Chao Opera

Home Culture 2019-04-16

Chao Opera

Chaozhou Opera, known as "Chao Diao", "Chao Yin Opera" and "Bai Zizi Opera", was widely spread in Zhao'an, Yunxiao, Pinghe, Dongshan, Zhangpu and Nanjing of southern Fujian in the late Ming Dynasty, and has a close relationship with Liyuan Opera.

Chaozhou Opera, one of the top ten Chinese operas and one of the three major operas in Guangdong Province, is a national intangible cultural heritage. It has the reputation of "exotic flowers in South China". It is well-known at home and abroad for its beautiful singing music and unique performance form, which merges into operas with rich local characteristics. Chaozhou opera is an important carrier of Chaozhou culture for thousands of years, and also an important link to connect the friendship between Chaozhou people all over the world.

"Moqua rides cranes in Yangzhou, thirsting for decades of autumn in Chaoshan. He is proud of his children and listens to music in Shantou in Spring Festival." Lao She and Cao Yu have repeatedly advised us to cherish the cultural heritage of Chaoshan and carry forward the local characteristics of Chaozhou opera.

In the forty-fifth year of Jiajing Ming Dynasty (1566), Lijing Ji, published by Masha, Jianyang, sang with "spring and tide two tunes" and absorbed the music tunes of Nanyin. According to "Chaozhou Prefecture annals" written by Shunzhi in Qing Dynasty, Chaozhou opera was "mixed with silk and bamboo orchestral strings and Nanyin local tones" in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. The Qianlong edition of Chaozhou Prefecture annals contains: "The legends performed are all adapted to Nanyin and practiced local customs", "The voice and song are gentle and graceful, with a mixture of Fujian and Guangzhou." The Opera repertoire was sung in Minnan dialect, so Li Diaoyuan of Qing Dynasty thought that "Chao Yin resembles Min".

It was selected as the first national intangible cultural heritage list in 2006.

Development history

Chaozhou Opera, also known as Chaozhou Opera, Chaoyin Opera, Chaozhou Diao, Chaozhou Baizi (top white character), Chaozhou Opera, is mainly popular in Chaozhou (Chaozhou-Shantou area), is an ancient traditional local opera singing in Chaozhou dialect. "

Chaozhou Opera, one of the top ten Chinese operas and one of the three major operas in Guangdong Province, is a national intangible cultural heritage. It has the reputation of "exotic flowers in South China". It is well-known at home and abroad for its beautiful singing music and unique performance form, which merges into operas with rich local characteristics. Chaozhou opera is an important carrier of Chaozhou culture for thousands of years, and also an important link connecting the friendship between Chaozhou people all over the world.

In the early spring of 50 years ago, under the cordial care of Premier Zhou Enlai, more than 10 people from Lao She, Cao Yu and Yang Hansheng came to visit Chaoshan. The unique culture and art of Chaoshan, especially Chaozhou Opera, touched their hearts. Lao She wrote poems full of affection with his writings.

"Moqua rides cranes in Yangzhou, thirsting for decades of autumn in Chaoshan. He is proud of his children and listens to music in Shantou in Spring Festival."

Lao She and Cao Yu have repeatedly advised us to cherish the cultural heritage of Chaoshan and carry forward the local characteristics of Chaozhou opera.

Chaozhou operas are mainly distributed in eastern Guangdong, southern Fujian, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Shanghai, as well as in Southeast Asia, the United States, Canada, France, Australia and other areas where Chaozhou-speaking overseas Chinese and ethnic Chinese live together .

Chaozhou opera is often performed at temple fairs to show respect for the "gods". People also like to watch it in a very lively atmosphere, which makes the festival atmosphere more intense. Therefore, Chaozhou opera has a stronger folk color than other operas.

Chaozhou Opera is a branch of Southern Opera in the Song and Yuan Dynasties. It evolved gradually from Southern Opera in the Song and Yuan Dynasties. It is an ancient opera with a history of more than 440 years. It mainly absorbs the characteristics of Yiyang Opera, Kunqu Opera, Bangzi Opera and Pihuang Opera. It combines local traditional folk arts, such as Chaozhou Opera, Chaozhou Opera Book and Chaozhou Embroidery, and finally forms its own unique artistic form and style.

From the 12th to the 13th centuries, Chinese operas were composed of Northern Zaju and Southern Opera (Southern Opera). Northern Zaju developed on the original basis of Song and Jin Dynasties. By the Yuan Dynasty, Nanxi Opera was flourishing; Nanxi Opera was first formed and developed in Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, in the early twelfth century. In the spread and development of the Song and Yuan Dynasties for more than 200 years, Nanxi Opera spread to the Yangtze River Basin and the Southeast coast, forming Yiyang Opera (Jiangxi), Haiyan Opera, Yuyao Opera (Zhejiang), Kunshan Opera (Suzhou), and Quanchao Opera (Southern Fujian and Eastern Guangdong).

Nanxi Opera has spread to all parts of the country and formed local voice operas. Generally, there are two situations: one is that after the original tunes of Nanxi Opera have spread to all parts of the country, they are sung by opera actors in local languages. Because of the differences in language and intonation, they are constantly changing and gradually localized in style; the other is the local traditional folk music, ranging from Yangge, minor to some clans. Religious songs are constantly used in operas to enrich the original tunes. These two factors infiltrate each other, thus forming a number of different styles of voice drama. The development of Chaozhou Opera in Ming Dynasty proves that there were flourishing Southern Opera performances in Chaoshan area during Yuan and Ming Dynasty. Some early scripts of Southern Opera in Song and Yuan Dynasty, such as Yanchen (that is, Chen Yanchen, the story of Chen Yanchen and Lian Jingniang), and Liu Xibi Jinchai Ji, are the evidences of the early Southern Opera spreading in Chaoshan area.

Secondly, Cai Bochao and Liu Xibi Jinchai are both Southern Drama scripts sung in Chaozhou dialect.

After the spread of Southern Opera to the present Chaoshan area, Chaozhou artists once sang in Chaozhou dialect. Because of the differences in pronunciation and intonation, the original tune changed. At the same time, they also absorbed Chaozhou folk music and minor tunes, thus forming a new vocal tune - Chaozhou Tune on the basis of Southern Opera. Dai Jung of the Ming Dynasty wrote in Tongzhi of Guangdong: "Chaozhou customs mostly reproduce opera in local accent." In the early Qing Dynasty, Qu Dajun wrote in Guangdong Xinyu: "Chaozhou opera is called Chaozhou opera when Chaozhou people sing southern and Northern songs in local tones." The unearthment of these two handwritten performances is a testimony to the fact that the Chaozhou people sing the Northern and Southern Songs in their native accents.

Thirdly, Lichi Ji and Lijing Ji are scripts compiled from Chaozhou traditional folk stories, which are complete in structure, skillful in technique and sung in Chaozhou tune. This shows that Chaozhou tune has matured during Jiajing period. Then, the age of its formation should naturally be before Jiajing. When was it before? According to the relevant historical data, some opera experts believe that "before the mid-Ming Dynasty, Quanzhou Chaozhou Opera was very popular, with its unique repertoire and performance form, spread in Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Chaozhou area". Before the middle of the Ming Dynasty, that is, at the beginning of the 15th century, it has been more than 500 years since then. If we start from Jiajing Binyin (1566) printed in Lijing Ji, the absolute number of the history of Chao Opera has lasted for more than 450 years.

After the development of Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chao Opera has gone through a tortuous course in modern times.

During the Anti-Japanese War, Chao Opera was in a declining stage, and there were few classes in the past.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, literature and art were valued, and Chao Opera was revived. Chao Opera was in the past.

Children's acting system has been implemented all the time. Children's artists play the roles of Xiaosheng, Qingyi and Huadan. When these artists grow up, their voices change, that is, they are eliminated. This system seriously hinders the development of the art of Chaozhou Opera. After the founding of New China, the system of child actors was abolished, and a large number of excellent actors were trained in all aspects of reform, which made the ancient art of Chao Opera shine with a new glory. In the golden age of the 1950s and 1960s, nearly 200 professional and amateur Chao opera troupes were developed, and the first generation of "Five Golden Flowers" was widely praised. And has two performances in Beijing, praised by all parties.

During the Cultural Revolution, these troupes were disbanded until the Jiangqing counter-revolutionary group was smashed.

Since the reform and opening up, under the impact of various new entertainment modes and market economy, Chaozhou Opera, like other traditional Chinese operas, has been advancing in difficulties and constantly exploring new development paths.

Chaozhou opera has been widely spread in Chaozhou, Zhao'an and Yunxiao in southern Fujian at the end of Ming Dynasty, and has close relationship with Liyuan opera. In the forty-fifth year of Jiajing Ming Dynasty (1566), Lijing Ji, published by Masha, Jianyang, sang with "spring and tide two tunes" and absorbed the musical tunes of Nan Opera. According to "Chaozhou Prefecture annals" written by Shunzhi in Qing Dynasty, Chaozhou opera was "mixed with silk and bamboo orchestral strings and Nanyin local tones" in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. The Qianlong edition of Chaozhou Prefecture annals contains: "The legends performed are all adapted to Nanyin and practiced local customs", "The voice and song are gentle and graceful, with a mixture of Fujian and Guangzhou." The Opera repertoire was sung in Minnan dialect, so Li Diaoyuan of Qing Dynasty thought that "Chao Yin resembles Min".

In the Qing Dynasty, Chaozhou Opera flourished in Chaoshan and southern Fujian. Qianlong 13 years (1748), Zhangpu Cai Bolong in

"Official Voice Collection Explanation" said: "do orthographic, singing official tune; do white words, singing spring tune; do tidal tune, singing tidal tune..." Jiaqing 21 years (1816), "Yunxiao Hall Records" contains: "Can good men and women see good performances when they are vulgar and good at directing prostitution and increasing sorrow? Although they can not be reformed nowadays, they should also be helpful to educators and compiled into songs, so that people who listen to them can rise their conscience and not be helpless."

From the late Qing Dynasty to the 1920s and 1930s, the development of Chao Opera was flourishing. According to "Yunxiao County Chronicle" Volume IV, "Fengdu" contains: "According to the prevalence of Chao Opera in this town today, this comedy plays local songs, spreading contemptible novels to cater to women and children. Every concert lasts all night and the whole country is crazy. And "every year, a street Club performs at least ten sets, which costs a lot." Longyan near the city each square also "cross-border attraction", "competition for Chao opera" performance. The repertoire is divided into three categories according to the content and subject matter: Dagong Opera, Xiaogong Opera and Sugong Opera. Dagong Opera is mostly a traditional one, with Cai Botao, Liu Zhiyuan, Guohua, Yueyue Ji, Jingchai Ji and a number of Southern Song and Yuan Opera. Xiaogong Opera mostly takes folk themes for small life plays, such as Peach Blossom Ferry and Yichun Book Collection. Sugong Opera belongs to the public hall and Wudao Opera.

What is the age of Chaozhou Opera and on what basis did it form and develop? Researchers have different opinions. One is that Chaozhou witchcraft "Guan Opera Children" developed. The other is that Chaozhou Opera is a branch of Yiyang Opera and a direct product of the spread of Yiyang Opera everywhere.

Until the 1930s, the discovery of Chaozhou opera scripts of Ming Dynasty, which were still abroad, and the unearthing of Chaozhou opera scripts by artists of Ming Dynasty, were supported by historical data.

In 1936, Xiangda, a Chinese historian, was published in the Journal of Peiping Library.

The article "Recording the Chinese Documents in Oxford" introduces for the first time the Ming Dynasty block-printed version of Banqu Lijing Opera (i.e. the script of Chen Sanwuniang) which is deposited in the library of Oxford University. The full title of the opera is "Republishing Five Colors Chaoquan Interpolation and Enhanced Poetry and Ci of Northern Opera Goulan Lijing Ji Opera". Oxford University's printed edition, because "the last page is incomplete, can not know when the book actually published", but Xiangda believes that "in terms of font illustrations, similar to the Ming Wanli edition or so."

Twenty years have passed since Da was introduced to the collection of Oxford's Litchi Mirror. In 1956, Mei Lanfang and Ouyang Yuqian led the Chinese Peking Opera Troupe to visit Japan. They met another Ming edition of Banqu Lijing Opera Wen in Tianli University, Japan, and another edition of Golden Flower Girl Complete of Jinchao Opera (enclosed with Su Liu Niang), which was hidden in the Institute of Tokyo University's Dongyang University. The Ming edition of Banqu Lijing Opera Wen, which is hidden in Tianli University, is the same printed version as that of Banqu Lijing Opera Wen, which is collected in Oxford University, UK. But the book is well preserved. The last page is the bookstore's advertisement and the words "Jiajing Binyian". Jiajing is the year of Zhu Houyu, the emperor of the Ming Dynasty. The year of Jiajing Binyin was 1566 A.D. Hidden in the Institute of Dongyang University, Tokyo University, "Re-extracting Jinchao Tiao Golden Flower Complete" has no year number, but according to expert textual research, it is a block-printed edition of Wanli Period of Ming Dynasty (see Five Postscripts of Chaozhou Opera in Ming Dynasty).

At the end of Jiajing's engraved volume, there is an announcement from the bookstore: "Reprint the Litchi Opera, totaling one hundred and fifteen leaves. Due to the errors in the previous litchi script and the decrease in the number of verses, Chaoquan has been added to Yanchen, Goulan, Poetry, Beiqu and Correction Reprint, so that the poets and poets can have a glance at leisure. The name is Litchi Record. The buyer must recognize the new Anyuer of the Tang Yu family." It shows that this "re-publication" edition is based on the old edition of "Litchi Records", which combines Chaoquan 2, adds contents of "Yanchen" and "Beiqu", and "corrects" the errors of the old edition of "Litchi Records".

In 1964, Professor Peter Long, Director of the Oriental Institute of Oxford University and Sinologist, was in Vienna, Austria.

Another Ming Dynasty block-printed version of Chaozhou Opera was found in the library. This is the New Supplementary Panorama of Local Litchi Records, published in Xinsi, Wanli, Ming Dynasty (1581 A.D.). This "newly inscribed and supplemented" Chao script is not called "Lijing Ji", but "Lichi Ji", which is a different performance script with the same story content as "Lijing Ji". It is difficult to determine whether its original copy is the basis for the re-engraving of Li Jing Ji in Jiajing. However, this engraved copy is a supplement to the new engraved version, which shows that it existed in the original engraving before Wanli. The first volume of this engraved edition is inscribed with the words "Collection of Li's Family in the East Moon of Chaozhou". Local operas do not go up to the hall of elegance, and the names of opera writers are rare. This engraved scriptwriter Li Dongyue from Chaozhou is also engraved.

In 1958 and 1975, handwritten scripts of Cai Botao (Pipa Ji) and Liu Xibi Jinchai were unearthed from Ming tombs in Yuhu, Jieyang County and Fengtang, Chaoan County. The unearthing of these two copies has attracted great attention from both domestic and foreign opera experts. They hold that they are "precious documents for studying the history of opera development" and "an important discovery of opera cultural relics since the founding of New China".

Since New China, Chao Opera has carried out a series of traditional repertoire inheritance activities.

The current batch of traditional operas in Chao opera can be roughly divided into two categories. The first category is a highly artistic repertoire which has been processed and refined. Among them, the most representative is the Long Opera "Li Jing Ji" and "Su Liu Niang", while the folded opera includes "Sweeping the Window Club", "Lulin Club", "Bian Ben", "Nao Chai", "Stirring Liang Ji" and "Nao Kaifeng".

In the 1950s and 1960s, there were many talented people in the field of Chaozhou Opera. Old artists and new literary and artistic workers joined together. Scholars and scholars in society also paid close attention to Chaozhou Opera. At that time, the traditional arrangement and inheritance reached a peak. Experts and scholars have screened a large number of traditional plays, and most of them with refined value have been processed and become the classics of Chao Opera and retained repertoires. The scripts of these plays are compact, high-minded, elegant in lyrics and high in literary value; music retains both tradition and new material; action design is closely related to character creation, and retains the delicate and elegant features of Chao opera and its unique performance program.

In addition, a number of excellent new historical plays have been written, such as Cilangzhou and Yuan Chonghuan.

In addition, the establishment of Jieyang Jiedong Xiaomeihua Chao Opera Troupe and Guangdong Xiaobaihua Chao Opera Troupe have made great efforts to convey the artistic charm of the ancient Chao Opera to young people, and have made some achievements. Among them, Xiaomeihua also employs the famous Chao Opera actor Lin Shunqing to guide her.

In addition, Hanshan Teachers'College students' development of cartoon drama has also attracted many people's attention.

Chao Opera 1