Yu, surnamed Si, is famous for his life. (Yu Yu is the name). History is called Da Yu and Emperor Yu. Xia Hou Shi Chieftain Xia Dynasty The founding king. Yu is Yellow Emperor Great grandson, Zhuan Grandson (but there are also claims that Yu should be Zhu Huan's sixth grandson). His father's name A kind of Be sealed by Emperor Yao Worship For count The world is known as "Chong Bo" or " Chong Bo Its mother is Xin's Daughter of Self repair
According to legend, Yu governance Yellow River Meritorious Subject to Shun Let the throne be inherited. With the support of the princes, Yu King took the throne and took Yangcheng as the capital city, with Pingyang as the capital city (or in Anyang City or Jinyang city). The name is Xia. And seal off cinnabar In Tang Dynasty Shang Jun Yu Yu.
Yu was the first emperor of the Xia Dynasty, so the descendants also called him Xia Yu. He is the sage emperor of the legendary age of ancient China and Yao and shun. His most outstanding achievement is that he has always been praised for harnessing the towering floods and delineating the Chinese territory as Kyushu. Later people called him Dayu. After Yu died, he was buried on the hill of Shaoxing, Zhejiang. Yu Ling , Yu Temple from Xia Qi start Emperors of all dynasties Most of them came to Yu Ling to offer sacrifices to him.
Paul Mauriat's History
Yu is Yellow Emperor Great grandson, Zhuan Grandson (but there are also claims that Yu should be Zhu Huan's sixth grandson. )
The birth place is controversial. One is in Shi Ao. Mother is the daughter of Xin (now Shandong Caoxian). Female ambition Also called Self repair Yu came to the Central Plains with his father and moved eastward. His father was sealed by Emperor Yao. Worship Emperor Yao, Central Plains The flood caused floods, and the people were sad. Emperor Yao ordered that water should be harnessing, and he was ordered to deal with floods and floods. He used the barrier water method, that is, to set up a river embankment on the shore, but the water became more and more high, which lasted for nine years and could not calm the flood disaster. Then Yu was appointed Si Kong and succeeded in running water. Yu Zhi Shui went through three homes. Not enter This is the best proof that he works hard to control water.
Yu immediately and Yi He minister of agriculture under legendary Shun Together, the people were called in to assist him. He inspected the river course and reviewed the reasons for the failure. Yu summed up the lessons of his father's failure to control the water. The reform and water control method guided the river's water control as the leading factor, and made use of the natural trend of water flowing to the lower reaches to dredge the nine rivers. During the period of water control, Yu turned over mountains and dale, ran rivers across Sichuan, took measuring instruments and tools from west to East, measured the height of the terrain along the way, set up benchmarks, and planned watercourses. He led the flood control migrant workers everywhere, according to the benchmarking, the mountain opens the mountain, meets the depression to construct the dike, dredge the waterway, leads the flood to the sea. In order to control the water, Yu tried his brains, was not afraid of labour, nor dared to rest. He personally led the people to sleep in the open air, and went through the house, but dredged the river all day in the mud, introduced the plain water into the river, and then introduced into the ocean. After 13 years of treatment, we finally succeeded in eliminating the disaster of flooding in the Central Plains. Because of the merits of flood control, people express their gratitude for Yu Yu and regard him as " the third of the three legendary emperors who created the Chinese state "Great Yu".
In the process of water control, Yu traveled all over the world, knowing the terrain, customs, products and so on. Yu plans to redesign the world into nine states, and has developed the tributes of various states. Emperor Xia Yu also stipulates that the area of five hundred Li outside the emperor's Imperial Palace is called "Dai mian", and then the outer five hundred miles are called Hou clothes, and then five hundred miles outside is called Suibei, and then five hundred miles outside is called to be served, and the other five hundred miles are called wild clothes. Dian, Hou, Sui three service, enter different items or burden different labor services. To serve, not to serve, only to accept discipline and observe the rule of law. They are managed according to their customs and do not enforce the central government.
" Mencius "Wan Zhang Zhang" contains "Yu Shun Shun's son in Yangcheng". ,
Ancient Edition Bamboo book chronology "Yu Ju Yang Cheng" " World Edition In Ju Ju, "Xia Yu is all Yang City, avoiding business and all of them, both in Pingyang, or in Anyang City, or in Jinyang". " Redords of the Grand History of China Xia Ben Ji said, "Yu Ci Shun Shun's son business is all in Yangcheng". From the relevant literature, Xia Yu's relationship with Yangcheng and Pingyang is very close.
Emperor Shun was in office for thirty-three years, and he formally gave the emperor's position to Yu. Seventeen years later, Shun Died in the southern Tour After three years of mourning, Yu fled to a small town in the summer land, and gave the throne to shun's son. But all the princes of the world went to see Yu king. Under the support of the princes, Yu officially became the throne and lived in Yangcheng, the official summer. In the Tang Dynasty, the quotient merchants were all in danger. The revised calendar day is called the summer calendar, and the month of Jian Yin is the first month. " Shuyuan "Records" Yu Yu "humble palace, thin meals, Tokai Mi, etc., fine cloth."
Yu died in the tenth year when he was in office. Bamboo book chronology For forty-five years ) Huangpu mi I think Yu is one hundred years old. After the death of Yu, his son Qi Following the summer sky
Xia Yu It is a great historical figure who has made great contributions to the historical development of the Chinese nation. His great achievements are not only to control floods, to develop state production, to make people live and work in peace and contentment, but also to end the social organization form of tribal alliance of primitive society in China and create a new social and political form of "state". Xia Yu completed the establishment of the state, replaced the primitive society with class, and replaced the barbaric society with civilized society, thus promoting the historical development of Chinese emperors.
Confucius: Yu, I am forever. Filial piety takes filial piety and ghosts, and evil clothing brings beauty to the crown. Yu, I am forever.
Ji Zhi "Beautiful! Diligent but not moral, who is able to repair it?
Sima Qian Yao is suffering from floods and Li people are hungry. Yu Qin's ditch is full of hands and knees. Speak four times, move four. A wife has a day but a door is not private. Nine soil is reasonable, and mysterious Guixi
" Tai Shi Gong's Preface "Wei Yu's work," Kyushu Yau Tong, Guang Emperors Yao and Shun At the same time, de Liu Miao.
· Three out of doors
It was said that Yu and his wife were soon married, and left their wives to set foot on the road of water control. Later, he passed by the door, heard the voice of his wife and son, but when he thought of the diversion of the mountain, he could not afford to go home. The third time when he passed by his hometown, his son was being held in his arms by his mother. He already knew how to call dad, wave his hands and greet Yu. Yu just waved to his wife and children, said he saw them, and he didn't stop.
· The meeting of Tu Shan
After the summer was established, Da Yu was there. Tu Shan Convene the conference of Lords as soon as possible to review their mistakes. This meeting is generally considered to be China. summer The landmark events established by the dynasty. On the day of the formal assembly, Dayu wore a formal dress, and he held the mysterious GUI on the stage. The four sides were divided into two directions according to the direction of his country, and they made a courtesy ceremony for Yu.
After the ceremony, summer Yu loudly shouted Princes He said: "I can not be enough to serve the public, and convene this conference, in order to understand the sincere reproaches, discipline and persuasion, and let me know that I have been changed. I am all fingers and knees, even though I am a little tired, I am most proud of myself. The first emperor often used this to warn me, "if you are not proud, the world does not compete with you; if you do not cut down, do not compete with you in the world"; if I have pride and respect, please tell me in person, otherwise it will teach me to be unkind! I will be all ears to your teachings. As we all know, Yu was sent to heaven, and the princes who had expressed their views on Dayu saw Yu's attitude. They all expressed their admiration and removed their original doubts. History records that "Yu Hui princes are in Tu Shan, who hold jade and silk.
· Casting Jiuding
Tu Shan After the conference, in order to pay tribute, all the lords often paid tribute to Yangcheng (bronze). Later, the tribute of Kyushu increased year by year. Dayu remembered the former Emperor Xuanyuan of the Huangdi, and in order to commemorate the Tu Shan convention, he was prepared to pour all the gold from various parties into several big tripod. after Jiuding (that is) Jizhou Ding, Yanzhou Ding, Qingzhou Ding, Xuzhou Ding, Yangzhou Ding, Jingzhou Ding, Yuzhou Ding, Liangzhou Ding, Yongzhou Ding, cast on the top of the pavilion, the mountains and rivers, birds and animals. Jiuding symbolizes Kyushu, with Yuzhou Ding as the central tripod and Yuzhou as the central hub. Jiuding concentrated on the Yangcheng city of the capital of the Xia Dynasty, so as to show that Xia Yu became the master of Kyushu and the world was unified. Jiuding became the symbol of "destiny". It is the symbol of the supremacy of kingship and the prosperity of national unity.
Records of ancient books
" Redords of the Grand History of China · Xia Ben Ji "
" Bamboo book chronology Xia Hou Shi "
" Imperial Century Third (summer) "
The novel "Yao Shun Yu" (Gao Xingyu)
Memorial ceremony for later generations
Yu's mausoleum is located in Yu Ling village, Yu Ling Township, Yuecheng District, Shaoxing City, Zhejiang province. It was built by the descendants to celebrate and commemorate the first water control hero in ancient China and the founder of Xia Dynasty. It mainly includes three parts: Yu Ling, Yu temple and Yu temple. The architecture of Yu Ling is mainly reconstructed from Ming, Qing and the Republic of China.
In Yu Ling village of Shaoxing, Xia Yu Si surname descended from Yu Ling tombs till now, but Cang Xiu Liang pointed out that it was never credible.
summer Jie After death, Shang Tang Wang Fengxia's royal family surname surnamed a noble in Qi country, to worship the ancestral temple ancestor. "Qi in business, or sealed or absolutely". King Zhou Wu quotient is the queen, the descendant of Feng Yu Wang's East building is in the Qi land. Da Yu and Wang Jisi offered sacrifices to the state.
In 210 BC, First Emperor of Qin "On the Supreme Court, offering sacrifices to Dayu". In 960 ad, Emperor Taizu of Song The imperial decree was issued to protect Yu Ling, and it was officially listed as the national standard. The ceremony and system of offering sacrifices and rites in the two dynasties of Ming and Qing Dynasties were the most complete and the ceremonies were the most solemn. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the great sacrifices of the two dynasties were 20 times. Emperor Kangxi in Qing Dynasty qianlong emperor All in Shaoxing. In 1933, Yu Temple repaired and held a ceremonious sacrifice for Yu again.
Taoism Zhongyu is the emperor of the water authority. The birthday is October 15th.
· Yu Wang tablet
The jade monument is located on the pale purple stone wall of the Yuelu peak, on the south of the python hole. Face east and stand. The inscription describes and praises the great achievements of Dayu's water control. Da Yu's stepfather runs the water, and "seven years of listening to music and not listening to it, and three out of doors" has been circulated so far.
The jade monument in Yuelu is 1.7 meters high and 1.4 meters wide. The inscription is divided into 9 rows, 9 words per row, 77 words, and four words at the end. Its characters, such as tadpoles, are different from those of the oracle bone and the tadpoles. But more than 1200 years ago, it was heard by Han Yu. He also visited Nanyue peak to visit Yu Bei and left a poem. Even the forgery in Tang and Song Dynasties is very precious as a monument to Dayu's flood control. There are ten winds in the whole country to engrave Yu tablets, which are said to be engraved by the Yu stele of Yuelu.
Source textual research
· Hometown dispute
There are three saying about Dayu's hometown. Central Plains From the East Yi, from the West Rong, with the discovery of some archaeological activities such as the Lama site, the West Rong said it gained the upper hand.
· Yu Wang source
No record of Yu king has been found in unearthed relics and Shang Dynasty oracle bones. The earliest relics of Yu King were found in the Western Zhou Dynasty about one thousand years later. In addition, there were Qi Hou Zhong and Qin Gonggui.
After textual research, Gu Jie Gang believes that the word source of Yu is related to dragon, but it is exaggerated that Yu is a dragon. This view was mistaken by historians Liu Yimou and others at that time.