Empress Dowager Ci Xi

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Empress Dowager Ci Xi

Ci Xi (November 29, 1835 - November 15, 1908) is the queen of Xiao Qin chin. Yehiel Bernard La Shi, Xianfeng Emperor Concubines, Tongzhi Emperor The birth mother. Important in late Qing Dynasty Politics Characters Qing Dynasty Late actual rulers.

Entering the palace in 1852, Lan Guiren was given the number (the Qing Dynasty manuscript records the elegant noble), and the next year, Jin Feng Yi pin; in 1856, the emperor's eldest son was born. Aixinjueluo Joy (Tong Zhidi), Jin Feng Yi Fei, the next year Jin Feng Yi princess; 1861 Xianfeng Emperor After the collapse, he was honored with the two palace of Xiao Zhen, the queen empress dowager Ci Xi. Empress Dowager (namely filial piety) Prince Gong yixin Launch The unofficial coup of Xin Punish Minister of life eight ministers To seize power and form a pattern of "two palace curtains and Princes". The Qing government temporarily entered a period of calm. dynastic revival in the Tongzhi period In 1873, the two palace empress dowager curtains returned to politics.

1875 Tongzhi Emperor Break away and choose one's nephew Aixinjueluo Joy Following the Xianfeng Datong, the year number. Guangxu reign period The two palace is once again Said of an empress 1881 Empress Dowager The death of Ci Xi was launched in 1884. Jia Shen Yi Shu "Recall the prince of Kung Fu and begin to have the power to do so alone; in 1889, he returned to politics in Guangxu. Summer Palace In 1898, Reform movement in 1898 After the Central Party's plot to kill the surrounding garden, Ci Xi launched. The reform movement of 1898 Prisoner guangxu emperor Chopping Six Gentlemen in 1898 Training again; 1900 The change of Geng Zi After implementation New policies in late Qing Dynasty The reform of military business law is carried out.

In 1908, guangxu emperor Ci Xi chose to be three years old. Pu Yi As the new emperor, today is the queen empress dowager, the next day at 17 o'clock (not exactly three minutes). Hall of instrument and Luan Died, buried in Bodhisattva Valley East Tomb

Paul Mauriat's History

Xianfeng Period

Xianfeng February 11th (February 1852, seventeen years old), ye He Na LA's selected entries into the palace, giving Lan Guiren the number two.

Xianfeng in February 2nd four (1854, nineteen years old), Jin Feng Yi pin.

Xianfeng in six (1856) March, gave birth to Xianfeng emperor's only prince Zai Chun (that is, Tongzhi emperor), Jin Feng Yi Fei.

Xianfeng was in the beginning of the seven year (1857, twenty-two years old).

Xianfeng emperor was weak and ill, and at that time there were great invasion of Beijing in the northern and southern part of Qing Dynasty, and the peasant movement in the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom against the Qing Dynasty. The imperial concubine worked in calligraphy, so Xianfeng emperor often dictated and allowed him to read the memorials in writing, and allowed the emperor to express their opinions, so the ministers were more dissatisfied with Yeh Na la.

Tongzhi period

In 1860, before the invasion of Beijing by British and French armies, ye Hal Na ran to the Rehe river with Xianfeng emperor.

In August 1861, Xianfeng died in the Rehe river. Carrier Prince Zheng Hua Hua , King's birthday Co sponsored the bachelor's degree book Shun Shun , Mu Yin , Kuang yuan , Du Han , Jiao You Ying Eight appointments Wang Dachen, chief executive of the government To assist emperor Tongchun to deal with the state affairs, and to seal the two seals representing the imperial power to the empress and the crown prince.

After the death of emperor Xianfeng, the prince Chun Chun Ascend the throne, set the year number. Qixiang " Ye - Na La and queen Niohuru (then the queen of the central palace) and the queen mother. Minister of life eight ministers Ci Xi, who tried to monopolizing power and had a strong desire for power, was very unhappy. Prince Gong Yi Xin, using emperor Hou and Xianfeng Emperor Catalpa Palace Opportunity to return to Beijing The unofficial coup of Xin The design arrested eight ministers, sentenced Yi prince to carry out the imperial examinations, and the king of Zheng took the lead in China, and decided to complete the resolution. Yi Xin was called king of politics.

In December 2, 1861, change the year number. Tongzhi "The two palace empress dowager hall, listening to politics. In the early days of her administration, under the assistance of Wang Yixin, she reorganized the rule of officials and relied on the Han ministers. Zeng Guofan , Zuo Zong Tang , Li Hongzhang Armed with the Han landlords, and with the support of the great powers, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was repressed successively. Nian Army Miao min, Hui people Uprising It alleviated the rule crisis of Qing Dynasty and made the Qing Dynasty temporarily stable. In order to maintain feudal autocracy, she reused it. Westernization school To develop with the principle of "self strengthening" and "seeking wealth"

Some military and civilian industries train Navy and army to strengthen the strength of the regime. Objectively, it played a positive role in the modernization of China. During this period, the domestic uprising was put down, two times. Opium War Temporarily satisfied the greed of the great powers, and did not suffer a great deal in diplomacy. Westernization Movement The post Qing Dynasty's military strength has been improved, and the industry and Commerce have developed preliminarily. dynastic revival in the Tongzhi period "

Tongzhi eleven years (1872), Chun Chun has been 17 years old, Ci Xi must be selected for him, the following year, Two empress dowager Curtains return to politics. But after Tongzhi emperor's family affairs, it is still difficult to get rid of Ci Xi's intervention. Ci Xi, for pleasure, encouraged the restoration of Tongzhi emperor. Old Summer Palace For the sake of their residence, Tongzhi emperor also wanted to take advantage of this opportunity to let the Empress Dowager live in order to get rid of Ci Xi's intervention in the affairs of the state. However, at that time, the finance was in short supply, the Old Summer Palace was severely damaged, and the repair cost was enormous. Ci Xi came forward to stop the decision of Tongzhi emperor.

Guangxu period

In January 1875, Tongzhi died. Ci Xi set up her nephew (husband's nephew) and nephew's 4 year old Aixinjueluo Joy as emperor. Guangxu reign period The Empress Dowager of the two palace is once again listening to politics.

From 1865 to 1870, Central Asia Khanate of Kokand Aggressor Yaqub Beg Invasion and theft of most parts of Xinjiang; in 1871, Russia Capture troops Ili Area. In 1875, Ci Xi adopted the proposal of Zuo Zongtang, governor of Shanxi Gansu, to send troops to Xinjiang. The Qing army recovered Xinjiang in January 1878. In 1881, China and Russia resumed most of Yili by negotiation.

In April 8, 1881, the queen mother of Chai collapsed and died at the age of 45. The official comment was that he had suffered from cerebral hemorrhage. The folk history was considered to be Ci Xi's injury.

From 1883 to 1885, Sino French war When the outbreak broke out, the two sides had victory or defeat in military affairs, but the Qing government headed by Ci Xi advocated "winning by winning". Sino French New Testament France has also gained a lot of aggressive interests.

In April 8, 1884, Ci Xi launched Jia Shen Yi Shu The change of the situation will be led by the Secretary of the warlord department, headed by Wang Yixin, and the dictatorship of Nishinomiya.

In February 1889, Guangxu was married, and in the name of Emperor Guangxu, Ci Xi was trained for several years. After the end of the training administration, all the personnel administration in the court still has its own hand. "On (Guang Xudi), when the Supreme Court is in office, the court will be invited to do so."

In 1894, Prince Chun Sixty days of Ci Xi's life Summer Palace Congratulate, imitate Kangxi , Qianlong In the course of the year, there was a celebration of the altar through the altar. Norway Navy funds, repair the Summer Palace, layout points, widely contributed.

It is year, coincides with the launch of Japan. Sino-Japanese Jiawu War Guangxu's main battle is Ci Xi's main battle, and there is no sign of weakness. However, when someone proposed to stop the the Summer Palace project, stop the scenic spots and move to the military expenses, Ci Xi burst into a rage, and said, "today I do not want to be happy, I will make him unhappy for life". Later, the Qing army failed in succession on the Korean battlefield. Beiyang Fleet In the battle of the Yellow Sea, it suffered serious setbacks. In order not to affect his sixty day celebration, Ci Xi hoped that foreign countries would intervene and end the war as soon as possible. She supported Li Hongzhang's policy of avoiding war and seeking peace, and against all kinds of pretexts against the main war faction headed by Guangxu.

Because of the increasingly tense situation, faced with the pressure of the ups and down, she could no longer act willfully and ostentatiously, so she had to change her original plan and reduce the scale of her birthday celebration. stay The Golden State , Dalian Fall down one after another. Lushun Ci Xi was in the Forbidden City. Ning Longevity Palace She passed her 60 birthday.

In February 7th of next year, Weihai Wei Japanese ship and battery attack Liu Gong Island The Beiyang navy was completely annihilated. The two battlefields of China and the sea were defeated, and the main peace led by Ci Xi was determined to seek peace with Japan. In March, empress sent Li Hongzhang as the Minister of power and went to Japan to beg for peace. In April 17th, it signed an unprecedented humiliating treaty in Chinese history. Treaty of Shimonoseki China abandons the DPRK Suzerain Status, indemnity 2 billion silver, cut off Liaodong Peninsula (after the intervention of the Western powers such as Russia, Germany, France and so on, it was redeemed by 3000 thousand silver). Taiwan , Penghu Archipelago Open 4. Treaty ports It allows Japan to open factories and mines at trading ports.

After the defeat of the Sino Japanese War, the great powers set off China's frenzy. In order to save the nation from extinction, Bourgeois reformists Launch Reform and Reform Shi Shi Reform movement in 1898 For the reform, Ci Xi hoped for a strong country but worried that Guangxu would break away from her control by means of reform, and initially expressed support. However, she subsequently seized military power and human rights in her own hands.

1898 6 release of emperor " Ming Ding Guo is Imperial edict (that is, Ming Dynasty is imperial edict). The reform of Guangxu emperor touched the interests of Manchuria's old power nobility and many feudal bureaucrats. They gathered together to oppose the reform. When we heard that Emperor Guangxu tried to make high Qing official Dispatch troops After garden killing Kill Rong Lu At that time, Ci Xi and others launched the 1898 coup, detained Emperor Guangxu and died. Tan Si Tong Wait for six people.

Training in late years

After the 1898 coup, northern China rose. Boxer Movement Ci Xi initially suppressed, but failed repeatedly. Boxers Rapid development and entry into Beijing. Ci Xi wants to suppress and use it and treat it differently. Boxers However, the great powers demanded that the Qing government completely destroy the boxers and, without regard to the opposition of the Qing government, insisted on sending troops to Beijing. Ci Xi was always dissatisfied with foreigners, so he produced the idea of using the boxers to fight against the great powers and declared war on the great powers (not to declare the war edicts). Ci Xi's decision was met. Liu Kun Yi , Zhang Zhidong When the local governors objected, they jointly played the Qing court, urged to destroy the boxers, and signed treaties with the powers to implement " Southeast mutual insurance " On the one hand, Ci Xi asked the provincial generals and governors to conscientiously lay down matters of war and continue to use the boxers to attack the embassies and fight against the eight nation allied forces. On the other hand, she sent Rong Lu to the embassy to condolence to foreign envoys, and separately sent the heads of state to Russia, Britain, Japan, Germany, the United States and France. Viceroy of Liangguang Li Hongzhang transferred The Viceroy of Zhili He is also the Minister of Beiyang, ready to negotiate with the great powers. However, the eight nation allied forces did not stop attacking.

In August 14, 1900, Eight-Nation Alliance Attack Beijing; attack the Forbidden City in the early hours of next morning. Donghua gate Ci Xi fled with Emperor Guangxu and empress. Xi'an Order YIH Li Hongzhang, as the Minister of power, negotiated with the great powers and pushed the responsibility of war to the boxers and ordered the "boxers" to be eliminated. In February 14, 1901, it approved the "negotiation outline" and issued the instructions, which indicated that we should "measure China's material resources and make the country happy." In September 7th, it signed the 11 imperialist countries. Boxer Protocol "According to the number of China's population at that time, 4.5 billion silver dollars were repaid, and 9.8 billion silver coins were repaid in 39 years. Dagu All the fort along Beijing. In October 6th of the same year, Ci Xi sent tens of thousands of people with 3000 luggage cars, leaving Xi'an from Tongguan and passing through Henan and Zhili, and then returned to Beijing in January 8, 1902 on March.

In order to maintain her rule and change her old and incapable image, Ci Xi's empress dowager is " Xi Shou "New policies" were announced during the period to carry out economic, military, educational and bureaucratic reforms.

In 1904, it broke out. Russo Japanese War It was in the northeast of China that the Qing government, headed by Ci Xi, declared neutrality. The result of the war was Japan's victory over Russia. People in China are generally aware of this. constitutional monarchy Be better than Autocratic monarchy The Qing government was asked to proceed. constitutionalism Reform; at the same time, the domestic revolution movement is also increasing. In order to maintain his rule, Ci Xi made a constitutional gesture. 1905 school Five ministers go abroad The investigation was announced in 1906. Preparatory Constitutionalism Promulgated in 1908. Constitution of Qin Dynasty The content is modeled on the constitution of Germany and Japan, so as to safeguard the emperor's "sovereign power".

In 1908, thanks to Ci Xi's photo diplomacy, the president of the United States Theodore I Sign the bill and return it. Boxer Indemnity About ten million US dollars, mainly for supporting Chinese officials and students studying in the United States. Belgium , Italy Holland and other countries have successively. The total number of "overflows" of the G7 refunded by the seven countries is about three hundred and twenty million of the customs, which is quite effective for the establishment of education and should be affirmed.

In November 14, 1908, Emperor Guangxu broke down, and the emperor of the great empire had no offspring. After her death, he was king regent, and his son Pu Yi was Emperor. Xuan Tong Ci Xi was honored as empress dowager.

At 17 o'clock in November 15, 1908 (not exactly three minutes), he died at the age of seventy-four at Zhongnanhai. Ci Xi's last testament said: "after that, women can not expect national politics. This is contrary to the law of the DPRK and must be severely restricted. We must strictly guard against the right of eunuchs. The end of the Ming Dynasty can be a lesson for Yin! "

The first year of Xuan Tong (1909), in October, was buried in the eastern tombs of Putuo Valley, Zunhua, Hebei. Emblem "Ci Xi, you are a good friend of the emperor. Posthumous title "Filial piety and Empress Dowager", "you can see the queen," the short title is 22 words. The posthumous title is longer than the queen of the Qing Dynasty, the two empress dowager, Motoasa Takawai, and filial piety.

Bedroom

· Tai Na:

Xianfeng two years (1852), early May, nine entered the palace. Chu court Jing Jing Li And in this life, Emperor Tongzhi.

From 1861 to 1884, Changchun Palace Sometimes Hall of nourishing heart Hall of the West Hall Yan Xi Tang Live.

Rehousing from 1884 to 1894 Chu court And save the palace. Yikun Palace Get through.

From 1894 to August 14, 1900, Ning Longevity Palace Le Sheng Tang, West warming Pavilion is the bedroom.

· Gardens:

From 1852 to 1860, with Xianfeng emperor living in Old Summer Palace, the bedroom was a spring of heaven and earth (destroyed by British and French coalition forces).

From 1860 to 1861, The Imperial Mountain Summer Resort Hall of smoke and waves West warming Pavilion

Since 1888, it has been living in the Summer Palace every summer, and it has been living in the summer palace in Xiyuan or in winter in the Summer Palace.

From 1888 to 1900, he lived in Xiyuan. Zhongnanhai Yi Luan Hall (renamed the Hai Yan Tang after the return of the boxer, renamed in the Republic of China. Ju Ren Tang Not yet.)

From 1902 to 1908, he lived in Xiyuan (today's Zhongnanhai). Hall of instrument and Luan (now Huairen Hall )

Folk:

Beijing West Fourth Hutong alley (mother's family)

Ci Xi's Palace (during the journey to the West)

Jiming post city East Court North House East (West of boxer)

Posthumous title

After the death of Ci Xi, the posthumous posthumous title is "Xiao Qin, Ci Xi's end, Youkang, Yi Zhao, Yu Zhuang, Cheng Hsu Kung chin, Xian Chong Xi Tian Xing Sheng Xian empress", the length is the queen of the Qing Dynasty, and also exceeds the two imperial palace of Queen of the Great Qing Dynasty, Xiao De and Xiao Zhen, and at the same time, the number of all emperors of Qing Dynasty after entering the customs.

Political initiatives

Stubborn Center

From 60 to 90s nineteenth Century, a number of central and local officials in the Qing Dynasty advocated learning western modern science and technology, training new armies, buying guns and warships, developing China's military industry and civilian industry, so as to achieve the goal of enriching the country and strengthening the army. Their representatives include Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, Zuo Zongtang and Zhang Zhidong in the central government. Although their reforms did not touch the feudal autocratic political system and social system, they were Die hards It seems that it is "changing the summer with Yi", which violates the ancestors and the sages. Therefore, at the very beginning, Westernization Movement was strongly opposed by the die hards. In the struggle between the westernization and the die hards, Ci Xi was familiar with politics and played a balance strategy. On the one hand, he supported YIH The Westernization Group led by the other side also fostered the die hards in order to contain the Westernization Movement.

In December 1866, Yi sang played the role of building a branch library in the Tong Wen hall, recruiting officers from imperial examinations to study astronomy and mathematics. Bachelor of Science Wo Ren In person, he wrote to Ci Xi and resolutely opposed it. Ci Xi also sent him to the prime minister's office in charge of Westernization. Wu Ren always hated Westernization. In December 1866, he asked him to do the Westernization. He felt it was insulting to himself. Ci Xi refused to return to his fate again and again, making the representative of the die hards very embarrassed. He went to his study to give lectures to Tongzhi, feeling somewhat moved, and unable to help shed tears. Finally, she finally asked her to take care of her illness. With Ci Xi's approval, all his duties are removed.

After the defeat of the Sino Japanese War of 1894, Imperialism The national crisis has been unprecedentedly serious. Under the influence of the reformists, Guangxu is determined to reform. The struggle between reform and anti reform is fierce. In June 11, 1898, Ci Xi told Guangxu: "the day before yesterday's censor" Yang Shen Su Bachelor Xu Zhi Jing The state is uncertain, and the good is right. This is a good example of Western learning and understanding. So, Guangxu was released. Weng-tung-ho Drafted " The state is the imperial edict. "To make western learning and self-improvement become the national policy of the Qing Dynasty. Reform movement And gained the legal status. However, this reform involves the political system of the Qing Dynasty, and the bottom line of Ci Xi's reform is that the ancestral law can not be changed. With the deepening of reform, the differences between Ci Xi and the reformists are growing. In particular, Kang Youwei recommended the imitation first. Mau chin Hall On the one hand, the election of talented people and the invitation of foreign politicians and politicians to discuss the matter together, and to put everything into effect, and then put it into effect, is even more unacceptable to Ci Xi. When Guangxu put forward this request to Ci Xi, "the Empress Dowager did not answer, the look was abnormal." From Ci Xi's expression, Guangxu felt that there had been a crisis in reform. In order to make the reform go on, Kang Youwei and Tan Si equally conspire to plan for Yuan Shikai, who is training at the small station in Tianjin, to build a new army into Beijing, surrounded by the Summer Palace, and force Ci Xi to withdraw from the political stage. Because of the strong force of the die hards, Yuan Shikai is also a bold and slippery coward. He can hardly stand on the side of the reformists. Therefore, the top-down reform failed.

Advocate war and seek peace

Ci Xi's life has gone through 5 wars of imperialist aggression against China from 1840 to 1900. The first Opium War She is still a 5 year old child. The second Opium War She is already an imperial concubine of the Xianfeng emperor. After the Sino French war, the Sino Japanese War of 1894 and the invasion of eight powers, she was the supreme decision-maker of the Qing Dynasty. From Ci Xi's main battle and reconciliation, we can see the change of Ci Xi's relationship with imperialism.

In September 21, 1860, the Qing army was there. The battle of the eight bridges In the defeat, the British and French coalition forces entered Beijing, and Xianfeng decided to escape to the Mountain Resort. When Xianfeng was about to start, Yi Fei concubined to ask Xianfeng to stay in Beijing and continue to resist. To this end, she has angered Xianfeng, almost causing the disaster. Yi and the British and French coalition forces signed " Beijing treaty "Yi imperial concubine felt deeply ashamed and urged Xianfeng to abandon the war again. Because Xianfeng was critically ill, he had to give up.

After the outbreak of Sino French war, the struggle between the main faction and the main faction was fierce. Ci Xi attributed the failure of the Qing army to the misfortune of Yi, and removed all his duties. The other 4 military ministers were also dismissed. However, the dispute between the Qing government and the war did not stop. In August 23, 1884, the French warship launched a surprise attack on the Fujian Navy, and the Fujian navy was completely annihilated. Ci Xi's decree declares war on France and will continue to hold peace talks. Zhang Yin Hong 6 ministers, Minister of yamen, were dismissed. In February 1885, the French army seized. Lang Son Ci Xi turned to the Lord. Zhen Nan Guan Ci Xi lost his confidence in the victory of the war. British Englishman, who authorized the Chinese customs office in London, went to Paris to negotiate with the French Ministry of foreign affairs. Authorized in April 4, 1885 james duncan campbell The Paris armistice agreement was signed with the French government. In June 9th, he authorized Li Hongzhang to be a minister in Tianjin and France to China. Ba de no Sign " Sino French New Testament "

New political reform

Ci Xi led two reforms in his life, the first was Westernization Movement, and the second was the new deal at the end of the Qing Dynasty. The former was a material level change, while the latter was a change at the institutional level.

Carry out Westernization Movement and open up the road of modernization in China.

Westernization Movement is the first large-scale imitation and learning of western industrialization in modern China. It is an improvement movement from the top to the bottom under the premise of safeguarding the feudal royal power. Westernization movement introduced a large number of Western science and technology achievements after eighteenth Century, and translated into a large number of Western literature, trained the first batch of children studying abroad, opened the door to Western learning, studied modern and modern corporate system, and built a large number of industrial and chemical enterprises, opening up the path of China's industrial development and modernization. In the Sino Japanese War of 1895, Beiyang fleet The whole army was destroyed and the westernization movement went bankrupt. The Westernization Movement opened the way for China's modernization.

Carry out the "New Deal" and reform military, commercial, academic, official and law.

In August 29, 1901, there was a nationwide ceasing of the imperial examinations in martial arts; in September 11th, the provinces were ordered to imitate the Beiyang and Liangjiang schools for the establishment of the armed forces; in September 12th, the provinces were ordered to lay down the old army and compile the "standing army". The work of compiling the "new army" is spreading across the country. In December 4, 1903, the military training department was set up to serve as Prime Minister of Yilong, and Yuan Shikai served as the Minister of training. The real power of the training ground is Yuan Shikai's command. The Qing government also set up provinces. Supervision and Training Office To train the "new army" institutions for the provincial leaders.

In September 7, 1903, the Qing government set up a business department to advocate the establishment of business and business by officials and businessmen. Then, a series of industrial and commercial regulations and industrial incentives were promulgated, such as the Qing Dynasty commercial law, the chamber of Commerce regulations, the railway concise regulations, the award of the articles of association of the Chinese companies, the mining regulations, the company's registration statutes, and the trial bank regulations. These statutes provide for the free development of industry, the encouragement of the establishment of industrial and commercial enterprises, and the encouragement of associations of chambers of Commerce. These statutes and practices are conducive to the development of the national industry and Commerce and to the prosperity of the social economy.

For the first time, constitutional monarchy was proposed.

In 1908, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi launched the constitutional monarchy system for the first time in Chinese history, and set out a timetable for 9 years: 1909 for the Provincial Consultative Council election; the 1910 Ziyuan academy opened; in 1917, Congress was held, and constitutional government was implemented. If we follow this timetable step by step, in ten years, China will become a constitutional monarchy like Japan and Britain. The monarch is only a symbol of the state. The legislative power in parliament, executive power in the cabinet, judicial power at all levels of courts, and the dawn of democratic constitutionalism will once again come to China. If Ci Xi's reform is too big and the forces of domestic and foreign forces are forced and subverted, she will die suddenly after the publication of the timetable. The supreme authority is suddenly lost, the Qing government has no head, the provincial governors and soldiers are self-supporting, and the constitutional timetable has been suspended. Maybe today's China is probably not the current political system.

Abolishing imperial examinations, running schools, sending students to study abroad and prohibiting opium.

In September 4, 1901, provincial colleges and universities were changed into large schools, and government offices and Zhili prefecture were converted into secondary schools. In December 5th, the statute of the imperial examination Awards was enacted. Jinshi , Raise people , Gong Sheng And so on.

In February 13, 1902, the school promotion method was announced. Promulgated in August 15th. Constitution of the Imperial Academy "

In January 13, 1904, it promulgated the "reconstitution of school regulations", which stipulated in detail the regulations and management system of schools at all levels. There are also professional education in common with ordinary schools, including normal schools and various industrial schools.

In September 2, 1905, the imperial examination system, which lasted for more than 1300 years in China, was eventually abolished. In October 31, 1902 and October 2, 1906, the Qing government dispatched the general superintendent to Dongyang and Europe.

In October 1903, the Qing government promulgated the "Regulations on the award of study tours for graduates", which stipulates that those who are Chinese students who have graduated from Japan for 5 years in the ordinary secondary schools in Japan shall be awarded the diploma of merit. outstanding young scholars selected for Qing civil service examination in the capital Birth ;

In addition, Ci Xi also used part of the American Geng refund. Tsinghua Yuan build Tsinghua College (now Tsinghua University ) use the rest of the refund to build women's studies, new studies, etc. In addition to the establishment of women's studies, it also advocated abolishing the bad habits of foot binding that lasted for nearly six hundred years, decrees of Manchu Han's intermarriage and prohibition of smoking opium.

"Since Opium ban has been banned, it has been spreading poison several times in China. For decades, the sun is weak, because of this, words can be bitterly resentment. Today, the court is determined to strengthen its strength. It is urgent to warn the Chinese people that they should be aware of the fact that they are not able to remove all kinds of diseases, but that they will be completely eliminated within ten years. How should they strictly prohibit and prohibit poppy planting? " Ci Xi's intention to ban opium

Apart from China, Britain is the most affected by this movement. When the edict was published, Britain transported fifty thousand boxes of opium to China every year. However, Britain immediately agreed that if China really wants to change and is willing to cut output at a rate of ten percent per year, the UK will also reduce exports to China at a rate of ten percent per year. Unfortunately, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi died before the victory of the reform. However, no matter what the result of this reform is, the achievements of Ci Xi's empress dowager can not be obliterated.

Changing China's feudal society's policy of emphasizing agriculture and restraining commerce.

In the late Qing Dynasty, because of changing the policy of emphasizing agriculture and restraining commerce, commodity economy began to develop, and the bourgeoisie began to form and grow. Ci Xi adopted a constitutional monarchy suitable for productivity. Therefore, the feudal society was gradually wiped out in the 8 years of the new empress dowager Ci Xi's new deal, that is to say, the late Qing Dynasty was no longer the feudal society in the traditional sense. Generally speaking, the revolution of 1911 overthrew the feudal dynasty, but in fact it was only the last body of the feudal dynasty. Since the late Qing Dynasty was no longer consistent with the definition of feudal society in economy and politics, Ci Xi's empress dowager has made great contributions to China's economic and political progress from feudal society to capitalist society and from ancient times to modern times. The abolition of the imperial examinations and the establishment of schools, sending people to study abroad, setting up westernization, creating a new situation of reform and opening up, and laying the foundation for China's modernization, can not be overemphasized. In fact, after the revolution of 1911, all kinds of new phenomena are only the continuation of the new policy of Ci Xi.

Reuse Han Chen

Ci Xi's empress dowager is good at using and reusing the Han people. She has Zeng Guofan. Hu Lin Yi Zuo Zongtang, Li Hongzhang, Luo Bing Zhang At that time, a large number of capable people, throughout history, browse the dynasties and generations of famous ministers, they can be divided. Yuan Shikai, who was under her leadership, had indeed been able to turn the emperor back into action. Let such a large number of talented people be willing to accept her command, which shows her ability to employ. In the early years, he helped the Xianfeng emperor to deal with the country, and established the correct political line and ideological line. It created the foundation of Tongguang ZTE. Under the circumstances of internal and external troubles at that time, it was the splendor of China for thousands of years.

Initiation of women's studies

In 1906, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi banned the foot binding order and set the precedent for the liberation of women in China. She asked herself. Yang Naiwu and pakchoi In one case, it was made clear, and the pardon could not afford the death of the cabbage that was tortured and perjury, and severely punished the more than 300 officials of the Zhejiang governor who were involved in the case.

After the Empress Dowager Ci Xi acquiesced, he opened a women's school and taught new learning. He gradually became popular in the coastal cities and towns such as Shanghai and Guangzhou. The act of empress dowager, representing the most representative view of the pioneers who initiated the opening of Chinese women's studies, was generally accepted by the enlightened bureaucrats and gentry. Although it was far from the "equality between men and women" and the complete liberation of women, it remained contrary to the deep-rooted feudal traditional moral concepts of thousands of years, and was strongly defamed and boycotted by the powerful feudal guard. However, the women's learning began to spread like a fire.

International frontiers

Set the national flag

After the Opium War in 1840, with the invasion of the Western powers, the close relationship between the Qing Dynasty and the Western powers increased. In the diplomatic activities with the Western powers, such as negotiations, signing, trading, and sending diplomats, Li Hongzhang saw that the western countries were solemnly hanging the national flag, while China had no flag to hang up. So Ci Xi, who was playing the queen mother, suggested that the flag of the Qing Dynasty should be represented in diplomatic occasions, and that the flag should be issued. Ci Xi ordered Li Hongzhang to design the pattern. After various collection and screening, Li Hongzhang presented a Bagua banner. Huang Long banner The kylin banner and the tiger leopard flag were selected for Ci Xi's empress dowager and finally decided to use Huanglong banner as the flag of the Qing Dynasty. Originally used as a flag of the Northern Navy, and in 1888 (Guangxu 14). Beiyang navy Constitution Promulgated and confirmed as "the flag of the navy". yellow bottom blue Loong play red bead chart "For" Qing Dynasty National flag (commonly known as "Huanglong banner")

The National Anthem

Looking back on history, before the Qing Dynasty, China closed its doors and had few foreign contacts, and there was no national anthem. During the envoy of the Qing Dynasty, the Minister of the Great Britain, Minister Zeng JZE, was deeply moved by the fact that the western countries played the National Anthem in public ceremonial occasions, and felt that the Qing Empire should have its own national anthem. In the thirty-two year of Guangxu (1906), the Army Department of the Great Qing Empire was established, and it made a military song of the army, and was in the official national anthem. Gong Jin'ou Before it left, it became the National Anthem temporarily. Whenever the international anthem is required to play the national anthem, the military song is used instead. Until 1911, the Qing Empire formally formulated the National Anthem "Gong Jin Ou".

National Emblem

The national emblem of the Qing Dynasty is the emblem of Panlong, the symbol of "dragon" and the emblem symbol of the Qing Dynasty, representing the symbol of the Qing Dynasty. It is the first national emblem in Chinese history.

Ding Guo Hua

In 1903, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi set the peony as the national flower.

The 1915 edition of "Ci Hai" contains: "China is a national flower with peony".

Character evaluation

Positive evaluation

In the imperial era of Chinese history, Ci Xi, the empress dowager, is a capable woman who has long been in power. She is skilled in politics, especially in balancing power between relatives and courtiers, so as to maintain her absolute authority. The Qing Dynasty has continued to live for ten years because of her ability.

During the period of Ci Xi's power, the centralization of the Qing government and the threat of China's sovereignty came from internal and foreign threats. From the standpoint of defending the authority of the Qing Empire and its own power, she did not succeed in the measures she made. However, in the historical context, most of them were justified.

In order to cope with the challenge from the Opium War and the oppression of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and other civil resistance forces since the Opium War. Ci Xi used Li Hongzhang, Zhang Zhidong and other Han Han ministers to set up Westernization Movement at the local level, which is the beginning of China's development of modern industry. With the support of the achievements of westernization and self strengthening movement, the Qing government was able to suppress the internal rebellion, maintain the relatively stable situation in China under the imperial system, and build modernized land and naval armaments, creating a "Tongzhi ZTE" atmosphere.

Ci Xi's reform measures are very brilliant. Hundred Days Reform The reform speed is too fast. It is just a farce, and it is impossible to succeed. After a catastrophe in the year of Geng Zi, Ci Xi's empress dowager realized that the current situation had not allowed her to adhere to the tradition of monarchy. The so-called "family law" allowed the Qing court to promote various new policies. The new policy involves many aspects, including the change of official system, the establishment of constitutionalism, the abolition of the imperial examination system, the prohibition of women's foot binding and the establishment of a new system. Female school The new school, the boxer refund education and so on.

Negative evaluation

In terms of personality, Ci Xi's brutal way to win power from court struggles. In 1861, after the death of emperor Xianfeng in the Rehe Mountain Resort, he became the royal family near yehna, the queen mother of the empress dowager, and other royal families. He launched the coup from the royal family, the prince of the royal family, and the prince of Zheng, Duan Hua. He actually seized the power of the eight ministers in the hands of the ministers of the ministers, and killed three of them. Later, in order to establish and maintain her autocratic power, Ci Xi's empress dowager seldom relent to the purge of political enemies. Even the control and control of emperors of the same generation, emperor and Emperor Guangxu are quite high and severe.

From the perspective of China's national sovereignty, the results of Ci Xi's administration also received many negative evaluations, including winning in the French war in 1885. Great victory in Zhen Nan Guan And successfully prevented the French troops from landing in Taiwan, but actively seized and signed the Qing Empire. Annan The sovereign Tianjin Treaty of China and France ends the war. In addition, the Sino Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki signed in 1895, and the 1901 agreement of sinks and ugly, which caused China to lose substantial profits, were caused by the defeat of the Sino Japanese War of 1894 and the catastrophe of 1900. Ci Xi's administration and decision-making were unshirkable in the two events.

Although Ci Xi is very politically competent, his supreme goal is to maintain the rule of Qing Dynasty to China. The above results are not necessarily the result of several wars of humiliation and national humiliation. Among them, the Qing Dynasty and the Sino Japanese War of 1894 were all more favorable to continue the war than to accept the humiliating terms of negotiation. However, the result of the continuation of the war would defeat the chaotic France at that time, or the collapse of Japan at the time of the Sino Japanese War, so that the Chinese nation would have a better result, but it would very likely lose the authority of the central government of the Qing Dynasty because of the protracted war.

Ci Xi, as the supreme power responsible person, refused to abolish the shortsightedness of 300 people and accept humiliation, which reflected the political practice and deteriorated the future of modern China many times. After the boxer incident, China faced the huge indemnity of the indemnity and the peace treaty. Its extravagant wind still had no obvious convergence, which made the financial problems that had already been stretched in late Qing Dynasty worsened and the people's livelihood was destitute.

Overseas evaluation

A few people who met the Empress Dowager described her as a tall, straight and beautiful woman. She has a pair of eagle eyes, with obvious Tatar characteristics. She was noble and arrogant, with unshakable authority and absolute authority in her voice.

-- Eliza Ruhama Sidmore, "China, longevity Empire"

As a Manchu woman, she had little chance of mastering the knowledge of military affairs, but she was totally different from the queen empress who only knew about the red carpet. When dealing with major events, she always calms herself. China's gateway has never been opened to hostile forces. This is unique in the history of China's semi autocratic rule. To find a reason, I think it is only that the ruler has a unique quality and talent.

-- Arthur H Smith's turbulent China

In the past thirty years, the most interesting celebrity in China is undoubtedly the lady we call queen mother. The Empress Dowager is in the forefront of every movement with reform nature during the curtain hanging period. The nature of her rule can only be judged from the nature of this period. Diplomacy failed because of lack of a clear center of will and sense. Its leverage failed to find its fulcrum. So success in China will always depend on military strength. Is it really impossible for a woman like empress dowager to deal with such a woman?

-- Blackwood S magazine

In the reform movement of 1898, Empress Dowager Ci Xi almost killed her life and power, but she also gained a lot from the reform movement. She began to become a support for innovation policy. In fact, she is far superior to her nephew, Emperor Guangxu. "Long live the Empress Dowager!" "The Empress Dowager will ascend the throne in the future!" Throughout her life, people were counting on her to push ahead with her goal of very supportive support. She firmly grasps the power, and her rising country says that the chariots who dare to guide the country onto a new road that has never been traveled. She knew that she could rely on the support of the governor and the governor, who were appointed by herself. She also knew that the spirit of reform had spread throughout the land, and the people would support her from the bottom of their hearts.

-- W. A. P. Martin's "awakening of China"

The first time the Empress Dowager Ci Xi received the seven women from the diplomatic corps was achieved by the efforts and supervision of the Minister of foreign affairs. After the end of the 1900 turmoil, the court returned to Beijing. The Queen Mother's attitude changed greatly. She volunteered many invitations to meet, and we all accepted lunch together. During the private meeting, this great woman will show her wit and feminine charm as the glory and attraction of the hostess. She would take the visitor's hand and ask her in the most concerned tone whether she is tired of entering the palace. She will complain about the cold weather in summer. She will be very anxious as long as the food is not to our taste. She will tell us in a most cordial tone that we can be lucky to see us. She can fascinate all the guests, even though they are prejudiced before, she can take care of every guest, which shows her ability to be a hostess.

- Mrs. Kang Ge (Mrs. Kang Ge, the US ambassador to China), "letter from China"

personal works

After the middle of the Guangxu period, Ci Xi wrote his flowers and learned to make big words. Ci Xi's painting and calligraphy foundation is not very good, but he is talented and intelligent. After a period of practice and exploration, he has made great progress. Miao Jia Hui After the introduction of famous artists into the palace, calligraphy and painting went on level. Miu Jiahui, a famous painter, is undoubtedly a significant thing in Ci Xi's painting and calligraphy career.

Kinship members

Family background

Grandfather: Echnara Kingri

Father: Echnara Whi

Husband: Aixinjueluo T (Xian Fengdi)

Son: Aixinjueluo Joy (Tongzhi DI)

Brothers and sisters

Younger sister: Echnara Dy Prince of alcohol YIH Blessing on the throne Guangxu emperor's birth mother.

Big brother: Echnara Bea (Buddha leather)

Second younger brother: Ye HNA La GUI Xiang (Buddha bless)

Third brother: Echnara For (Buddha)

Nephew

Foster daughter: Princess Rong Shou Gu Lun Prince of peace yixin Eldest daughter.

Princess Rongan Xianfeng's only daughter, mother. Imperial concubine He La La (that is, imperial concubine).

Nephew and nephew (Guangzi): Emperor Guangxu (Aixinjueluo Joy)

Niece and daughter-in-law: Queen of filial piety (Echnara Janifen)

Anecdotes

Mystery of names

Folklore or film and television works are commonly referred to as empress dowager Ci Xi as orchid or Magnolia. It may be because Ci Xi's first title was "Lan Ge Ren" after entering the palace. Many novels took notes that "Lan Er" was her baby name, but in fact it was not. According to the descendants of the Ci Xi family Echnara Gesi It is said that Ci Xi's baby name is actually called "almond Gu". "Gu" is the usual term for manhood to the underage women, and the name of "apricot" is because there are several white apricot trees in the courtyard of the family at that time. Therefore, Ci Xi's grandfather named her "Xing Zhen", the nickname "apricot", and took the meaning of "loyalty". As for Xianfeng emperor's first apricot girl, Rendes-Vous It was probably because Xianfeng liked the magnolia flower most, so she gave her such a title to express her admiration for Xing Zhen.

Old Buddha

Statement 1: in the early years of Guangxu, Ci Xi was just 40 years old. She used all kinds of means to reach the goal of two degrees. But she was afraid that some people in the court were against it, and they were unhappy all day. Eunuch eunuch Li Lian Ying To guess the true mind is to create a Buddha behind the main hall of Wanshou temple.

After completion, Li Lianying quickly told Ci Xi, "heard of longevity temple." Main hall Often there are two Buddha lights, which is a sign of great luck. The minions want to ask the Empress Dowager to come to see it. Ci Xi listened with great surprise and drove out of the palace. Out Xizhimen Down the high Liang bridge, sit on the emperor's boat, along the long river until Wanshou Temple (now Beijing Museum of Art ) Ci Xi went to the pier, entered the mountain gate, and headed straight to the main hall. When he came into the hall, he saw that he was still the original Buddha of the third world, and he was not angry. At that time, the minions were deceiving the master to kill their heads, but Li Lianying had a good idea. He said hurriedly, "the queen mother is angry, please come back to the hall."

Empress Dowager Ci Xi slowly turned to Trikalea Buddhas After that, he saw a beautiful eyebrow in the central hall of the temple, the abbot of the temple, and the Minister of culture and martial arts of Ci Xi. At this time, Li Lianying shouted, " The Buddha Here. " Others immediately knelt and shouted, "greet Lord Buddha!" Ci Xi understood half of it, but she asked, "what old Buddha is your greeting?" Li Lianying replied, "to welcome the queen mother, your old Buddha!" "You are the Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva today." "Now the emperor is very proud, the new emperor is still young, the country can not be a day without a lord, and the subjects ask you to take care of the politics of the curtain. You can save the common people in water and fire!" Ci Xi's heart was full of words. Since then, the name of Lord Buddha has been passed from Wanshou temple to the capital city, and the whole country has called Ci Xi "the queen mother." Ci Xi also listened to politics in a calm conscience.

It is said that this Guanyin was made by Li Lianying in the shape of Ci Xi. Later, Ci Xi came to Wanshou temple to burn incense and Buddha to pray for life. Because of the appreciation of Guanyin, he also wore the clothes of the goddess of mercy prepared by the temple abbot. Li Lianying disguised himself as a guardian of God, carrying ten hands and a horizontal pestle on his wrist.

Statement two: emperors of all dynasties in China have "temple numbers", "posthumous names" and "Emperors". Honorific title Besides, some emperors also have "special names". For example, the "special name" of the emperor in the Song Dynasty was called "the official family". The "special name" of the Ming Dynasty was called "master", and the "special name" of the emperor in the Qing Dynasty was called "Lord of Buddha". In some historical novels, movies and operas, Empress Dowager Ci Xi is called "Lord Buddha". In fact, the name of "Lord of Buddha" is not exclusive to Ci Xi. All the emperors of the Qing Dynasty were called "Lord Buddha". The reason why the emperors of the Qing Dynasty used "old Buddha" is because the Manchu ancestor, the Nu Zhen leader, was first called "Manchu". "Full column" is the sound of "Manshu", meaning "Buddha" and "auspicious". Later, some prominent families, hereditary leaders, named "full column". After the founding of the people's Republic of China, the "full column" was translated into "Buddha", and it was regarded as the special name of the emperor.

Legend of life

Ci Xi is generally considered to be a blue flag man in Manchuria. the genealogy of the royal house The record is "yemera's daughter." According to Echnara Gesi's oral record, Ci Xi was born in the West Fourth archway of Beijing, Chai Chai and Hutong.

But some scholars have also put forward different views that Ci Xi may be Han Chinese.

In June 1989, Zhao Fawang, a 77 year old villager of the lower Qin village in the outskirts of Changzhi (originally Changzhi county), took the joint letter of he and Shang Song Village, Song Hua Hua, song six, Song Dewen, Song Dewu and others to find the office of Changzhi local records. Zhao Fawang said that Ci Xi was on the Qin village. He is the five generation nephew of Empress Dowager Ci Xi. Song twin flower and song six are Ci Xi's five generation nephew. They asked the government to help clarify the situation. Since then, Liu Qi has embarked on the research road of Ci Xi's childhood. The continuous enrichment of supporting materials has further enhanced Liu Qi's confidence and his writings are quite satisfactory. In April 2012, the fifty year Symposium on the socialist literature and art of the Republic, chaired by the Chinese Academy of Arts of the Ministry of culture, was awarded the first prize by Ci Xi, who wrote the riddle of Ci Xi's childhood. This 7000 character paper concentrates on Ci Xi's life experience.

According to Liu Qi's textual research, in 1835, Ci Xi was born in a poor Han peasant family in Xi Po village, Changzhi County, Shanxi. When she was 4 years old, she was sold to Song Siyuan, a female in the Qin village of the county. When she was renamed "Song Ling e" at the age of 12, she was sold to the prefect of Lu'an Prefecture for her servant, renamed "Yulan" (Lan Er), and was carefully cultivated in the study of yxi garden. Xianfeng two years (1852), with Yehiel Bernard La Hui Zheng The identity of the woman should be elected into the palace and go smoothly until the Empress Dowager.

Celebrate birthday for mother

At the seventy birthday of Ci Xi's mother, Ci Xi had no time to celebrate his mother's birthday, so that the courier sent a lot of things to her mother, including a calligraphy written by her own. This calligraphy has been preserved for generations and was destroyed in the cultural revolution.

The poem says: "father and mother love is the most true in the world. Tears and blood melt into children. Exhausted heart is the son, pity the parents heart! "

Love jewelry

In the Qing Dynasty, there were countless gold and silver jewelry in the Empress Dowager Ci Xi. Jade watermelon The palm of Ci Xi's empress dowager. According to legend, after Ci Xi's death, two emerald watermelons were buried in Ci Xi's tomb in 1928. Sun Dian Ying After digging the Dongling, these two "watermelons" disappeared.

Most of the queen Ci Xi's purchase of American tourmaline was carried out through the world-famous Tiffany company. Most of the tourmaline jewels were identified by J L L. The special two color combination of jadeite watermelon was only available in Santiago at that time. So there is no doubt that the queen Ci Xi's jade watermelon comes from Santiago, the United States. The California is located in the great mesa plain of the United States, and is known for its late nineteenth Century. From the end of nineteenth Century to the beginning of twentieth Century, most of the tourmaline extracted from the Al bar mine had been exported to China for the court of Queen Ci Xi. With the Manchu Dynasty in 1911 Revolution of 1911 The overthrow of the Dynasty and the extravagant life of the dynasty came to an end. As a result, the tourmaline products of the "El" ore industry were shut down because of the unsuccessful sales in the Chinese market. It was not until December 2012 that the mine was redeveloped.

Listen to gramophone

In 1904, the 70 birthday of Empress Dowager Ci Xi, many officials tried every means to present gifts, including a cabinet. Phonograph Ci Xi's appreciation is the world's earliest cabinet gramophone (sample machine) produced by Victor.

Ci Xi's life in the late days of the Empress Dowager was prosperous, and her life style was ahead of schedule. There are many pictures, electric lights, foreign cars and cabinet gramophones. The world's earliest cabinet gramophone is placed in her bedroom, and it often comes with melodious melodies, which contain Chinese ditty and waltz.

In 1904, Victor designed and produced a batch of rare samples of the locker, and this cabinet phonograph was lucky to be the 70 birthday gift of Empress Dowager Ci Xi in 1904.

Liang Cheng From 1903 to early 1908, the Qing government sent the United States, Peru, Cuba and other countries to the United States, the Qing Dynasty and other countries. Liang Cheng, a native of Guangzhou, was educated in western culture in his early years and was deeply influenced by western culture. He liked the phonograph very much. During the United States, a lot of events were done for the country.

In 1904, Victor launched samples of the first batch of gramophone gramophones. Because there were no commercial machines, there were only some senior government officials in the United States who had the chance to use such high-end phonograph. When American officials gave the gramophone to Liang Cheng, Liang Cheng gave the gramophone to Ci Xi, the elder Buddha, as the 70 birthday gift of Ci Xi's empress dowager.

Elizabeth, Queen of England Once said, "Ci Xi is much better than me. I am just a person who is neither great nor small." In 1904, Ci Xi empress dowager who once regarded foreigners as a beast of prey was fascinated by Western circus, Waltz and photography. During this period, the maiden often heard the melodious Waltz coming from Ci Xi's bedroom, which was the voice of her huge foreign phonograph. On one occasion, when Ci Xi was at lunch, she also asked for the two Waltz of the German age and her age. When they finished dancing, Ci Xi said happily, this is a beautiful dance. Don't you feel dizzy when you circle the circle again and again?

According to Dusk of Forbidden City "Ci Xi's empress dowager said to us," you dance while I'm eating. " We turned over the entire music score to find a waltz, which was suitable for our music while most of the others were Chinese ditty.

Execute reporters

" Sino-Russian Secret Treaty After the contents were made public, there was an uproar in public opinion at home and abroad. The people of the whole nation were angry and reprimanded the Qing government for their betrayal of the country, which further promoted the further development of the revolutionary movement throughout the country, and the Qing government fell into a very embarrassing situation. Under the pressure of strong public opinion at home and abroad, the Qing government had to give up the plan to sign the secret agreement between China and Russia.

The Empress Dowager of Ci Xi is extremely cruel and underground. Shen Yang "Cut the battle". Later, because fear of execution would affect the birthday celebration of Ci Xi's empress dowager, Ci Xi's empress dowager issued the theme: "that is, the death rod of Hitachi."

In July 31, 1903 (eight in the early June of the lunar calendar), 8 jailer in the hall of the Ministry of justice held a special wooden stick to prepare for execution. Shen said to the jailer, "hurry up!" Thus, 8 jailor beat and beat Shen's limbs and back for 4 hours. Shen was beaten by blood and flesh. "Bone is like a powder". Its shape is horrible. But Shen Shen has never heard a word from beginning to end. At that time, he thought that Shen was dead and ordered to stop beating. I don't want Shen to say in a faint voice, "hurry... Rope... " Seeing Shen Shen was not dead yet, he ordered "to string up his neck and start to die".

Shen became the first journalist to die in Chinese history.

Rival Li Fei

Readers who have seen the movie "listen to the curtain" must be impressed by the plot of Ci Xi's cruel persecution of Xianfeng emperor's other imperial concubine. In the movie, Ci Xi and Li Fei are rivals.

Li Fei is so charming that she can sing and dance, and is deeply loved by Xianfeng. She doesn't put Ci Xi in her eyes at all. Ci Xi was jealous of her with all her heart and soul. After the death of emperor Xianfeng, Ci Xi successfully launched the Xin you coup, and became the real ruler of the Qing Dynasty. After eradicating political opponents and clearing up hostile forces, she turned back to punish Li Fei, who had been competing with her in the past. Ci Xi followed the way of persecuting Mrs. Qi after Han Dynasty, and cut off all the hands and feet of Li Fei and put it in a jar, which was extremely insulting to her. This episode is ghastly and horrifying in the film, trying to portray Ci Xi as a vicious woman who is mean and ungrateful. So, is there a real person like Li Fei in history? Is her relationship with Ci Xi really like the film depicted? Did Ci Xi really persecute her with such cruel means?

According to historical records and records of the Qing palace archives, Li Fei is the daughter of Qing Hai, the chief minister. Daoguang seventeen years (1837) twenty-seven days in February, 6 years younger than Xianfeng emperor, 2 years younger than Ci Xi, and the same age as her. In the first year of Xianfeng (1851), Li Fei and Ci Xi were selected. Li Fei was named Li rich.

Ci Xi was named LAN magnate. Xianfeng two years (1852), two people entered the palace at the same time. Xianfeng four years (1854), Li Fei was named Li pin, and Ci Xi was named Yi pin. Xianfeng five years (1855) seven days in early May, Li Fei gave birth to the emperor's eldest daughter for Xianfeng emperor, and three days later she became a princess Li Fei. Xianfeng six (1856) in March 23rd, Ci Xi gave birth to the emperor's eldest son, Chun Chun, the later emperor of Tongzhi, who was promoted to Yi Fei on the same day. In less than 3 months after the death of emperor Xianfeng, Ci Xi took the imperial concubine to serve the imperial examinations and gave birth to the great princess in the name of Tongzhi emperor. She was named imperial Princess of the Imperial Palace, and passed the rank of imperial concubine, and rose two times. Tongzhi thirteen years (1874) in November, Ci Xi again descended to the throne, respecting the Imperial Emperor of Li Huang for the Imperial Emperor Tai Fei, ranking only below the Empress Dowager.

Over the years, Li Fei has been weak and ill. She often took medicine and died in Guangxu sixteen (1890) in November 15th, at the age of 54. On the third day after her death, Emperor Guangxu went to the gold coffin to offer wine and salute. Her golden coffin was temporarily settled in Tamura Miya. In nineteen (1893) April 18th, Li Fei's golden coffin was buried in the imperial tombs of the imperial tombs of the Qing Dynasty. There are 15 treasure towers in the back yard of the imperial concubine, which are divided into three rows. The top of Li Fei is in the middle of the first row, and is situated in the most noble position of this garden.

The daughter born by Li Fei was the only daughter of Xianfeng emperor. So she was loved by Xianfeng emperor and concubines. Tongzhi nine years (1870) was named Princess Rong junlun. The Qing Dynasty system: only the Queen's daughter can be named Princess Gu Lun. According to this regulation, the daughter of Li Fei Sheng should seal Princess Shuo, but Ci Xi made an exception to her as Princess Rong junlun.

The above facts show that Li Fei was not only subjected to Ci Xi's persecution, but also received special attention from Ci Xi and a series of courtesy, which showed that the relationship between Li Fei and Ci Xi was very harmonious. From this point of view, Ci Xi, who is often shown by his domineering, malicious and malicious face, also has a tender and compassionate side. Maybe it was because Li Fei was obedient and obedient. After Ci Xi firmly grasped the power of the state and the Imperial Palace, Li Fei did not pose any threat to her, so she was so courteous to her. Once someone dares to disobey her will and challenge her authority, Ci Xi reveals another face. This is evident from her attitude towards her daughter-in-law.

Tomb Mausoleum

The mausoleum is called the Bodhisattva valley.In the hierarchy of feudal society in China, according to Ci Xi's status and status, she should be slightly inferior to the queen of the imperial palace. However, in view of Ci Xi's special status, the mausoleum that was originally designed can not be separated from her in terms of regulation and quality. She should have been satisfied. However, Ci Xi was not satisfied. Her infinite expansive arrogance and uncontrollable greed made her unable to reconcile herself with her. Since she must be bent on the choice of burial place, she should surpass CI in the building and decoration of the mausoleum to show her uniqueness.

The restoration of the Empress Dowager's empress lasted thirteen years until she died. After the reconstruction, the hall and the East and West Hall were the first place in the mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty in the valuable materials, exquisite craftsmanship and luxurious decoration. Even compared with the imperial tombs of the Qing Dynasty, some imperial tombs are much inferior to her. The luxury of her funerary objects is also breathtaking. Ci Xi's funerary objects are divided into two parts: the treasure placed in the gold well in the tomb and the funerary treasures at the time of burial.

The bottom of Ci Xi's coffin is a golden silk woven jewel brocade mattress, seven inches thick, with more than 10000 pearls and pearls underneath, eighty-five pieces of red gems, more than 200 pieces of white jade, and a layer of embroidered silk mats embroidered with lotus flowers on the brocade mattress, and two thousand and four hundred pearls of five heavy weight on the upper berth. Ci Xi's corpse, covered with a Zhijin's Tuo nun Sutra, was made of yellow Satin bottom and twisted gold. It was woven with twenty-five thousand characters of Chinese character, Ronnie and Sutra, with more than 800 pearls. The Phoenix crown on its head is made of numerous pearls and precious stones, of which only one pearl is worth about ten million and two of silver.

The large treasures around the corpse are: Nine Linglong pagoda, jade jade, jade watermelon, grasshopper cabbage, red sapphire, emerald, emerald, red coral tree, Moyu mustard and so on. The Empress Dowager's teeth were prized open. The Pearl contained in the mouth was separated by two transparent and dull pearls. When it was closed, it was a round bead, emitting a green cold light. Ci Xi could see the head in the hundred steps at night, very clear.

In North China's "current affairs vernacular", there is a record of such a thing. In 1928, warlord Sun Dianying, by the name of the exercise, had his subordinates digging up the magnificent and luxurious Ci Xi's Dongling mausoleum, and stealing a pearl of the night when Ci Xi was dying.

After the report of the robber's tomb was shocked by the whole world, all the dignitaries in Manchuria have been electrified and condemned, demanding that Sun Dianying be severely punished and the treasures recovered. Jiang Jieshi Order Shanxi warlord in the Republican Period Investigation of stolen tomb. Sun Dianying gave the largest two beads of Zhu Hong's beads to Qianlong's neck beads. Dai Li Let's take a second look at Dai Li. Kowloon sword To Jiang Jieshi, the leader of the national government, and to give jade watermelon to him. better known as TV Soong Give the Pearl of Ci Xi's mouth to the Pearl. wife of Chiang Kai-shek Song Meiling embroidered the Pearl on the embroidered shoes. Since then, Sun Dianying has not only been at large, but also has been a leader in the army, and has been advancing steadily to the commander in chief. Tan Wen Jiang He was released on bail and continued as his teacher. This anomaly is the true portrayal of the society at that time.

PuYi mentioned in his memoirs that grandma Ci Xi was robbed of the Pearl of the Queen's night and changed to a lady in the early Republic of China. The old Buddha who has enjoyed the splendor of the world only left behind the lonely tomb. The hundred years of glory and wealth have been exhausted.

Historical records

Qingshi manuscript: and Wen Zong's last creation, filial piety and filial piety, the two queens received political authority. There were virtuous kings. Unfortunately, when Emperor Mu Zong was present, the queen of filial piety, the queen of Xiao Qin listened to politics for a long time, and slightly went away from the palace to celebrate the celebration. He saw the emperor of the holy Zu, the queen of the Xiao Zu village, and the ten emperor of the Emperor. Unfortunately, he did not agree with Dezong, but once aroused the dispute of the 1898 movement, he became the chaos of the Geng Zi again. It is difficult to understand the fate of the people. It is necessary to save the people in order to save their constitutionalism. The rise and fall of the first generation is in the palace. Alas! Is it not so great? Is it not so great?

Empress-Dowager-Ci-Xi1


History