Du Fu

Home Celebrity 2019-09-07

Du Fu

Du Fu (712 - 770 years), Zi Zi Mei, from the Shao Ling old man, Tang dynasty Great realistic poets, and Li Bai It is called "Li Bai". Originally from Xiangyang, Hubei, Henan county. With two other poets Li Shangyin and Du Mu That is to say, "Xiao Li Du" is different. Du Fu and Li Bai are also called "big Li Bai". Du Fu is often called "Lao Du".

Du Fu traveled in his youth. Wu Yue And Qi Zhao, who went there Luoyang No action is required. After the age of thirty-five, we first Changan Later, he offered a gift to the emperor and presented it to the noble. The officialdom did not succeed, and witnessed the extravagance and social crisis of the upper classes of the Tang Dynasty. Tianbao fourteen years (755 years). An Shi rebellion After the outbreak of Tongguan's fall, Du Fu went to many places. In the two (759) years of Qian Yuan, Du Fu abandoned his official duty to Sichuan. Although he avoided war and lived in relative stability, he still had a heart and mind. Created " Ascend height " Spring View " Northern Expedition " Three officials " Three Partings And other masterpieces. Although Du Fu is a realistic poet, he also has Wild and unruly One side, from its masterpiece. Eight Immortals in drinking It is not difficult to see Du Fu's heroism.

The core of Du Fu's thought is Confucianism. Benevolent government He has the grand ambition of "making a gentleman, Yao, Shun, and customs." Although Du Fu was not renowned for his fame during his lifetime, he later became famous. Chinese literature and Japanese Literature All had a profound impact. A total of about 1500 poems by Du Fu have been preserved. Du Gong Bu Ji "

In the five year (770 years) of Dali, Du Fu passed away and was fifty-nine years old. Du Fu in Chinese Classical Poetry The influence is very far-reaching and is called "later". Poet sage His poems are called " History of poetry " Later, he called Du Duyi and dugong ministry, also known as Du Shao Ling and Du Cao Tang.

Paul Mauriat's History

Family background

Du Fu's distant ancestor was a famous cruel official in the period of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty. Du Zhou Grandfather Du Shenyan Du Fu and another great poet in the Tang Dynasty were Xiaoli Du. Du Mu Same as the University of the Jin Dynasty. Du Pre After that, however, the two tribes were far apart. The ancestral home of Xiangyang (now Hubei), great grandfather Du Yi

Yi Gong county magistrate, then Ju Gong county (now Henan). Du Fu came from Du Fu second son. Du delay And Du Mu came from the little boy. Du Yin Du Fu was born in the first year of emperor Tang Xuanzong (712) and was born in Gong county. Mother Cui died when Du Fu was young. Cui Jia is also a famous family of great family. He met many uncles and cousins in his life many times.

When Du Fu was young, he lived a more stable and prosperous life because of his superior family environment. He was very young and eager to learn. He could write poetry at the age of seven. "Seven years of age are strong." They aspire to "let the king and the sun go up, and make the custom clean." When he was a teenager, he was very naughty. "Remembering fifteen years is still a child." In August, the pear dates were ripe, and the trees were able to return thousands of times a day.

Du Fu had the opportunity to be influenced by all kinds of culture and art during his boyhood, which had great influence on his poetry creation in the future. For example, when he was five or six years old, he saw the swords of dancer's dancers in the city of Henan. They heard Li Guinian's singing before Li Fan's house in the king's house of Shang Shan, Luoyang, and the tri pet Hall of Xuanzong in Zunhua. He saw the five sacred dignity and the thousand official ranks painted by Wu Daozi in the temple of Emperor Xuan Yuan at the top of the northern Mong temple in Luoyang. This is reflected in his poetry creation later. At that time, social celebrities Cui Shang and Wei Qixin saw the words Fu he wrote and praised him for the wind of Ban Gu and Yang Xiong. And the elders like Li Yong and Wang Han condescended to visit him.

Junior Tour

Kaiyuan In nineteen years (731 years), Du Fu, nineteen, traveled. Blemish (Linyi, Shanxi) At the age of twenty, Du Fu roamed Wu Yue for several years. In twenty-three years (735 years), Du Fu returned to his hometown to take part in " Xiang Gong " In the twenty-four year (736 years) of Kaiyuan, Du Fu took part in the imperial examinations in Luoyang. Du Fu's father served as Sima in Yanzhou. Du Fu went to Yanzhou to visit her parents, and Su Yuanming and others to Qi Zhao Pingyuan for the second roaming. At that time, his father was doing Sima in Yanzhou. He spent four or five years in the "happy life" of Qi and Mao in Qi Zhao area, and left the earliest extant poems: "boarding the tower of Yanzhou" is the work of his father when he was in Yanzhou; he also had two eagles and Fang Bing Hu Ma, praising the eagles and horses with the enthusiasm of the youth, and another "Wang Yue", which is masterpiece. The two sentences at the end are the famous phrases that have been circulated for ages.

Tianbao three years (744 years) in April, Du Fu was arrested in Luoyang. Tang xunzong Giving gold back Li Bai Meet, the two meet with Yu Liang, song (now Kaifeng, Henan, Shangqiu area). Met with poet Gao Shi, this is the third roam. Later, Du Fu went to Qi State (now Ji'nan, Shandong).

Tianbao four years (745 years), he met with Li Bai in Qilu, besides drinking and compose poems, he also discussed alchemy for the immortals. He also visited the hermits, Fan Ye, in the north of Yanzhou. The two also exchanged poems. Du Zengli's poem says, "Yu Yidong is a monk, but a prince is like a brother. Drunken sleepless autumn is always taken together. Li Zengdu's poem says: "autumn waves fall to Surabaya, and the sea is bright. The Erigeron is far away and makes the cup! " The two never met again.

Trapped in Changan

Trimble In six years (747 years), Xuanzong edicts the world's "one artist" to Changan.

Du Fu also took part in the examination. Due to power Li Lin Fu Directing a " Appoint people on their merit All the taxis were lost in the farce. Since the way of imperial examination is impracticable, Du Fu has to turn to the door of dignitaries and make contributions to realize his political ideal. Gan Ye And so on, but no result. He lived in Changan for ten years, ran away from his fu, lost his ambition, and was frustrated in his career. He lived a poor life. He said, "take up the imperial examinations, but you will be trapped in Changan."

Tianbao ten years (751 years) in the first month, Xuanzong will be held sacrifice Tai Qing Palace In the three great pageant of the temple and the heaven and earth, Du Fu prepaid three great ritual Fu in the nine days of Tianbao nine, got the appreciation of Xuanzong, and ordered his life to be made in Jixian. Li Lin Fu So there was no official position.

Tianbao fourteen years (755 years), Du Fu was awarded a small official of Hexi Wei, but Du Fu did not want to be the official of "not to be a Wei Xi, miserable for the waist". The Court changed it to Cao Canjun, a low ranking official, who was in charge of the guard's armour and the key of access control. Du Fu was forty-four years old, and he had more than ten years in Changan. In November, Du Fu Wang Fengxian (now Shaanxi province Pucheng county) province, Du Fu just entered the house heard the cry, the little son starved to death. On the ten years of Changan's experience and along the way, he wrote the famous " From Beijing to Fengxian County, Huai Huai five hundred characters "

War and separation

Tianbao fourteen (755 years) November. An Shi rebellion Erupted, second years in June, Tongguan fell, Xuanzong panic. July, Prince Edward Li Heng That is located Lingwu (now Lingwu City, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region) is for emperor su. Du Fu had moved his family to the state. Shaanxi Fu County Qiang took refuge in the village. He heard of emperor Su's accession to the throne. In August he went north alone and went to Lingwu. Unfortunately, he was captured by the rebels and sent to Changan on the way. Captive Wang Wei Du Fu was put under strict custody. He was not imprisoned because he was a small official. Despite personal misfortunes, Du Fu always worries about the country and the people.

Time value An Shi rebellion He has always been watching the development of the current situation. During this period, he wrote two articles: "the map of the situation of entering and ending the crowning of the crown for the king of China" and the five questions of the first year of the Yuan Dynasty. When we are fighting against the rebel forces, the town of the North Court Li Si Ye When he passed through Hua Zhou, he wrote " Guan ANSI went to Guanzhong for two orders. The poem expresses strong patriotic enthusiasm.

Short term appointment

Two years (757 years) in Germany, April. Guo Ziyi When the army arrived in the north of Changan, Du Fu escaped from Changan's golden gate and fled through the two armies. Fengxiang (now Shaanxi) Baoji ) go to su. In May 16th, he was appointed to the left by the emperor. Unexpectedly, Du Fu was rescued soon. Fang Guan He was furiated, and was deposed to Hua state (now Hua county). sacrifice , rites and music , School , Election Medical divination, assess the service of an official Wait. reach Iowa After that, Du Fu was in a very depressed mood. He often swam on the banks of Xixi. Zheng county Pavilion (now) Xinglin town In the vicinity of the old official platform, to dispel worries. He is in the " Pavilion of Zheng county " Early autumn hot fever case is still in phase. " Independent "And" Skinny horse In these poems, he expresses his sighing and resentment about his frustration in career, inconstancy of human nature, and the introduction of vice into evil. To save the house, Du Fujing Prime Minister Zhang Hao Strength is saved and released. But "the emperor is not very provincial". After that, Emperor Du Fu did not reuse it. In September of this year, Changan recovered. In November, Du Fu returned to Changan and remained on the left. Although he was loyal to his duties, he was eventually implicated in the case of Fang. Yu Qianyuan was demoted to 758 years in June.

In the first year of the Yuan Dynasty (758), Du Fu left China for Luoyang. Yanshi (all in Henan province) visiting relatives. In March second, Tang army and an Shi rebellion. Ye Cheng (now Henan) Anyang When the war broke out, the Tang army was defeated. On his way back from Luoyang to China, Du Fu saw the endless disaster brought by the war to the people and the patriotic acts of the people who had been humiliation and joined the army to participate in the war. Three officials "(" Xin'an officials " Shi Hao " Tongguan officials "And" Three Partings "(" New marriage " Old age " Homeless After returning to Hua state, it will be revised. "All eyes are sad, and things are long.

Wandering in Central Sichuan

In the two (759) summer of Qian Yuan, Du Fu wrote "the drought in Hua Zhou and Guanzhong". Sigh in summer "And" Summer night "Worry about time and chaos, chant national tragedy and people's suffering. After the autumn of this year, Du Fu gave up his duty to join the army because of grieving against the dirty politics. Tianshui in Gansu Area. Du Fu wrote more than 30 poems in the state of China. Du Fu passed away and finally arrived. Chengdu With the help of Yan Wu and others, in the west of the city Huan Hua brook A cottage has been built by the world. Du Fu Cottage "Also known as" Huan Hua cottage " After Yan Wu was recommended as a festival, the whole family lived in residence. Sichuan Fengjie County

In the two years (764 years) of Guangde, Yan Wu went back to Shu and Du Fu again.

Back to thatched cottage, it had been outside for nearly two years. Yan Wu recommended Du Fu to be a staff member of the Ministry of inspection of the Ministry of work, and Yan Wu's staff. Later generations also called Du Fu a dugong ministry. Soon Du Fu resigned. In the past five or six years, Du Fu has been living in a very difficult position. He said: "Hou Lu, the old man's book is broken, and the hungry and childish are desolate". Crazy man "" I do not know father and son's ritual, "he called" angry door ". He used some details of life to show his life's hardships. He said that his children, who had not yet understood their children, did not know their respect for their father. They did not know whether they were father or not, whether they were father or not, whether they were to follow the ceremony of father and son, starved and quarreled with beggars, crying at the East Gate nickname, and in the autumn wind and rain, Du Fu's hut was defeated and hungry, and his old wife stayed up all night. He wrote the song of "thatched cottage was the autumn wind."

In three years (765 years), in April, Yan Wu died and Du Fu left Chengdu. In April, By Jia Zhou (Leshan), Rong Zhou (Yibin), Yuzhou (Chongqing), Zhong Zhou (Zhongxian), yun'an (Yunyang), arrived in the first year of the Tang Dynasty (766 years). Kui Zhou (Fengjie). Because of the care of Bai Maolin, the governor of Kuizhou, Du Fu was able to stay here for one hundred days. He also rented some public fields, bought forty acres of orchards, hired several employees, and did some work with his family. During this period, the poets reached a climax. In less than two years, more than 430 poems were written, accounting for thirty percent of the existing works. During this period, its works include Delighting in Rain on A Spring Night " Thatched cottage is the song of autumn winds. " Shu Xiang " Wen Guan Jun receives Hebei, Henan. " Ascend height And many other masterpieces. One of the most famous verses is: "there are tens of thousands of buildings in the mansion, and all the people in the world are happy." And " Ascend height In the book: "the endless fall of wood under Xiao Xiao, the endless rolling of the Yangtze River" is a masterpiece of the past.

The boat passed away

In the three year (768 years) of Da Li, Du Fu was homesick. Jiangling And turn again Public Security At the end of the winter, it wandering to Hunan. Yueyang The boat is under Yueyang Tower. On the long journey of Yueyang Tower, facing the vast expanse of the vast expanse of Dongting Lake, thinking of his own old age, the country was troubled by numerous disasters and numerous emotions. Because life is difficult, not only can not return north, but also forced to go southward. The four month of the lunar calendar is from Yueyang to tan Zhou (Changsha) and from Tan Zhou to Heng Zhou. city in Hunan ), turn back to tan state.

In the five year (770 years) of Da Li, Zang ran in rebellion in Tan state, and Du Fu fled to Heng Zhou. He had planned to go to Chenzhou to take refuge in Uncle Cui Wei. But when he went to Leiyang, when the river surged, he had to stop Fang Tian post, and did not eat anything for five days. Fortunately, the county magistrate sent a man to bring wine and meat to be saved. Later, Du Fu went from Leiyang to Chenzhou, and had to go up more than 200 miles upstream. At that time, the flood did not return. Du Fu was intent on returning to the north. In the five year (770 years) of Dali, Du Fu died in a small boat from Tan state to Yueyang. He was fifty-nine years old.

Main achievements

Poetry achievement

Du Fu's poetry has sixty volumes. Early lost. In the two years of the Northern Song Dynasty (1039), Wang Zhu compiled 1405 volumes, 18 volumes. Qian Qian Yi There is a collection of notes and duo works. Yang Lun He said: "since the Six Dynasties, the problem of yue fu has been simulated and plagiarized. When the children come out, they will feel compassion for the country at that time. They will feel the pain of the people. "

Du Fu was middle-aged and depressed because of his poetic style. Be concerned about one's country and one's people Du Fu's poetry is called " History of poetry " His poetry

The word is archaic. Metrical poetry He is very experienced and diverse in style. He summed up his style of work accurately with the four words of "depression and setback". Du Fu lived in the historical period of the Tang Dynasty from prosperity to decline. His poems were much involved in social unrest, political darkness and people's suffering. His poems reflected social contradictions and sufferings of the people at that time. His poems recorded the great changes in the Tang Dynasty from prosperity to decline, and expressed the lofty Confucian spirit of benevolence and strong sense of hardship. History of poetry " Du Fu was worried about the country and the people. Ars Poetica Exquisite. Du Fu wrote more than 1500 poems in his life, many of which are famous works of the past, such as "three officials" and "three separations". Shi Hao " Xin'an officials "And" Tongguan officials "Three off" as " New marriage " Homeless "And" Old age " The poems handed down by Du Fu are Tang Poetry One of the most outstanding poets in the Tang Dynasty is one of the most extensive and far-reaching influences on later generations. Du Fu's work is known as the world's sore, the sage in poetry, the suffering of the people, the bottom of the pen. It is a masterpiece of realistic poetry.

Metrical poetry occupies a very important position in Du Fu's poetry. The achievement of Du Fu's metrical poems first lies in the expansion of the scope of the metrical poetry. He not only writes courtesy, chanting, traveling, banquet, and landscape, but also writes current events in verse. The use of metrical verse to write current events, words and rules is restricted and difficult, but Du Fu can use it freely. Du Fu wrote the rhyme poems in a free and unrestrained manner. He could not see the restraint of the law but could not see the traces of the war. If Yang Lun was called "the seven law of Du Ji", Ascend height This is the poem: "the wind is high, the sky is high, the ape is howling, the birds are flying back. Under the endless fall of Xiao Xiao, the Yangtze River is rolling. Wanli sad autumn often guest, hundred years of illness alone stand on stage. Bitterness and bitterness hated the frost temples. The whole poem is very precise and exquisite in the sentence pattern. The eight sentence is correct, and the first sentence is right. The rigorous battle is concealed by the sense of mobility of the image.

The highest achievement of Du Fu's metrical verse is that it is written in such a way that it can not be traced back and written without any trace. Such as Delighting in Rain on A Spring Night "Good rain knows the season, when spring happens. Sneak into the night with the wind, moisten things silently. Wild path cloud is all black, river boat fire alone bright, Xiao see red wet place, flower heavy Jin Guan City. " The last four sentences are written in water, written in the same breath of the spring rain, but without a sound.

Du Fu is good at using many systems of classical poetry and developing them creatively. Du Fu's Thoughts on people's livelihood and his achievements in the metrical verse directly influenced the creation of Yuefu and Bai Juyi in the Mid Tang Dynasty. He is the founder of new Yuefu Poetry. His Yuefu Poems It contributed to the development of the new Yuefu movement in the middle Tang Dynasty. His 57 ancient poems, poems and histories, and a series of roundabout movements marked the high achievement of Chinese poetry. The Song Dynasty with many social contradictions was also the most prosperous era of learning Du Fu. Du Fu appeared as the ancestor of the Song Dynasty. school of jiangxi Late Ming and early Qing Dynasty Gu Yan Wu Others also have an obvious tendency to learn to Du. They also use Du Fu's poems to reflect the struggle against the Qing Dynasty and impassioned.

Du's poetry was widely regarded in Song Dynasty.

Later. Wang Yu , Wang Anshi , Su Shi , Huang Tingjian , Lu You Others praised Du Fu twice. Research data have been around for thousands of years. There were many Du Fu poems in the Song Dynasty. Chronological , classification , Annotations And other special books, such as Wang Zhu " Du Gong Bu Ji "Guo Zhida" Nine collections of poems "Lu," Cai Meng Bi The book "Du Gong Bu Cao Tang Shi Jian" and Xu Juren's edited book of Du Fu Bu Du Bu Bu, which is written by the Ministry of Commerce, has been published. Wen Guan Jun receives Hebei, Henan. " Spring View " Radical sentence " Wang Yue And so on. There are more than 100 kinds of commentaries in later generations. Zhao Zhao Wu " Detailed notes on Du Shi " Yang Lun " Du Shi Jing Quan " Pu Qi long " Reading Du Xinjie " New and old Tang Shu There are Du Fu biographies. After the two Song Dynasty, the poetry of Du Fu's poetry is very rich in its notes and explanations. In 1964, Zhonghua Book Company compiled the compilation of classical literature research, Du Fujuan. end of the Ming dynasty Wang Si Yes. Du Xu Qing Dynasty Shi Hong Bao Yes. Reading Du Fu's Poetry " In addition, Zhonghua Book Company has compiled more important papers since the 54 movement into the collection of Du Fu studies. Biographies and new research monograph. Feng Zhi " Du Fu " Xiao Di Fei Du Fu studies, Fu g g Sheng Du Fu's poetry theory, Zhu Dong run " Du Fu's Theory " More detailed chronicles are available. Wen Yiduo "Shao Ling's Chronicle" and the Sichuan Museum of history and literature. Chronicle of Du Fu "

Calligraphy achievement

Du Fu is very mature and deep in the concept of calligraphy creation. From records

His style of writing is in line with official script, and he works in the same way. He appreciates the old and the majestic, and pays attention to the speed, rhythm and style of writing. Ink method And so on, in the Tang Dynasty is also a very deep calligrapher. At the same time, his praise of the clerical officials in the Tang Dynasty and his evaluation of Cao Ba and Zhang Xu were enough to leave his fame in the history of calligraphy. Establish Du Fu played an important role in the history of calligraphy theory.

Literary characteristics

Poetic expression

language

Du Fu's poetry is generally regarded as "gloomy" in language, and its language and textual structure are full of changes. The word "depressed" was first seen in the Southern Dynasty. Later, Du Fu wrote more accurately and generalizes the language of his own works in the four words of "depression and frustration". "As for the ups and down, the agility at any time, and Yang Xiong, Mei Gao," A further study of Du Fu found that the formation of his poetic style is closely related to his Confucian belief. At the same time, Du Fu was at the end of the flourishing age, and had ambition when he was young. Later, the outbreak of the Anshi rebellion, the decline of the national movement, and the unrealistic career path, the great gap between the ideal and the reality also made the poetry style of Du Fu changed greatly and became closer to realism.

Imagery

Du Shu's individualization of image choice is the foundation of Du Fu's language. The images often appeared in Du Fu's poems, such as gusai, Qiu Yun, ape whistle, torrents, urgent gorge, dangerous city, solitary boat, fallen flowers, sunset and other natural landscapes, as well as ordinary women such as weaver, old woman, old farmer, lady and so on, as well as dignitaries such as officials, generals, and sages, all have shown Du Fu's rebuke to ZTE, the indignation of chaos, the grief of tyranny, the sadness of wandering away, the pity for the loss of life, the regret of material failure, and the praise of bozishi. And the expression of these heavy emotions makes the language of Du Fu tend to be "depressed". Wu Hang Huan Xi Poetry "Comment on Du Fu's late poetry" unrestrained change, Yang Kai Yin combined "and cloud:" it is far from the meaning of the sentence, that is, people can not know the next sentence. " Wu Hung also said, "mortal poets can only say two things in one sentence. There are three, four, and five things that can be said in Du Fu's poetry. Ordinary people write poems, but they can say that they are far from within tens of miles.

style

Du Fu's poetry has many styles in style. zhen This comment on Du Fu: "to the beauty of the son, to cover the so-called thin and coquettish, under the Shen and song, to win the Soviet Union and Li, to swallow the Cao and Liu, to hide the face, to thank the solitary high, to mix the Xu and Yu's flowing beauty, to do the ancient and modern posture, while everyone else's own specialty." Qin Guan also had a similar view: "so the beautiful people of the Du Zi, the poor and ingenious lattice, the extremely luxurious spirit, wrapped the delicate interest, and the handsome clean posture, prepared the state of being beautiful, and all the houses were less than". However, he did not gather all the family members, and duer could not be alone. For example, Du Fu also has a wild and unruly side, from his masterpiece. Eight Immortals in drinking You can see Du Fu's heroism. The mainstream view is that the style of Du Fu's poetry is downcast, refined in language, strict in metrical style, poor in skill, sincere in sentiment, and elegant in nature, and is characterized by profound, delicate and moving images. "For the sake of human nature, it is not surprising." It's his writing style. As far as the narrative style and style of Du Fu's poetry are concerned, some scholars believe that it is influenced by Book of Songs Xiaoya, and its Elegy and elegant style is similar to Li Sao. Some scholars believe that Du Fu has the traditional spirit of benevolence. Sima Qian The spirit of record. There is also a view that Du Fu's poetry has a "humanitarian spirit". Great writers in the Tang Dynasty Han Yu Du Fu and Li Bai And he said, "Li Bai's article is shining long." Wang Anshi In recognition of Du Fu's achievements, "no one can see what he has done." Chen Shan Volume seven new words: "old Du Shi is the poem" Six Classics Other people's poetry is also the flow of all kinds of children. Jiang Shi Quan The book of "Zhong Ya Tang collection" Volume 1 "the detailed preface of Du Fu poem" is also called "Du Shi Ren". The four book "Too."

Metrical pattern

Du Fu's poetry has the characteristics of refined character and perfect integrity in the metrical pattern, which is in line with the "architectural beauty" of Chinese poetry. In addition, Du Fu has made many innovations in his genre, for example, his creativity in the five Qilu is unique in his literary creation.

content

Most of the works of Du Fu's poems reflect the social features of the time, with a wide range of subjects and profound meanings, especially describing the hardships of the people, expressing his love for the people and the feelings of the country and the people. Du Fu's poetry is known as the history of poetry. It was first seen in the late Tang Dynasty. To Song Shicheng's conclusion, but the meaning of the history of poetry is different. People have a history of poetry, and think that Du Fu is a documentary poem, which can supplement the history of history, so it is called the history of poetry. This statement only focuses on the false and true facts of history, and despises the emotional characteristics of poetry. Some people believe that Du Fu has a strong history of history, which is comparable to that of Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian. And poetry commentators who judge people can be "not beautiful but not evil". The history of poetry. This is advisable. The other reason is that Du Fu's poetry is a good thing to say to a certain extent due to its tragic nature and feelings. But there are also those who do not like Du Fu's poems. Yang Yi doesn't like Du Fu. Liu Fang's Zhongshan poetry says: "Yang Da Nian doesn't like Du Fu's poems. It's called Mura Oko."

Main idea

In Du Fu's own words, it is his central idea to "worry about Li Yuan in the poor years". He asked himself for it and encouraged his friends. He commended Meta junction He said, "Dao state worries about Li and Shu, and CI Qi is vast and vertical." He is right. Yan Wu He said, "if a man stands on the stage, he will not love himself when he is in danger." He also said to Pei Qiu, "to the king, Yao and Shun to pay Gong, and so on, it was early thought to sacrifice." It is these progressive thoughts that formed Du Fu's never declining political enthusiasm, perseverance and stubborn character, and the optimistic spirit of broad-minded mind, making him the greatest political poet in our history. Of course, this is inseparable from his close life practice.

Du Fu was born in a bureaucratic family with a long tradition of "Confucianism and Officialdom". The family gave Du Fu the orthodox Confucian culture and the ambition to do something in his career. Therefore, Du Fu said that being an official is their family's "vegetarian industry" - a career that is inherited from generation to generation, and his various cultural upbringing and subsequent actions are linked to pursuing career and official conduct. If he is in the " The twenty-two rhymes of Wei left emperor Zhang In the book, he said, "self said quite well, Li Deng wants Lu Jin. This is an ideal aspiration to enter the official career and realize his "rule of kings, Yao and Shun, and customs and customs" in the great career of the official career, namely, eager to make contributions to the social work and to help the common people. Before the age of thirty-five, it was Du Fu's period of reading and traveling. Just as Kaiyuan flourishing, Du Fu's economic condition was also better, which was the most pleasant period in his life. From the age of twenty, he ended his study and began his "grand tour" which lasted for more than ten years. In this long and vigorous tour, Du Fu came into contact with the rich cultural heritage and magnificent mountains and rivers of our motherland, not only enriching his life, but also expanding his vision and mind, bringing a strong romantic color to his early poetry. " Wang Yue Poems can be represented. "It will be a great success, and all the hills are small." it is showing the poet's ambition for all his career, including creation. But because of this way of life, it is impossible to get close to the people and go deep into the reality. Therefore, as a great realistic poet, this is just a preparation period for his creation.

Du Fu went to realism, starting from the second phase (thirty-five to forty-four years old) of ten years in Changan. This is the brewing period of an Shi rebellion. Li Lin Fu and Yang Guo Zhong Du Fu not only failed to realize his political ambition of "king, Yao, Shun, but also custom", and began to live humiliating life of "Chai Fu Er gate, late with fat horse dust", so that he often starved and was frozen. "Hunger moves to a ten day period, and our clothes are hung up." In the torment of hunger and cold, Du Fu also thought of retiring, making a "smart delivery of the sun and moon". Nest father , Xu Yuan Du Fu did not shy away from hardships or resolutely embarked on the path of active accession to the WTO. Life has tortured Du Fu, and has also fulfilled Du Fu, so that he gradually penetrated into the people's life, saw the pain of the people, and saw the evil of the ruling class. Song Of The Conscripts " Twingo The masterpiece of realism, such as going to Fengxian. Du Fu also once had such a poem, "man is born in the world, and he is strong enough to be a marquis." The name of the kylin is war. Such as "husband's Quartet ambition, and Encore's poverty", all these poems reflect Du Fu's ambition to aspiring to fame and fortune, but Du Fu's ideals and aspirations are built on a strong sense of social responsibility and sense of hardship. The result of ten years' imprisonment made Du Fu become a poet who worried about the country and the people. This has confirmed the direction of Du Fu's life road and creation road since then.

From forty-five to forty-eight years old, Du Fu was the third stage of life. This is the most violent period of the history of the rebellion. The state is at stake, the people are suffering heavy calamities, and the poet has gone through all difficulties and dangers. The rebellion of an Shi is of national contradiction. The war at that time was the war of self-defense for the survival of the country. Therefore, Du Fu's attitude towards war is different from before, not against it, but a positive call. He mourned the "forty thousand volunteers" who sacrificed for his country. He warned the officials and officials to "wipe out guns". On the one hand, he vigorously exposed the darkness of military service and sympathized with the people. On the one hand, he encouraged the people to participate in the war. Because he went deep into people's life and put into practical struggle, he wrote " Sad and old " A song of sobbing by the river " Spring View " Qiang Village " Northern Expedition " Wash troops and horses "And" Three officials "," Three Partings A series of poems with high affinity to the people and patriotism reached the peak of realism. Such as his poetry. Climb Yueyang Tower "In the past, Dongting water, today's Yueyang Tower. In the southeast of Wu Chu, the universe is floating day and night. There is no word between family and friends. In the north of the army pass, it flows through the hills. In this poem, the poet stands on the Yueyang Tower and overlooks the social situation of war and chaos. He can not help but weeping through the window and his heart. Another example is: Wen Guan Jun receives Hebei, Henan. "Suddenly, the north of the thistle was gathered from the sword. However, he is worried about his wife. Sing songs on the day, drink wine, and accompany youth to return home. That is to say, from Wuxia gorge to Wuxia gorge, Xiangyang will go down to Luoyang. In this poem, he was surprised to hear the news of the court recovering land lost. These two poems were written by Du Fu when he was wandering. Because of the chaos of an Shi, the society seemed to be a mess, so Du Fu always hoped to quell the rebellion and the society to settle down. Therefore, when he thought that the country was suffering, the war did not extinguish, and when he was in a state of misery, he began to shed tears. But when he heard that the army recovered the thistle, he cried with joy and could not suppress himself. It can be seen that Du Fu's worries come from the state, and he also comes from the country. This is the sense of social responsibility and suffering that the Confucian intellectuals have in the world as their duty.

"All eyes are sad, and things are long. In July of 759, Du Fu abandoned his office and arrived in Chengdu at the end of this year. He built a cottage in the western suburb of Chengdu and began his last stage of "wandering southwest". During the eleven years of drifting, he often lived a life like life. He loves to work with the working people and hate bureaucrats, so he says, "I don't like to enter the state capital. And when it comes to Mao Yu, the house has never been angry. Du Fu's life was still very bitter. In the year of his death, he was hungry for five days because of the chaos. What is precious is that no matter how hard he lives, no matter where he wanderings, he is always concerned about the safety of the country and the suffering of the people. At the same time, he never forgot or relaxed his creation. During the eleven years of drifting, he wrote more than 1000 poems. " Thatched cottage is the song of autumn winds. "Wen Guan Jun receives Henan Hebei". Wu Lang again "Tian Tian Fu Yin" All will " Qiu Xing " Year old Yan Xing And so on are the best works of this period. Different from the earlier stage, it is more lyrical and more diverse in form. It is particularly noteworthy that the seven character poetry is creatively assigned to major political and social content. Du Fu wandering in Sichuan for eight or nine years, wandering in Hubei and Hunan for two or three years, 770 years in winter, and died in a wreck from Changsha to Yueyang. This is his last memory of the country and the people.

( The reference materials came from Du Xiaoqin's summary of literature research on Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties in twentieth Century. Third quarter. )

Character evaluation

· Tang dynasty Han Yu (1) the unique Ministry of work is called the United States. (Tomb of the Department of Duke) Li Bai's article is shining long. ( Tune up book )

· Tang dynasty Bai Juyi (Du Shi), through the past and in the past, to do things well and to do well in work. ( Yuan and nine books )

· Tang dynasty zhen (1) the poetry of Du Fu is everywhere. ( Syriac poem ) Du Fu's genius is quite unique, and every poem is like a kiss. When the canal runs straight, it does not mean that the heart is rooted in the ancients. ( Pay for Li Fu's gift )

· Northern Song Dynasty author of the history Zizhi Tongjian The ancients used poetry as an object of speech, making people think and get it. Du Zimei is the most popular poet in modern times. ( Continued Poetry )

· Northern Song Dynasty Su Shi Ancient and modern poets are numerous, but Du Zimei is the leader. Is it not for the sake of their hunger and cold for life? (Wang Dingguo's poetry collection)

· Song dynasty Ye Meng de The poet takes a word as the work, and the world knows it, but the old duer changes and closes. ( Shi Lin Poetry )

· Song dynasty Xu Xu The old Du Fu Poetry can not be commented on, nor should it be praised. ( Yan Zhou's Poetry )

· Southern Song Dynasty Lu You In this article, the loyalty and justice are thought. ( Yu Jin Ping Shan Hall of Shao Ling ancestral hall )

· the Qing dynasty Ding Ding Peng Wait: Tianbao, Li Bai and Li Bai, are called the same. However, the words of Yuan Zhen said, "Li Bai is full of waves and restraint, and he is not too good to be honest. As for the beginning of the arrangement, the row is more than the rhyme, the big or the thousand words, the times are still hundreds, the word Qi is bold, and the wind is deep and clear, which belongs to the law. Bai Juyi also said: "Du poetry runs through the ancient and modern times, doing all work well, too much more than Li." The theory of yuan and Bai is so. Cover its origin, labor and loss, joy and sorrow, anger, good virtue, evil and evil. And loyalty to the king to worry about the country, when the injury is the purpose of chaos. It can be known by reading its poetry, so it was called "poetry history" at that time. (all Tang Poetry)

· Modern Lu Xun (1) I always feel that Tao Qian stands a little further. Li Bai stands slightly taller. This is also the result of the times. Du Fu does not seem to be an old man, as though he still lives in our pile today. (Liu Dajie, Lu Xun on Classical Literature) Du Fu is the backbone of the Chinese nation. (celebrity Du Fu in Chinese textbooks for junior high school)

· Modern poets Kenneth Reksyros My poetry is undoubtedly influenced by Du Fu. I think he is the greatest poet ever in the field of epic and drama. In some ways he even surpassed Shakespeare and Homer, at least he was more natural and kind. (Biography of 5000 years of Chinese Literature)

Anecdotes

Reprove the Emperor

During the period of Tang Xuanzong's administration, the Tang Dynasty was a great power in the world at that time. But in this seemingly powerful country, because of the many reasons, such as hand and hand, it has been a sign of collapse. Finally, the Tang Dynasty quickly turned to the turning point of overturning. An Shi rebellion It happened. When Du Fu learned about this situation, he felt that those who were in power did not take care of their livelihood and took pleasure in themselves, which would surely lead to the fall of the country; so he wrote with great indignation and was later selected into the famous anthology. Three hundred Tang Poems The poem entitled " Twingo The seven character long poem. The poem is a truly epic poem because of the daring irony and deep revelation of Yang's hot luxury life. The supreme arrogance of a person with great power "That is used to show that the flame is strong and powerful.

Kinship members

grandfather

Du Fu's grandfather was a poet in the early Tang Dynasty. Du Shenyan Du is very talented, but he is proud of the world. Less and Li Wei , Rong CAI , Su taste It is called "four friends of the article". Emperor Gaozong of Tang The first year of Xian Heng (670) Jinshi The first is Xi Cheng Wei. Backward turn Luoyang Cheng. Wu Hou Holy calendar In the first year of the year (698), he joined the army. But at this time offended colleagues Guo Ruone, chief Zhou Ji heavy, the two collusion framed Du Shen Yan, condemned to death. Du Fu's uncle Du he Thirteen of the year, the assassination of the heavy season, the earthquake. Du said that he would not die and be called to the capital by Wu Zetian. Thanks to his appreciation of his poems and works, he was sent to work in the Department of the Ministry of Commerce. After collusion Zhang Yi Zhi Brothers exile reach Feng Zhou But he was soon returned.

parent

Du Fu's father was Du Xu's eldest son. He was born in the east of Wuqing City, but died shortly after his birth. His father continued to marry Lushi. Du Fu was brought up by his aunt. Du Fu had an elder brother, an early death, three half brother and a father's younger sister. Du Fu often mentioned them in poetry. But Du Fu rarely mentioned his stepmother.

Wife

At the age of 30, Du Fu was temporarily suspended. Qilu Roaming between Yan Zhao, back to Luoyang, in Yanshi County Built under the Shouyang mountain in the Northwest Lu Hun Villa And then married. Hong Nong County ( Trimble In the year of linglingbao County, Yang Yizhi was a wife. Sn Shao Qing is the Vice Minister of agriculture and finance and Du Fu, who is the official of the generation. A marriage between families of equal social rank His wife is young, he is more than 10 years old. Unfortunately, Du Fu did not make a biography of his wife, but Mrs. Yang's name was not known.

children

There are two sons, Zong Wen, Zong Wu and a female Feng ER.

Another child, Tianbao starved to death in fourteen years.

There is at least one woman: Du Fu's poems in Northern Expedition: "two little girls in front of the bed".

Afterlife influence

His poems have rich social contents and strong times.

The color and the vivid political tendency profoundly reflect the political current events and the broad social life picture in a historical era before and after the rebellion of Anshi. Du Fu's poetry is composed of many subjects. Five ancient times , short name for a poem with seven characters to a line , Five Laws , Eight-line poem with seven characters to a line and a strict tonal pattern and rhyme scheme Besides, I wrote a lot. Schedule The art of using the body is diverse. It is the epitome of the art of the Tang poetry. Du Fu inherited the spirit of the Han and Wei Yuefu "feeling sad and happy, and making things happen", and got rid of the fetters of the old questions of Yuefu, and created many new Yuefu, such as the famous "three officials" and "three off". After death, fan hung. Han Yu , Yuan Zhen, Bai Juyi The vigorous praise of others. Du Shi pairs Yuan Bai The literary and artistic thoughts of the new Yuefu movement Li Shangyin The near body allegory is deeply influenced by current events. But Du Fu was widely regarded after Song Dynasty. Wang Yucheng , Wang Anshi , Su Shi , Huang Tingjian And others praised Du Fu. known as a model of fidelity to the last Song sovereigns It is more adhere to Du Fu. National integrity Spiritual power. The influence of Du Fu has been beyond the scope of literature and art from ancient times to the present.

In his lifetime and some years after his death, Du Fu has not received much commendation and attention. This is partly due to his innovation in style and rhythm. Some commentators believe that some of his works are still very bold and eccentric. There was hardly any material about him when he was alive, only 6 poets had 11 poems. Moreover, none of these poems mentioned that he was a model of poetry and ethics.

His works began to become famous in the ninth Century ad. Bai Juyi He promoted some of Du Fu's ethical viewpoints, though he found them only in some of Du Fu's works. In addition to Bai Juyi and Han Yu, he wrote to refute this objection. Li Bai The voice, defending their aesthetic status. At the same time, the poems of these two poets have the shadow of Du Fu. Du Fu is like Kong Qing Xiang It is the same as "the only poet in China that has been influencing the growth of time".

In the early tenth Century, the five generation of former Shu poets Weizhuang Found the thatched cottage site, rebuilt the hut to preserve it. During this period, China had a new wave of "Yuefu movement", and Du Fu, as the inspirator of this realistic poetry movement, was highly praised. Du Fu's realistic creative spirit has been influenced since Bai Juyi. PI Xi Hu , Cao Ye , Nie Yi Zhong , Du Xunhe He created a realistic school of poetry, which was a leader in the late Tang Dynasty.

In the Song Dynasty, Du Fu's fame reached its peak. Huang Tingjian , Chen Shidao And so on, to explore the strange side of Du Fu's poetry and form the "Jiangxi School of poetry". After that, Wang Anshi, Lu You and Wen Tianxiang were all influenced by Du Fu to a certain extent. Wen Tianxiang made 200 sets of Du Fu five character poems in prison. Du Fu's wider influence is that Du Fu's works turn the game of the metrical verse from the written language to the carrier of political ambition.

It laid the foundation for later poets' political writing.

The development of Neo Confucianism in the Song Dynasty ensured Du Fu's role as a model of poetry and his supremacy. Su Shi explained the reason: "ancient and modern poets are numerous, but the sons and daughters are the only ones who are the leaders. Do they not drift away from hunger and cold, and do not spend all their life, but they do not forget the king of a meal?" His ability to think created his influence. He was highly esteemed by politicians because of his yearning for a good social order. Reformers also studied his compassion for the poor.

Jin Shengtan, a literary critic of the early Qing Dynasty, took Du Fu's poems and Qu Yuan " Li Sao " Daoist philosopher " Chuang-tzu " Sima Qian " Redords of the Grand History of China " Shi Nai an " Water Margin " Wang Shipu " Romance of the West Chamber " Six talented scholars " In modern times, Du Fu's loyalty to the state and his concern for the people were re interpreted as the meaning of nationalism and socialism, and he himself was praised by modern researchers for his use of "people's language".

Du Fu's influence on posterity is also moral. In twentieth Century, Rex Ross, a modern American poet, held that Du Fu was concerned about the love between man and man and the tolerance and sympathy between man and man: "my poetry is undoubtedly influenced by Du Fu. I think he is the greatest poet ever in the field of epic and drama, and in some ways he even exceeded. Shakespeare and Homer At least he is more natural and kind.

Du Fu is not only in the Chinese name, but also famous overseas. In 1481, Korea translated Du Fu into Korean, called "Du Shi Yan Jie Jie". He had a relatively late influence on Japanese literature, until he had the same reputation in Japan as in China in seventeenth Century. Du Fu pair Matsuo Basho The influence is deep. Du Fu is also the favorite writer of American writer Rex Ross (Kenneth Rexroth).

Controversy of characters

Mystery of death

For Du Fu's death, there are five viewpoints in literature and historiography.

First, the theory of illness and death

About Du Fu's death, Mo Li Feng. Tong Qiang In " Du Fu "In the book," the poet fell ill in the winter. Be ill at work city in Hunan In the boat. A giant star has fallen in this infinite loneliness and loneliness.

Two, grant death

The saying came first from the Tang Dynasty. Li Guan The addendum of Dubo. After the proposal was put forward, scholars from various dynasties later refuted the theory and pointed out the biggest problem in the passage. It was mentioned that Tang Xuanzong died in 770 years and Du Fu died. Baoying The first year of the year (762).

Three, sink to the water and die.

This theory is originated from the false name of "Duzi Mei tomb" written by Han Yu in the Tang Dynasty. Three virtuous persons (referring to Qu Yuan, Li Bai, Du Fu) return to the same water. The three of them are drowning themselves in the sand. This is obviously a kind of imagination without any basis.

Four, food poisoning and death

This is a famous modern scholar. Guo Moruo Guo Moruo's statement is also conjectural, almost without literature as a purely personal literary creation.

Five, indigestion and death

Du Fu's death and hunger had a constant connection. After leaving Sichuan, Du Fu lived in Hunan, and was starved for 9 days because of the sudden flood. He said he had been hungry for 5 consecutive days. The local magistrate rescued Du Fu from a small boat and served him with the broiled broth (barbecue). Feastful Du Fu, who had not eaten for a long time, suffered from stomach and stomach. Digestion Bad death.

Commemoration of future generations

Tomb of Du Fu

In his later years, Du Fu was down and out. In the three years (768 years) of Dai Zong Da Li, the whole family went to Hunan in Hubei today and went back to Xiangjiang. In the five year of Da Li, he went to Chenzhou to visit relatives. Because of the sudden rise of Lei Shui, he lived in Lei Yi and Leiyang Nie Ling Li was the guest of honor. It was year that Du Fu died from poverty and illness, and died in Xiangjiang from Leiyang to Hengyang. Nie Ling was buried in a tombs, with a back to the South and a stone column on the tomb.

Tang Tianyou built the dugong shrine in the four year (907 years) ring tomb, facing the south facing the north, the quadrangle enclosed building, and the civil structure. The central main hall contains Du Fu sandalwood statue and ten rooms in the East and West corridors. Du Ling college was built beside the dugong temple in the Song Dynasty.

Du Fu's wish was buried in Shouyang mountain, but his second son, Zong Wu, was unable to do so because of poverty. He had to bury himself in Leiyang for a while. In the forty-three years after the death of the poet, Fang was buried by his sun Dusi industrial coffin in the Shouyang mountain of Yanshi, Luoyang, Henan. Now there are also Du Fu tombs under Shouyang mountain.

Du Gong Temple

There are four places in Chengdu, Leiyang and Kui Zhou. "Four temples refer to Jiangyuan, Dali Zhou, Tong Gu and Jian men ancestral temples. Today, there are sites of Du Fu's tomb, dugong temple, Du Ling Bridge, duling academy and other key cultural relics protection units in Leiyang Province, where Du Fu park is built on the basis of the ruins of Du Fu. Today, there is "dugong Temple" in shaoring plateau, Changan, Xi'an, Shaanxi province. It was founded in the Ming Dynasty, and was completely restored after liberation. It was called "Du Fu Memorial Hall".

Hometown of Du Fu

Located in Zhengzhou, Henan, Gongyi City, 5 kilometers northwest of Kang Dian Zhenkang shop village in the west of manling ridge. Covers an area of 34 acres, north to south, the main building has a gate building, Du Fu large statues, double Pavilion, poetry stele forest, Du Fu tomb, Ting Ting Pavilion, Wang Ting Pavilion, grass Pavilion, Xian Dian and other components. There are more than 3000 flowers and plants planted in the entire scenic area. The flowers and plants are ornament, the trees are shaded, the pine and cypress reflect, the Wei Wei is solemn, all kinds of facilities have the architectural style of the gardens, and have become a shining pearl on the manling ridge.

Du Fu's hometown has a memorial hall to display the versions of Du Fu's poems in the past dynasties and to study Du Fu's poems, Du Fu's genealogical tables, and "three officials" and "three off" poetic paintings. 20 thousand tourists are received each year, and the ticket revenue is 100 thousand yuan. In June 1963, it was designated as a provincial cultural relic protection unit.

Du Fu Pavilion

Located in the two section of Xiangjiang middle road in Tianxin District, Changsha City, Hunan Province, it belongs to the garden archaize architecture, to commemorate the Tang Dynasty poet Du Fu. Across from the river to Orange Island and Mount Yuelu, it is less than 100km away from Tianxin Pavilion. Jiangge garden area covers an area of more than 6000 square meters, with a building area of more than 3800 square meters. The main Pavilion is divided into four levels and 18 meters high. In 2002, the Changsha municipal government decided to formally build. In September 19, 2005, the whole building was completed and accepted by experts.

Du Fu Cottage

Du Fu Thatched Cottage, Chengdu, Sichuan, was originally built by Du Fu, after five generations.

Shu Shi poets Weizhuang Found the thatched cottage site, rebuilt the hut to preserve it. The Du Fu Thatched Cottage was renovated many times through song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. The two largest redevelopment was in thirteen years (1500) and sixteen years in Qing Jiaqing (1811), which basically laid the pattern and layout of Du Fu Thatched Cottage, and evolved into a museum with the memorial hall pattern and the old style of Akihiro Ji as a whole. In the past dynasties, there were more than sixty titles of Du Fu's tomb and Du Gong temple.

Historical records

Biography of the one hundred and ninety books of the old Tang Dynasty biography 140th. "New book of Tang Dynasty, Volume 1, biographies 126th." "Tang Cai Zi biography, biography of Du Fu" and so on.

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