: Weishan County, Dongping County, Shandong Province. The play was inherited by Yang family of Aihu Village, Zhaoyang Street, Weishan County, for six generations. It is in the process of applying for the national heritage. In order to inherit and protect the important intangible cultural heritage of Duangong Opera in Weishan County, Shandong Province, Duangong Opera Troupe was set up in Aihu Village, Zhaoyang Street, in 2007.
Weishan Lake Drum Tune (Duangong Tune) originated in the Tang Dynasty. There are different legends among fishermen in Weishan Lake. One of them is that Li Shimin fought with Geshiwen of Liao before he came to power. In order to win the battle, Li Shimin made three wishes. The first wish was to send Tang monks to the Western Heaven for sutra. The second wish was to send defeated businessman Liu Quan to Yan Wang to enter melon (a very valuable article); the third wish was to honor the gods and gods. God of earth. After making these three wishes, he defeated Geshiwen and won the victory. He returned to Chang'an, Xijing, and sat in the Golden Ruan Hall. After Li Shimin became emperor, he forgot what he had promised. Three years later, the God specializing in vow searching found that Li Shimin, the king of Tang Dynasty, was not honest, but Li Shimin was the real dragon emperor, so he could not help him, so he punished him through his favorite empress in the West Palace and so on. When Li Shimin saw that he would be punished for his lack of faith and morality, he decided to set up a tent to sing and perform, and offered sacrifices to the gods. Li Shimin, king of Tang Dynasty, compiled his own stories into lyrics, which were compiled and created by Yang Long, a folk artist at that time. With the development of later generations, the repertoire is constantly enriched, which is for Duangong Tune. The opera has more than 300 repertoires, and the lyrics and songs are sung for three consecutive days and three nights without repetition.
The second is: Tang King Li Shimin made three wishes in order to treat Li Niang in the Western Palace. The third one was "respecting heaven and earth". After Li Niang's recovery, Li Shimin made lanterns in the Jinluanbao Palace, made canopy wishes for four days and four nights, and killed pigs and sheep to invite "God Man" to sing opera. It is said that these "gods and men" are inviting the past from the Weishan area, and the tune they sing has evolved into the present drum tune. Another version of the legend is that after the death of Tang King Li Shimin, in order to give him excessive soul, later generations set up a high shed, set up incense cases, put up a big sacrifice, and sang after the altar the tone of "Duan Gu Tune". At that time, the "Duan Gong" for his excessive soul was Yang Long, Huafeng, Shen Sihai, Hu Qing and Hu Lan five ancestors.