Jiangsu Dafeng Elk National Nature Reserve is located in the Yellow Sea coast, with a total area of 78,000 hectares, including 2668 hectares in the core area, 2220 hectares in the buffer area and 73112 hectares in the experimental area.
Jiangsu Dafeng Elk National Nature Reserve is the largest elk Nature Reserve in the world. It has the largest wild elk population in the world and has established the largest elk gene bank in the world.
The reserve has received nearly one million tourists from more than 40 countries, including 380,000 young people at home and abroad, accounting for 40% of the total number of tourists. It has played a great role in publicizing scientific education on wildlife conservation and raising public environmental awareness.
On October 8, 2015, according to the announcement of the National Tourism Administration, the scenic spot of Dafeng Chinese Elk Park in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, was promoted to the national 5A-level scenic spot.
Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve, the place name of Yaerdang, is located in the southeast corner of Dafeng, covering 15,000 mu. There are woodlands, grasslands, swamps and natural water surface in the area. Located in the southeast of Dafeng District, Jiangsu Province, the geographical coordinates are between 32 56'- 33 36'in the north latitude and 120 42'- 120 51' in the East longitude.
Geology and geomorphology
As a typical coastal wetland, the main wetland types include beach, seasonal river and some constructed wetlands. There are a lot of woodland, ludang, swamp, salt bare land and forest grassland.
Dafeng area belongs to the transition zone between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone, which is suitable for the growth of warm-loving crops. The oceanic climate is characterized by slow temperature rise in spring, stable and slow temperature decline in autumn, late initial frost and long frost-free period. The monsoon climate is affected by the cold air of the continental monsoon in winter, mostly northwest wind, mainly with less rain, often low temperature and frost; in summer, influenced by the oceanic monsoon, mostly Southeast wind, abundant precipitation and simultaneous hot and rainy; in spring and autumn, it is in an alternate period, forming a dry, wet, warm, cold and changeable climate. The boundaries of spring, summer, autumn and winter are not obvious. In winter, the temperature is warmer, and the phenomenon of freezing the river with heavy snow is rare. The annual average temperature is 14.5 C, the frost-free period is 299 days, the annual precipitation is 751.0 mm, and the sunshine is 2325.4 hours.
In the 1960s, elk antlers and elk bones (subfossils) were unearthed in Xintuan, Dalong, Sanwei and Liuzhuang of Dafeng District. Historical documents and unearthed cultural relics fully prove that Dafeng was the hometown of elk. In the spring of 1984, the International Wildlife Foundation and the Ministry of Forestry of China organized experts, scholars and technicians to come here to investigate and confirm that it is suitable for elk life.
With the approval of the State Council, the Ministry of Forestry and Jiangsu Province jointly established the Elk Nature Reserve here. The Ministry of Forestry invested 1.2 million yuan and started construction in 1985. The reserve is divided into three stocking circles with a core area of 45 mu, a middle circle of 1815 Mu and an outer circle of 131.4 million mu, all enclosed by iron fences to gradually expand the elk herd activity circle. In the reserve, sandstone roads are laid, management studios and living rooms are built, and high-voltage power supply is connected for lighting and development in the area.
Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was founded in 1986 and was originally a part of Dafeng Forest Farm.
On the morning of August 13, 1986, 42 moose (13 males and 29 females) were transported by air from London, England, to Guangzhou by 8 boxes. They were transferred to Shanghai and then transported by car to Dafeng Reserve for stocking.
In 1995, Dafeng Milu Deer Nature Reserve was listed as "Human and Biosphere Nature Reserve Protection Network".
At the end of 1996, the area of the nature reserve expanded to 2666 hectares, adding the third core area.
In 1997, Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was promoted to a national nature reserve.
In 2002, Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was listed in the International List of Important Wetlands.
Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was listed as a member of the East Asia-Australia Bird Protection Network by Wetland International in 2003.
In 2006, Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was designated as "National Demonstration Nature Reserve" by the State Forestry Administration. Dafeng Elk National Nature Reserve in Jiangsu Province is located in the coastal silt zone, and the coastline of the Yellow Sea extends continuously to the sea.
On October 15, 2015, the website of the National Tourism Administration issued the Announcement of the National Committee for the Quality Assessment of Tourism Resources Planning and Development. The scenic spot of Dafeng Chinese Elk Park in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, met the requirements of the national 5A-level scenic spot standard and was approved as the national 5A-level scenic spot.
In 1986, relying on 39 elk imported from Britain, the Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve on the Yellow Beach was established. After two years of "introduction and population expansion" and ten years of "behavioral remodeling", the third stage of the rescue project, Wild Return, has been implemented in the reserve since 1998. Fifty-three milu deer were released four times in ten years. After ten years of hard exploration, the number of wild milu deer increased by 13.2% annually. 118 wild populations have been formed. As of September 2013, the total number of Dafeng Elk reached 2027.
After years of follow-up observation and monitoring, the Wildlife Behavior of elk has been restored. They have strong recognition ability and consciousness of nature protection in the field. They have successfully laid offspring under completely natural conditions for three consecutive years, and all survived. The successful return of elk to nature has basically achieved the goal of harmony between man and nature, balance between social environment and ecological environment, and has become a milestone in the process of world elk protection.
Save the elk
Over the past 20 years, the number of elk in other countries has not changed significantly, while the population of Dafeng elk has increased 25 times, becoming the pioneer of the expansion of elk population in the world. Therefore, the elk has withdrawn from the "Red Book" and is listed as a rare species. This is another milestone in the process of elk conservation. Wild elk successfully completed the second reproductive cycle in the wetland of the South Yellow Sea, and great-grandchildren have appeared in the wild elk population. After 10 years of exploration and research, the number of wild elk population in nature exceeds 100, basically out of the "dangerous period" of population development.
From 2006 to 2008, the Elk Reserve conducted a deep-seated observation on the relatively concentrated and dispersed distribution of elk in the country. It was found that the elk inhabited the forest on the mountain and that a female elk suckled three young deer at the same time, and that the elk ate ate ate ate a large number of rice grass and other activities. These three major discoveries are new breakthroughs in the study of elk in China, and have important practical significance in promoting the development of wildlife conservation in China and the research of related disciplines.
Dafeng Nature Reserve has formed an ecological model of forest, grass, water, deer and bird symbiosis and a complete elk ecosystem. Spartina alterniflora, once recognized as a harmful alien species, has become a favorite food for elk and has been incorporated into the biological cycle chain of the reserve.
The biodiversity in the reserve is very rich. There are 12 kinds of mammals, 27 kinds of amphibians and reptiles, 315 kinds of birds, 599 kinds of insects and 499 kinds of plants. Red-crowned cranes, black-billed gulls, swans, white-tailed sea eagles, Swertia roxburghii and more than 30 other countries, the number of primary and secondary protected animals has also increased year by year. The growth of bird species and number is particularly prominent. The natural ecological environment of the reserve has been continuously improved, and the wetland efficiency of the Yellow Sea has been fully demonstrated.
In terms of economy, the nature reserve has become an important scenic spot for beach tourism, with 300,000 tourists per year. Tourism has also led to the development of catering, hotels, transportation and special products in surrounding towns and towns, and has become an important support for nearby farmers to become rich. The annual Dafeng Elk Festival has become an important stage for displaying Yancheng's ecological image and achievements in ecological protection, promoting investment and attracting more than one billion yuan of negotiation results each time.