Cao Yu pen name of Wan Jiabao
Cao Yu (September 24, 1910 - December 13, 1996) writer better known as Cao Yu Xiaoshi, Xiaoshun Jia, Han nationality, native to Hubei. Qianjiang Born in a declining feudal bureaucratic family in Tianjin, China is an outstanding dramatist of modern drama. His father served as president. twice president of the republican government at Peking The secretary is unemployed at home and depressed. Cao Yu's childhood bereavement grew up in a depressed atmosphere, and her personality was depressed and introverted. 1922, admission Tianjin Nankai High School And participated in Nankai new drama troupe.
The origin of Cao Yu's pen name is because of his surname "Wan" (traditional character, structure is "Yu" next "Yu"), so he dismantled the whole word down to "Cao Yu", and because "grass" is not like a surname, it takes the homophonic word "Cao" and combines the two and gets Cao Yu.
Cao Yu is the most accomplished playwright in the history of modern Chinese drama. Cao Yu went to the theater to listen to the opera from his childhood, so he sowed the seeds of drama from an early age. Its representative works are " Thunderstorm "," sunrise "," A wide field "," Beijing people "
In December 13, 1996, Cao Yu was in a long illness. Beijing Hospital He died at the age of 86.
Cao Yu is one of the pioneers of China's new culture movement. Lu Xun , Guo Moruo , Mao Dun , Ba Jin , Lao She Equal reputation. He is a master of modern Chinese drama, a drama educator, a member of the Standing Committee and executive chairman of the Chinese Literary Federation, executive director and vice chairman of the Chinese Dramatists Association, director of the Chinese Writers Association, chairman of the Beijing Literary Federation, honorary president of Central Academy of Drama, President of Beijing people's Art Theatre, etc. Every role he created left unforgettable impressions. In 1934, the debut of Cao Yu's plays, thunderstorm, is of great significance in the history of modern Chinese drama. It is recognized as a symbol of the maturity of modern Chinese drama. Mr. Cao Yu is also known as "Oriental". Shakespeare "
Paul Mauriat's History
In 1910, Cao Yu was born in Tianjin. Xiao Bai Lou Three days later, mother Xue Shiyin Puerperal fever Death. Xue Yongnan, the twin sister of Xue, married Cao Yu's father and assumed the responsibility of bringing up Cao Yu.
In 1913, when he was 3 years old, he watched opera with his stepmother. He was able to appreciate Chinese traditional dramas such as Peking Opera, Hebei Bangzi, Shanxi Bangzi, Tangshan Lazi, and civilized opera. These dramas laid a solid foundation for his future creation. Autumn was admitted in 1922. Tianjin Nankai High School Grade two students. Actively participate in all kinds of drama activities and join in the school period. Nankai new drama troupe
In 1929, his father died of stroke. In September of the same year Nankai University To change into Tsinghua University Department of Western literature, grade two, concentrated on drama in Tsinghua and read extensively. ancient Greek Tragedy to Shakespeare Drama and Chekhov , henrik ibsen , O'neal His dramas have great influence on his later works.
In 1933, between summer and autumn, Thunderstorm Qiu went to Tsinghua Research Institute. Start with Zheng Xiu Fall in love
Recruited to Baoding Ming Tak secondary school Be an English teacher.
In March 1935, a famous movie actor. Center Stage Suicide. Cao Yu expressed his indignation and created sunrise.
June 1936, and Lu Xun , Ba Jin Wait for 77 people to sign together. Manifesto of Chinese writers and artists " In the same year autumn was the "wilderness".
In May 1937, sunrise was awarded. The Dagong Daily "Literature Award"
In 1938, the general mobilization of the whole nation was adapted from song and Xia in the summer and autumn. The change name was "black word twenty-eight", which was staged in October of the same year.
In 1940, the first half of the year was "Metamorphosis" and "thinking". In the second half of the year, he wrote "Beijing people".
In 1942, he resigned from the national drama academy at the beginning of the year, from Jiang'an to Chongqing. Teaching and learning at Fudan University
Teach English and foreign drama. The creation is adapted from the four act drama "home" and the one act play gilded.
January 1943, translation Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet.
In 1946, it was invited by the State Department of the United States. Lao She They went to the United States to lecture. In 1947, the United States arrived in February. Shanghai In autumn, the movie script, "sunny day", was completed and directed by Wen Hua company. By the end of the year, the CPC's underground party organization secretly arranged to leave Hongkong for Shanghai. In 1949, under the arrangement of the CPC's underground party organization, it was disguised as a merchant. The ship arrived from Hongkong to Jiefang District, Yantai. In April, the Chinese peace delegation headed by Guo Moruo held the world peace conference at the National Assembly Hall of Prague, capital of Czech. In the same year, the National Federation of literary and art workers was established and elected as standing committee member. Subsequently, the National Association of literary workers, the China National Theatre workers association and the national film workers association were successively established. They were elected as standing committee members and heads of editorial and publishing departments respectively.
In 1951, the Beijing people's Art Theatre was established as president.
In 1954, "bright sky" was published. In 1960, he wrote and completed the historical drama "sleep hardships and bravery". In 1978, the five act of the historical drama, Wang Zhaojun, was published.
In December 13, 1996, he died in Beijing Hospital due to chronic illness.
marriage and family
Cao Yu had three wives in succession. Zheng Xiu Deng Yisheng means Fang Rui , Li Yu Ju
Zheng Xiu is Cao Yu's first wife, and is also the longest love woman who loves Cao Yu.
She is a classmate at Tsinghua University in Cao Yu. In the early spring of 1933, in the campus drama activities of the school, Cao Yu asked her friend Sun Haoran to come forward. He invited Zheng Xiu to play the crime of the British playwright Galsworthy, who was the heroine, and began to pursue the enthusiasm of Zheng Xiu. Cao Yu was moved by Zheng Xiu's beauty and failed in several pursuits. Finally, in Cao Yu's serious illness, two people began to fall in love. After 3 years of love and long-distance running, in November 26, 1936, Cao Yu and Zheng Xiu held a ceremonious engagement ceremony at the Dario school meeting in Nanjing. Cao Yu wore Western Style Tuxedo and Zheng Xiuchuan cheongsam. Jin Yi , Ba Jin Come from other parts of the country to attend. Ba Jin sent a doll. Zheng Xiu was very happy. "I held a golden doll, and Jiabao did not appreciate Ba Jin." Thunderstorm "was not published. It was just a poor student. Ma Yan Xiang , Zhang Tianyi And so on. In the spring of 1937, Cao Yu and Zheng Xiu held a simple wedding ceremony at the national drama school in Changsha. Yu Shang Yuan Master marriage, guests have Wu Shu Guang Cao Yu and Zheng Xiu formally became husband and wife of drama school teachers and students.
Soon after Cao Yu and Zheng Xiu married, they had ten years of extramarital love with Fang Lai. This love affair was semi open from the beginning. Cao Yu proposed divorce to Zheng Xiu several times. At this time, Zheng Xiu had two daughters and resolutely remained. But the two husband and wife relationship remained in name only, and they had been separated until 1951. Zheng Xiu divorced in a very lonely and anguish. Zheng Xiu said to Cao Yu, a friend of his classmate, "I loved Cao Yu and married him in the past, and now I still love him." I agree to divorce because I want him to be happy. Zheng died in October 1989 and never remarried.
In 1951, Cao Yu and Fang Rui were formally married until the cultural revolution. Cao Yu was not criticized and put down to farm labor reform. Fang Rui was frightened and collapsed and slept on a large dose of sleeping pills. One day in 1974, Fang Rui died in his own bed. When he died, there was a lot of scattered around the bed. Sleeping pill Slice.
After Fang Rui's death, Zheng Xiu and Cao Yu's sons and daughters intend to compound two people. Cao Yu married Li Yuru in 1979, and at this point began his third marriage. Li Yuru accompanied Cao Yu to finish his last journey - until Cao Yu died in 1996.
During the war of resistance against Japan, Cao Yu taught in Sichuan Jiang'an national opera. In the summer of, Cao Yu's family prepared a bathtub and hot water for him to take a bath. At this time, he was reading a book. He couldn't help it. He pushed it back and forth. Finally, after the family urged him repeatedly, he came into the inner room with a towel in his hand and a book in his hand. One hour passed, and no one came out. The sound of water falling from time to time was heard in the room. Another hour passed, and the situation remained. Cao Yu's family members were puzzled. He pushed the door to see that Cao Yu sat in the bathtub, holding a book in one hand and holding a towel in the other hand to shoot water intentionally or unintentionally.
Deletion of lines
In the spring of 1954, Beijing people's art rehearsal " Thunderstorm This is the first time since the founding of new China. Cao Yu, as the playwright and Dean, has made a big deletion of his lines.
In the second act, there was such a monologue in Fan Yi. "It's extremely hot and stuffy. It can't live here any longer. I hope that I will become a volcano's mouth today, and I will burn it violently, and I will burn it clean. Then I will fall into the glacier and freeze to ashes, and I will burn it once all my life, and that will be enough. My past is finished, and I hope it is also dead. Hum! I am ready for everything. Come on, those who hate me, come on, call me disappointed, call me jealous people, come on, I am waiting for you.
The soliloquy had 156 words, and the result was changed to "very hot and stuffy."
There are only 20 words left in the corrected monologue. About, it can really be called " Refine on ".
Cao Yu took part in drama activities during his study in Nankai Middle School in Tianjin, and served as Ibsen. Doll house And so on. According to Cao Yu's daughter Wan Zhao And WAN Dai recalled: "Dad is in. Norway Ibsen, the realistic playwright, plays the heroine Nora in the famous drama Nora. In the play, Nora is going to run away from home with her husband on her back. My father is playing this play. One person says on the stage, singing and dancing, playing a wonderful and complicated mood in front of her husband. French Classicism Playwright Moliere The protagonist of the "mad man" adapted from the famous drama "the stingy man", in Han Bokang's discovery of losing money, he was crying and noisy. At last, he jumped on the stage and showed Han Bokang's miser vividly and thoroughly. He was highly praised by the press at that time.
In the last days of his life, Cao Yu lived in Beijing Hospital for 8 years. During that time, he never left his literary creation in his soul. The teacher has always had several books, including loose leaf notebooks, small notebooks and students' horizontal books. The contents are very rich and complicated, with his thoughts, diary, dialogue with characters, poems written out, and more outline of the script he wants to write.
At that time, Cao Shi's pillows often read "biography of Tolstoy" and so on. He looks very serious and very interested. Sometimes he looked at him and suddenly shouted, "I am ashamed. You don't know how ashamed I am." "I want to write a big thing before I die, or I will not. The more I read Tolstoy, the worse I felt. Do you know? "
Contradictions and conflicts are the core of Cao Yu's dramatic structure. The structure of Cao Yu's early plays closely revolves around contradictions and conflicts. Under the changeable drama conflict, Cao Yu's early plays had a common spiritual quality, that is, eulogized praise of primitive savagery. Like the original beauty depicted in the wilderness, the tiger is running in the primeval forest. "The earth breathes lightly, and the huge tree is still so serious and dangerous to stand." However, the eulogized praises of primitive wildness in Cao Yu's later dramas fade away, and drama conflicts also lack. The overall structure of his plays is made up of the new world locked up by the world and by the side. Cao Yu regards "home" as a way of locking the world, and takes "leaving" as a means to get out of the locked world and find new world. The development process of the structure mode of his early plays is the process that the new world gradually defeats the world of locking. This process is vividly reflected in the creation process of thunderstorm to Beijing people. Thunderstorm is a closed representative work, and then the sunrise and the wilderness are beginning to reflect in the gap of the closed world to find new world. With the collapse of the locked world, the new world becomes a rich body structure mode. At the same time, Cao Yu is good at using drama plot, and plot is an important factor in drama structure. The idea of drama mainly comes from the recomposition of life materials and impressions, but it is also an important source of dramas' conception. The plot of Cao Yu's plays is derived from the plot and reconstruction of Chinese and foreign drama. The use of dramatic plot is a major feature of Cao Yu's plays. The poetical structure of drama is another characteristic of Cao Yu's plays. The pursuit of poetic nature is the development direction of modern Chinese drama. Cao Yu once said that "Beijing people" was written by him as a poet, while another play thunderstorm is not intentional but still has a strong poetic flavor. This makes the description of the thunderstorm atmosphere extremely depressed but full of profound meaning. Under the reference of Chinese traditional culture and Western drama, Cao Yu attached great importance to the combination of poetry and drama and achieved very high achievements. The poetic structure of Cao Yu's plays is mainly reflected in language and dramatic situations.
style of language
Cao Yu's dramatic language is very distinctive, thus making him able to penetrate the inner world of the drama in the process of dealing with dramatic conflicts, or to express the mental confrontation between characters and characters, or to depict the inner self warfare of the dramas. The dispute on the surface and the external conflict all involve the inner fighting of the people in the play. All external conflicts, disputes and scenes of everyday life are intended to brew, inspire and express inner conflicts.
The distinctive character of language is a major feature of excellent drama, and is also a major feature of Cao Yu's plays. Cao Yu's individualized language is very prominent. In sunrise Li Shi Qing "You are a big waste." the world is not for you. The few figures fully exposed Li Shiqing's insidious, cruel, heartless and shameless character. In the sunrise, there are hardly any lines that are particularly offensive, which are easy to understand, concise and profound. Moreover, the lines are full of subtle pause and ellipsis, so that audiences can fully enter the scene created by the lines along with the development of the story.
The movement of drama language refers to the fact that the characters in the play not only show their speech, but also express their mental activities, thoughts and feelings. They are combined with gestures, expressions and body movements, which promote the development of the plot. Cao Yu's language also happens to have an infectious movement, such as the third scene of the wilderness, the illusion of the tiger's escape in the forest. Cao Yu has displayed it in an unusual way. Qiu Hu The conflict of inner tragedy reappears all kinds of injustices he suffered. He struggled and struggled with all kinds of illusions, and resisted his will more tenaciously. In addition, it contains rich subtext as well as Cao Yu's customary technique. In thunderstorm, excellent subtext is everywhere. Zhou Ping When you say, "are you ready?" means you are ready to run, or are you ready to be beaten?
Cao Yu's language is lyrical and poetic. In his works, Cao Yu used some poetic language techniques, such as metaphor, symbolism and implication, which made his dramatic language Lyric. In the script, Cao Yu likes to give a detailed description of the characters, life and life he depicts, and give a detailed description and description of the scenes of the characters' lives. This language, like narrative poetry, has a strong Lyric nature. The poetic language has a strong Lyric nature, profound meaning, thought-provoking and thought-provoking, and achieves the artistic effect of blending emotion and scene. Cao Yu did not write the lines in isolation or static. Instead, he made people speak on their own faces, and closely linked the lines depicting the inner activities of the characters with the stage effect and scenery settings, resulting in a strong dramatic effect. Thunderstorm is written as poetry. Many of the lines accurately show the character's character and express the inner feelings of the characters. Fan Yi is a bourgeois woman after "54". She is smart and beautiful. She has the pursuit of freedom and love. But she is wayward and weak, passionate and lonely, suffers from mental torture, longs to get rid of her own situation and can only yield to such a situation. As the author has said, she has fallen into a "cruel well". Fan Yi In the second act, the famous monologue is simply filled with anger and desire: it is extremely hot and stuffy, and it can no longer live here. I hope that I will become a volcano's mouth today, and I will burn it once and for all. I will burn it clean, and then I will fall into the glacier and freeze to ashes. I will burn it once in my life, and that will be enough. My past is finished, and I hope it is also dead. HMM, I am ready for everything. Come on, hate me. Come on, call me disappointed, call me jealous people, come on, I am waiting for you. Fan Yi is struggling and anxious, depressed and depressed in the "cruel space of the universe".
Influence of literature and art
Cao Yu applied the writing techniques of modern European drama to the creation of Chinese drama, showing the realities of Chinese society; in shaping distinctive and distinctive characters, especially female images, in making the script full of passion and poetry, especially the creation of tragic art, in making oral language in life a literary language, making dialogue art perfect, and making the script both readable and playable, great achievements have been made. The appearance of his thunderstorm shows that China has the first work comparable to foreign classical drama.
Cao Yu's works are not only published and staged in China, but also welcomed by readers and audiences. Some plays have been translated into Japanese, Russian, English and other languages. They have been published in many countries and praised by foreign readers and audiences.
Cao Yu's "Thunderstorm", "sunrise", "wilderness", " Beijing people The classic dramas, such as "home" and so on, have made the modern theatre art of China established and rooted in the audience of China, thus making the modern Chinese drama mature. Cao Yu is not only the founder of modern drama, but also the peak of modern drama. His plays influenced and cultivated several generations of Chinese Dramatists, directors and actors. They made their own mark on the overall appearance of modern Chinese drama.
As an outstanding drama educator, Cao Yu has made immortal achievements to promote the prosperity and development of Chinese literature and art and drama. From 1936 to 1941, Cao Yu taught in the first national drama school in China for 6 years, and trained a number of drama professionals for our country. After the liberation, Cao Yu served for a long time. Central Academy of Drama The responsible person has always been concerned about the education and construction of China Opera and enthusiastically encouraged and supported the pursuit and innovation of art students.
Cao Yu's ancestral home
Cao Yu's ancestral home and Cao Yu's ancestral home Museum It was in 2010 that the 100th anniversary birthday of Mr. Cao Yu came from Hubei province. Qianjiang The investment and construction of the people's government is located in the "plum garden" of Cao Yu Cultural Industry Park, north of Zhang Hua Road, Qianjiang. It covers an area of 29 thousand square meters and a building area of 3494 square meters.
The 26 rooms in the ancestral home, including "hall house", "class room", "Dexin hall", "private residence", "Wan De Mu Zun" and "Tai house", are restored according to the records recorded in the family tree of Wan family. They display more than 2000 pieces of "Cao Yu Family Genealogy" and Cao Yu's family furniture and farm tools. The exhibition line is 820 meters long. It shows people a family history of Cao Yu, a master of drama.
Cao Yu's ancestral home, through a large number of pictures, words, objects, audio-visual, video, sculpture and other forms, has concentrated on the historical form of Mr. Cao Yu's cultivated family. The completion of Cao Yu's ancestral home provides a valuable resource for the world to understand Cao Yu and study Cao Yu for experts from home and abroad.
The Cao Yu memorial is located in Qianjiang, Hubei. Cao Yu Park Inside, more than 3000 pieces of Cao Yu's humanities materials are collected. It is the most professional Memorial Hall in memory of Cao Yu's largest and richest material.
The memorial hall of Cao Yu is located in the beautiful park of Cao Yu, Qianjiang, Hubei province. It is rich in information and has high artistic taste. It is also the largest exhibition hall for Cao Yu in China. It will become the only exhibition hall in China that shows Cao Yu's outstanding contribution and influence on the world. The predecessor of the Cao Yu memorial hall is the exhibition hall of the works of Cao Yu, Qianjiang, which was founded in 1989. After 15 years, in order to meet China's (Qianjiang) Cao Yu cultural week, and further integrate and develop Cao Yu's human resources, in 2013, relevant departments integrated resources to build Cao Yu Memorial Hall.
The Cao Yu memorial hall has two floors, with an area of 3000 square meters. In the center of the first floor of the hall, there is a bronze statue of Cao Yu. On both sides of the stone wall, "Cao Yu's life" and Cao Yu's famous "I am a Qianjiang man" are engraved on the right side of the hall. The hall is on the right side of the hall. The second floor is the conference hall and reception hall of Cao Yu's famous drama "Thunderstorm" and the prose collection "Ying Chun Ji". The two main exhibition hall is in the middle. Cao Yu's works, manuscripts, photographs and other kinds of material data are collected in more than 3000 pieces, and 3 exhibition areas, 473 meters exhibition line. According to the chapters of creation, performance, management, education, bosom friends, homesickness and remembering, we have introduced Cao Yu's life, creation and the extensive influence of his plays by means of sound and photoelectric technology, which fully demonstrates the humanistic charm of a generation of drama masters.
Former residence of Tianjin
Cao Yu's former residence is located. Tianjin City East of democracy Road, Hebei District. It is a two storey building on the east facing west and brick wood structure, which was built in the late Qing Dynasty. In 2008, it was listed as a key cultural relics protection unit by the Tianjin municipal government.
Cao Yu Theatre
Cao Yu Grand Theatre is located in the cultural industry park of Cao Yu, Qianjiang, Hubei. The theatre covers an area of 170 mu, and according to the standard construction of the first class theater in China, according to the 1200 design, it can meet the needs of theatrical, opera, ballet, music and other high-end cultural and artistic performances. On the left side of the Cao Yu theatre. Chinese Dramatists Association The Cao Yu drama prize creation base has a Chinese Dramatists Association on the right. Plum Blossom Prize The Arts Exchange Center provides conditions for cultural and artistic activities such as training, creation, seminars, performances, exhibitions and collections.
Cao Yu drama literature award
The Cao Yu drama literature prize was founded in 1980. It was named the national excellent Drama Award, the Cao Yu drama literature prize, the Chinese Cao Yu drama prize, and so on. It was renamed the Chinese Drama Award Cao Yu drama prize in 2005. It is the highest prize in Chinese drama script creation for two years. It has a high reputation and extensive influence in the drama circles. Over the past 30 years, more than 400 outstanding plays have been selected by Cao Yu's drama and Literature Awards, and hundreds of outstanding writers have been launched, which have made important contributions to the prosperity and development of Chinese drama creation.
Cao Yu prize in Education
2011 is to commemorate the great playwright Cao Yu and promote. Qianjiang Education development and personnel training, Qianjiang, Hubei, Cao Yu Education Award. The award will be used to reward outstanding teachers and excellent students in order to boost the reform and development of education in Qianjiang, improve the quality of teachers, improve teaching quality, and innovate educational scientific research, so as to guide the development direction of teachers and the training direction of students.
Zhao Pu Chu "The art sea people have seen the thunderstorm all over the world.
Hu Qing Qing "The sound of the play is inherited from the later generations, and the whole life is grand and anti imperialist."
" The Dagong Daily "The literary and Art Prize Review Committee:" he sculpted some flesh and blood figures in our rotten social strata, and he was accused of being caressed. The choice of themes, the dominance of the plot, and the use of the background show his great courage, all because he is a conscious artist, not lively, but capable of performing the stage effect.
Sun Qing Sheng "The audience of civilized drama, amateur actors of amusing dramas, dramatists under the influence of left-wing dramas"
Zhu Dong Lin "The founder of modern Chinese drama."
Yu Qiuyu "Cao Yu, as a master of drama, is not only the founder of Chinese drama art, but also an outstanding representative of the development of world drama in the twentieth Century."
Yu Shi "He is a playwright, a poet and a realistic drama poet. His works are characterized by the blending of emotion and reason, and his poetic style, which shows clearly the realm of poetry in pursuit of drama.
Jie Xi Zhang "Cao Yu's dramas began very early. Thunderstorm is his first work, which was created in 1933. He was 24 years old and a student who was going to graduate from Tsinghua University. If he translated the foreign script, it would be earlier, about 20 years old. But once his creation begins, like an oil well eruption, it is not only powerful but also continuous. After the thunderstorm, in 1936, he wrote "sunrise"; in 1937, he wrote "wilderness"; in 1939, he created "Metamorphosis"; in 1940, he created "Beijing people". So far, the most important works in his life have been completed. His irreplaceable nature in the history of Chinese drama has been established. He has stood like a monument, and so far no one can surpass it. At that time, he was only 31 years old, and just passed away. "
Cao Yu is one of the pioneers of China's new culture movement. Lu Xun , Guo Moruo , Mao Dun , Ba Jin , Lao She Equal reputation. He is a master of modern Chinese drama and a drama educator. China Federation of literary and Art Circles Member of the Standing Committee and executive chairman; executive director and vice chairman of the Chinese Dramatists Association; Chinese Writers Association Director, chairman of Beijing Literary Federation; Central Academy of Drama Vice president, honorary president; Beijing people's Art Theatre Presidents and other posts. As a drama educationist, he made a special contribution to the creation of Central Academy of Drama and the cultivation of drama and film talents. As one of the founders of the Beijing people's Art Theater, he worked with us all over the past half century to build Beijing's art into a famous theater with Chinese opera system and style. As a talented actor, every role he created has left an unforgettable impression on him. In 1934, the debut of Cao Yu's plays, thunderstorm, is of great significance in the history of modern Chinese drama. It is recognized as a symbol of the maturity of modern Chinese drama. Mr. Cao Yu is also known as "Oriental". Shakespeare "
Cao Yu has a place in the history of world drama culture. Cao Yu's works are welcomed not only by Chinese audiences but also by audiences all over the world. His script has been translated into many languages and has been widely played in the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan, Vietnam, North Korea, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Mongolia, Hongkong, Macao and other countries and regions in the form of television, Peking Opera, opera, Flower Drum Opera, musical drama, ballet and other forms of art. He has visited the Soviet Union, Japan, India, the United States, Britain, France and Switzerland for many times, and has made positive contributions to the spread of Chinese culture. In 1984, French President Mitterrand awarded Cao Yu the medal of the highest legion of honor in France to reward him for his contributions to Sino French cultural exchanges.