Cao Pi

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Cao Pi

Wei Wendi Cao Pi (187 - 26 June 29th) Zi Wan Pei Guo Qiao County, Yuzhou City (now Anhui Province Bozhou City People. Three Kingdoms period Famous Politician , Litterateur , the Wei state of the Three-Kingdoms Period Emperor of the founding of the PRC (220 to 26 years). Wei Wu Di Cao Cao Second son and the main room Madam Bian The eldest son

Cao Pi's childhood Be adept with both the pen and the sword The Expo is well known. All classes of authors Theory. Jianan twenty-two years (217 years), Cao Pi defeated his brother. Cao Zhi Be established as King of Wei The son of the world. Jianan twenty-five years (220 years), Cao Cao passed away, Cao Pi succeeded. The prime minister Wei Wang. In the same year, Zen became the foundation and ended in Wei Dai Han. Han Dynasty After more than 400 years of rule, Wei kingdom was established. During the reign of Cao Pi, he adopted the Ministry of clerks and clerks. Chen Qun In the first year of Huang Dynasty (220 years), he made his decision. Nine-rank system Become Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties The main election officer system. And calm down. Qingzhou , Xuzhou The separatist forces in the area finally completed the unification of the north. To stabilize the border and fight back Xianbei , and Xiongnu , Di , Qiang Restore and restore Western Regions Establishment.

In the first seven years (226 years), Cao Pi died. Luoyang He was forty years old. Posthumous title God of Literature Temple Gao Zu ( Comprehensive Mirror for Aid Government Make Ancestor Buried in The first Yangling Mausoleum Cao Pi has achieved great success in poetry, Fu and literature. Five character poem , and his father Cao Cao and brother Cao Zhi, also called "Jian An". three caos "Today," Wei Wen Di Ji Volume two. In addition, Cao Pi wrote " Literary theory "In" paper "Is the first systematic monograph of literary criticism in the history of Chinese literature.

Paul Mauriat's History

Early experience

Emperor Ling of Han Ping Zhong In four years (187 years), Cao Pi was born in winter. Qiao County (now Bozhou, Anhui).

It is said that when Cao Pi was born, there appeared a blue cloud in the sky and shaped like a car cover, surrounded by it all day long. People who saw Xiang Yun thought that Cao Pi would not be a minister in the future. Since his childhood, he was talented and intelligent, and his good educational environment has given him a profound literary accomplishment. At the stage of young growth, he studied extensively. Under the strict supervision of Cao Cao, he read poetry and theory in his youth. He grew up and studied the four classics, the Han Dynasty and the hundred schools of thought. It lays a solid foundation for future literary creation.

Initial level Three years (192 years). Cao Cao Cao Pixue thought that when he was six years old, Cao Pi learned to shoot arrows. At the age of eight, Cao Pi learned to ride horses. From the age of ten, Cao Pi fought with his father in the north and south, and his long military life trained his strong physique. He also enriched his knowledge and accumulated a lot of material for his poetry creation. With the continuous growth of his age and experience, the mental impact brought about by his hard living environment has gradually formed his unique character of depression. Jianan two years (197 years), Cao Pisui Cao Cao South levy Zhang embroidery Zhang embroidery first lowered and then reversed, Cao Cao's eldest son. Cao ang And nephew Cao An min Cao Pi, who was only ten years old, escaped by riding a horse.

Jianan thirteen years (208 years), Cao Pi was Szeto Zhao Wen Cao Cao recommended that Zhao Wen recommended his son not because of his real talent, so that he kept the middle class and kept his honor. Xi Yu The policy is to avoid Zhao Wen's official position. Jian an sixteen years (211 years), Cao Piren Jette Deputy Prime Minister.

Jianan seventeen years (212 years), Cao Cao South Sun Quan army stationed in Qu Li (now Henan Linying County complex town), Shang Shu order Emperor Xu Went to Lao Jun, and Cao Pi had discussed archery skills. Jianan eighteen years (213 years), Cao Cao took Cao Pi and others, returned to Bozhou (now Anhui Bozhou) home to worship the grave. At the end of the matter, Cao Pi and other horse riding tours passed through the Eastern garden. Vortex River Through Gao Lin, he wrote the book. Temporary vorticity "

The argument of setting up offspring

Among the twenty-five offspring of Cao Cao, there were four candidates in Cao Cao's vision: Cao ang , Cao Chong Cao Pi, Cao Zhi There are at least two candidates for the crown prince. Mrs Liu Cao Anghe, the growing son Madam annulus Cao Chong was born. Cao Pi is the second son of Cao Cao. After the death of Cao ang, Cao Cao also planned to pass on his brother Cao Chong. Cao Chong is a child prodigy. When he was five or six years old, intelligence was "like an adult". And nature is kind and loving, often for inadvertently committed a fault to try to solve and avoid, "rely on those who love, before and after dozens of". For this reason, Cao Chong was deeply loved by Cao Cao, but Cao Chong died of illness at the age of thirteen. After his death, Cao Cao once said to Cao Pi, "Cao Chongzhi's death is my misfortune, but it is your great fortune." Cao Pi often said to others, "if Cao Chong is still alive, there will be no throne of my prince." After Cao Chong's death, there were only two candidates, Cao Pi and Cao Zhi, who had meaningful competition to save their offspring. Soon, Cao Pitong's mother brother Cao Zhi Cao Cao was fond of showing off her head in romantic style. So there was a dispute between Cao Pi and Cao Zhi's brothers.

Cao Cao long term

It is hard to avoid affecting subordinates in making decisions. As time went on, there were two groups supporting Cao Pi and Cao Zhi. Cao Pi's support Jia Xu , Yan Cao , Sima Yi , Chen Qun , Huan stage , Xing Yi , Wu quality Others support Cao Zhi. Ding Yi , Ding , Yang Xiu , Kong Guang , Yang Jun , Jia Qu , Handan Chun Wait forsomeone. They each formed a partisan, designed and created public opinion. Each trying to cheat or outwit the other Cross each other. Yang Xiu, who supports Cao Zhi, was born in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Hong Nong Yang "This is a wise man who is a wise man. He is also Cao Cao's master book. The news is very good. It is very beneficial to Cao Zhi. Under his strategy, Cao Zhi has gained the advantage in this battle, and there are several opportunities to become the prince. But because Cao Zhi behaved capricious, he did not pay much attention to temperance himself, but he was also drunk. Sima men Cao Cao was unhappy at last.

Jianan twenty-two years (217 years), Cao Pi used various strategies, in the Sima Yi With the help of the Minister of Wu, he defeated Cao Zhi in the struggle for the right of succession and was established as the son of Wei. Jianan twenty-four years (219 years), Cao Pi as a prince stationed in Ye City (now Hebei Linzhang County West). Wei Zhi Conspiracy to attack ye and conspire with it Chen Yi Surrender, Cao Pi led the crowd to calm the turmoil and kill Wei. During his Wei Wei period, Cao Pi actively organized literary groups and participated in encouraging literary creation, thus making the works of similar singing and poetry and poetry flourish, and became the unique meteorological development of Jianan literature.

Usurp Han as Emperor

In the first month of 220 years, Cao Cao died in Luoyang, Cao Picong. Ye Cheng to Luoyang The prime minister and Wei Wang were twenty-five years later. Cao Pi, who first came to power at the top of his palm, was excited and satisfied with the sudden transfer of power. In the face of the takeover from the father, it is felt that the accomplishment of his father's renewed national strength and the realization of reunification will be a long and arduous task for him.

Cao Pi learned lessons from the late history of the Eastern Han Dynasty, and quickly concentrated power on his hands to stabilize the political situation. He knows that only by consolidating and consolidating his centralization can he consolidate the importance of his throne. He started from the internal rights checks and balances, and responded quickly. He has seized and fostered his political power, redistributed his share of the right cake, and combating the elimination of alien forces. Appointment in February Jia Xu by Tai Wei , Hua Xin by Xiang Guo , Wang Lang by imperial censor Appointment Xia Hou Tang For the general. Chinese style , Supporting surplus Shan Yu, Yanqi , khotan Wang Jie sends his dedication. In May, the mountain thief, Zheng Gan and Wang Zhao, who surrendered and surrendered, were named Hou. Su Shi Warding down Wuwei , Jiuquan and Zhangye The rebellion. In July, Sun Quan sent his dedication to the same month. Xia Hou Shang , Xu Huang Shu and Jiang Meng Da Reunification of the three counties. King Di of Wudu Yang servant The rate is in Hanyang county. Jia Wu, stationed in the army with Qiao, was in the east of the city to conserve the six army and Qiao County's elders by wine and food.

The political situation in the Han world began to disorder after the turmoil of Dong Zhuo. After Cao Cao moved to the Han Dynasty to offer his emperor to Xuchang, all the decrees of "taking the emperor to make the princes" were out of Cao's family. In the possession of imperial power, Han Xian Di has become a puppet. Although Cao Cao fought against the four sides of the army, he was a ruler in various separatist forces. In the early October of the first year of the year, in November 13th of 220, on the day of Kui Mao, Cao Pi, king of Wei, went astringent and converged and sacrificed. On the thirteen day (November 25th, Yi Mao day), Han Xian Di officially gave up the throne, and Cao Pi gave the three time to give up. On the twenty-nine day (December 11th, Xinwu day), Cao Pideng was praised by Emperor Chan Tai and changed to the early Huang Dynasty. He changed yang to Luoyang and gave the world an amnesty. The first year of the Yellow Emperor in early November (220 December 13th), Hanoi, Gunyama Yomura (today's Shandong Heze) Juye County Ten thousand households serve the Han emperor as the Shanyang public.

Seven years in power

In the first year of Huang Dynasty (220 years), Cao Pi ascended to the stage of history as an emperor and began his seven years in office. During his time in office, Cao Pi wanted to achieve some Confucian benevolent monarchy. Cao Pi inherited the ambition of Cao Cao and his father in political ambition. In the aspect of governing the state concept, we are seeking to follow the example of the ancient benevolent monarch and the virtuous ministers. He is equally committed to internal administration, consolidating his rights and centring power in his hands, making laws to cut down his vows and striking dissidents. He also lived with the livelihood of the people, benefiting the government and reviving Confucianism. It aims at educating the masses, restoring order in social life, and promoting the development of social economy and culture. In the three years (222 years) of Huang Chu in February, the king of Shanshan, the king of Qi and the king of Yutian sent each other to make contributions. It's a post western area restoration. In March, the emperor's eldest son. Cao Rui For the plains king, brother Cao Zhang All eleven are kings. In April, Cao Zhi was named king of Juancheng. September, dignitaries Queen Guo For the queen.

Cao Pi has always advocated the expedition and is eager to achieve the goal of unifying the mountains and rivers at an early date. He was aggressive.

The battlefield, two times to build up a division of Wu. In the second year of Huang Chu (221 years), Sun Quan was attacked by Wu. Guan Yu The land of Jingxiang was afraid of Liu Bei's revenge. It was a fake and Wei Cao Pi's dispatch to repair the seal. Yu ban Wait. " Cao Pi dispatched " Too often Xing Zhen The right to worship is the general, King Wu. Add nine tin " Sun Quan was a hero in Wei. In the same year, Liu Beifen and Sun Quan attacked Guan Yu and Lian Cao Wei, who were in charge of the army to cut down Wu. Sun Quan sent the book and Liu Bei was angry. It was the year that broke the two points of Wu Jun's mouth and his sister. In the first three years (222 years) of the early years of the Yellow Emperor, Sun Quan wrote to Cao Pi to tell him to send troops to meet the enemy, and Cao Pi wrote the book "Sun Quan", encouraging him to kill the enemy. Leap month, Sun Quanpo Liu Bei in Yiling (now Hubei Yidu North). At the beginning, Cao Pi heard that Liu Bei was fighting against the east side of the army, and he was at war with Sun Quan, and the tree gate was more than 700 Li. Seven days later, Sun Quan broke up Liu Bei's document and sent it to him. Later, because of the threat of Shu Han, Sun Quan procrastinated repeatedly when he sent his eldest son to the Wei Dynasty. Wei Wu's Alliance gradually appeared to be in a state of disagreement. In October of the same year, Sun Quan rebel. Cao Pi was very angry about Sun Quan's cheating and betrayal. Fwu Zhao "Encourage the officers and men to say:" the South march forward, surrounded by Jiangling, more boat boats. Decapitation, capture and descend. The cow wine day arrives. " He insisted that Sun Quan should be mentioned in the south.

Cao Pizi and Xu Changnan, the soldiers and soldiers entered the army, and Cao Zhen, Cao Xiu and other great roads defeated Sun Sheng. Da Fan Lu Fan Burning Zhuge Jin Almost captured Jiangling. Sun Quan refused to stand in front of the river. Zhu Huan All the way must be broken. Cao Ren Cao Pi's victory was in sight, but unexpectedly he encountered epidemic diseases. Zhu ran Stick to Jiangling. Sun Quan took the opportunity to redistribute the tribute to him. Two dialects and Cao Pi withdrew. November, Xinwei, the general of the town west Cao Zhen The rate will be broken down by the soldiers of the state and the army. Ten days later, when Cao Pi was sent to Luoyang, he was very happy and laughed and said, "I plan strategizing within the curtain, and all of them will fight bravely outside thousands of miles. There were not so many prisoners in the war. "

Huang Chu four years (223 years), heavy ministers Cao Ren , Cao Zhang , Jia Xu Died successively. In the five years (224 years) of the early years of Huang Dynasty, in April, Cao Pili studied the method of five classics. In the six years (225 years) of Huang Chu in February, dispatched messengers from Xuchang to Pei county to inquire about the hardships of the people and relieve the needy. In the same year, Zhou Shi Shi Liang used to break Xianbei. Ke Bi can In October, Cao Pi was fortunate to be in Guangling (now Yangzhou, Jiangsu), Gucheng, Linjiang, and more than ten thousand soldiers and hundreds of miles. In those days, when the river was frozen, the boat could not enter the river. During this period, through yongqiu (now Qixian County, Henan), to Cao Zhi's place, he met Cao Zhi and increased his household number by five hundred. In December, Cao Pi and his party sent messengers from the Qiaojing cross beam to the Eastern Han Dynasty. Qiao yuan (and Cao Cao is a friend of the year).

Died in the year

In realizing the issue of unification, Cao Pi hoped that he could have a royal strategy to achieve his sincere aspiration, and also had a strong ambition to destroy the thief. Although the two felling of Wu was unsuccessful due to the premature opportunity, because of the drive of unified ambition, Cao Pi's administration in the late stage of the post needed to enrich the country and strengthen the army, which was of positive significance to the social development at that time. At the same time, its governing achievements also have an important influence on the development and prosperity of Chinese literature in this period.

In the first seven years of the Yellow Emperor (226 years), Cao Pi returned to Luoyang's palace. On May, on the day of the first day of June 28th (June 28th), Cao Pi was seriously ill. Chen Qun General of the Chinese Army Cao Zhen Commanding generals Cao Xu Sima Yi, the general of the army, received the imperial edict to assist his son Cao Rui. Let the harem Shu Yuan and Zhao Yi have returned to their homes. On the same day seventeen (June 29th), Cao Pi died at the age of forty. Emperor of posthumous title, Temple Gao Zu ( Comprehensive Mirror for Aid Government Make Ancestor ) According to their proclamation, no tree or grave will be buried. The first Yangling Mausoleum (northwest Yanshi, Henan).

Political initiatives


· Reform of official system

At the beginning of the accession to the throne of Wei, Cao Pi introduced two new policies: the first new deal was abolished. Regular service and Xiao Huang men Set up To wait for a ride Two kinds of casual riding Official position The four officers and staff members also announced that they should strictly prohibit the officials from serving the government and the officials of the official circles, and that they could only serve as the "root of the decree" and eliminate the roots of the eunuchs from the system. In order to spread it far, he also engraved on the Golden Edition of the "state of affairs", which was engraved on the simple plan of metal, and then preserved in the stone room.

The second new deal is adoption. Chen Qun Opinions established Nine-rank system It succeeded in easing the relationship between Cao and the gentry, and gained their support for laying the foundation for emperor. After the introduction of the nine grade system, he accepted the central government with human rights from the place, but also led to the gradual rule of Wei's real power. gentry MONOPOLY.

· Concentrated imperial power

After Cao Pi became emperor, he insisted on the establishment of power. Secretariat Its officials were replaced by scholars. Shang Shu Lang The responsibility for drafting the imperial edict was transferred by the officials of the central library. It is also decided that women should not be predisposed, and ministers should not play the Empress Dowager. The family of the latter family should not be appointed as a political assistant. At the same time, the right of the king's sovereignty was cut down, and the fief of the king of Wei and Wei often changed, without the right to rule and the military power. Although this policy has absorbed the lessons of the rebellion of the Han Dynasty, it left behind hidden dangers, which led to the incompetence of the clansmen.

· Purge official duties

After establishing Wei state, Cao Pi fully purposed the Chao Gang, and promulgated the "sun food not to impeach the imperial edict" in the second year of the Yellow Emperor (221 years), in order to eliminate the malpractice of the minister who blamed the innocent, and the next year (222) issued the "libel deed" and "the hundred officials should not interfere with the imperial edict" to change the world style of false accusations and courtiers.


On the economic front, Cao Pi continued to develop. the system of stationing garrisons to grow their own food We should stabilize the social order through the implementation of the valley and silk market. At the end of the Huang Dynasty, the state treasury of Wei was enriched, and accumulated huge amounts of money to basically solve the problem of war. Inflation Problem. At the same time, take strategic defensive and restore production. In addition to prohibition, light tariffs, prohibition of personal hatred, extensive punishment for light punishment and recuperation with the people can restore stability and prosperity in the northern region.

Cao Pi advocated frugality, thin burial, and decree prohibiting thick burial and immoral sacrifice. Pre made complete the three-year mourning for one's parents "


In the first year of Huang Dynasty (220 years), Cao Pi ordered the restoration of Tai Xue, the establishment of Confucian educational institutions and the dissemination of Confucian classics. Later, it collects and collects classics and encourages classics to develop cultural undertakings.

In the second year of Huang (221 years), he ordered more than one hundred thousand of the population. system of political zoning Annual review Xiaolian If a person has outstanding talents, he or she can not be restricted by household registration. In the three years (222 years) of the early years of the Yellow Emperor, he issued the "do not restrict the imperial edict", in order to break the age line.

In the four years (223 years) of the early years of Huang Dynasty, he made rites and music on the basis of the original Han chamber music and dance. He played Zheng Shi Le, Ying Ling Yue, Wu Song Yue, Zhao Ye Le, Fengxiang dance, Ling Wu dance, wu song dance, Dazhao dance and Da Wu dance in the temple above the hall. Huang Chu five years (224 years), sealed Confucius later generations Kong Xian For Zong Shenghou, to reap hundreds of households and rebuild Confucian Temple In all parts of the country, Daxing Confucianism is established. Tai Xue Set up Five Classics The method of class test and the establishment of spring and Autumn Period Valley beam Doctor.

These measures of Cao Pi revived the feudal orthodox culture in a short time.


· Elimination of separatism

When Cao Pi was in power, he took advantage of the name of Wu and put it down. Qingzhou , Xuzhou The local separatist forces eventually completed the unification of the north. Since the end of the Han Dynasty, there exist in the Qing and Xu areas. Zang Ba , Sun Guan The other separatist forces led by them, though they turned to Cao Cao, had independent territory and strength, and Cao Cao had to take a policy of restraint on them. When Cao Cao died, there was a disturbance in Luoyang's green and Xu Bing. Cao Pi adopted a strategy of not taking up the blame, stabilizing them and controlling the situation; in the three years (222 years) of Huang Chu, Cao Piyi king of Wu in the Three Kingdoms Era In the early five years, 224 years and 225 years in the early years of the Yellow Emperor, Cao Pi two times supervised the Wu in the five years, 224 years and 225 years. Guangling Instead of fighting with Wu Jun, he defeated the Lee City mutiny and solved the hidden danger of Qing and Xu thoroughly. Therefore, later generations speculated that the real purpose of Cao Pi's expedition was not to cut down Wu, but to use this as a cover to calm down the Qing and Xu separatist forces, fully showing his careful and decisive quality as a statesman.

historian Tian Yu Qing Evaluating Cao Pi's elimination of the Qing and Xu separatist forces, said: "Cao Pi finally solved the problem of Qing Xu Hao's independence in the battle of Guangling, enhanced the stability of Wei and consolidated the unification of the north, which can be said to be a political matter that can be said and neglected by people in his seven years in office. The battle of Guangling resolved the issue of "Qing Xu" and brought the east to unification.

· Great break of Shu Han

Cao Pi died in the first year of Yat Kang (220 years). Xia Hou Shang , Xu Huang Summon somebody to surrender Shu Han Yidu prefect Meng Da Big break Liu Bei Adopted son Liu Feng Recover the upper three county.

· Three east Wu

Sun Quan once accepted the title of King Wu to Wei Chengchen. After many mediation, Wei Wu finally went to hostility, and Cao Pi made his three visit. Eastern Wu None of them achieved much effect.


When Cao Pi was king of Wei, he ordered Su Shi Three kinds of rebellion in Wuwei, namely, Hu, Jiuquan and Zhangye. After the emperor, life Cao Zhen The warlord broke up the Qiang and Hu coalition forces to calm the west of the river, sent the reunification of the western regions, and restored the rule of the Central Plains in the western regions. Long history house in western region

Cao Pi was appointed by North Di for his invasion of frontier fortress. Tian Yu by hold the imperial insignia —serve as a diplomatic envoy Xiao Wei, Wu Wei Wan, Pull in , Jie Jun The same is for Wei Xianwei, Tian Yu. Liang Xi The generals appeared in Northern Xinjiang and defeated Xianbei several times.

Literary achievement


Cao Pi is an outstanding poet in China's Three Kingdoms era. Its " yan ge xing "Is the earliest extant scholar in China. Poem with seven characters to a line His five words and Yuefu There are about forty poems extant.

Cao Pi's poetry is varied in form, but it takes five or seven words as a long language with a popular spirit. The technique is euphemistic and meticulous. The song of Yan Ge, which represents the highest achievement of Cao Pi's poetry, was written in Jianan twelve years, and Cao Cao was the three county in northern expedition. Wu Huan During the adoption Yuefu Genre is the earliest and most complete seven character poem. From the perspective of "thinking women", Yan Song row reflects the current situation of war and disorder in the last years of Eastern Han Dynasty, and expresses the grievances and melancholy of men and women who are forced to separate. The whole poem is not carved with words, syllables are graceful, and feelings are transferred. Wang Fuzhi Praise highly "love, inclination, color, voice, ancient and modern no two". Some of Cao Pi's praises for posterity are all in the five senses. military officer in charge of the security of the royal palace His poems were exquisite, clear and sentimental.

Ye Jiaying, a scholar, listed in Ye Jiaying's poems about Han, Wei and six dynasties. Zhong Rong " ranking of poets " Liu Xie " Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature And Wang Fuzhi " Jiang Zhai's Poetry The evaluation of Cao Pi. " ranking of poets "Cao Pipai is in the middle grade, and his poetry is not as good as his brother. Cao Zhi The reason for this is that Cao Pishi's "rates are all straight as words" ("two languages", that is, the average person is speaking). In contrast, Cao Zhi is "high in spirit and high in character." Emotion and elegance and resentment, body by quality, charm overflowing the past, outstanding. " Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature "(Cai Lun") said that Cao Pi "Wei Wen Zhi Cai, Yang Yang Qing Qi, old talk about suppression, that is, to plant thousands of miles... Zi Huan thought carefully and slowly, so it does not compete in the first place", and Cao Zhi "smart and smart", also known as "vulgar sentiment and ringing, the same sound, so that the emperor of the throne to respect the reduction of the king, the king of the king is in a difficult price, not to be criticized", the world sympathized with Cao Zhi's situation, Cao Pi is the winner of the battle for the brothers, people also ignore the beauty of his article. In the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, Wang Fuzhi In "Jiang Zhai Shi Hua", he said frankly: "in fact, son Huan, genius and hair, how can Zi Jian overcome it?" It can be seen as a declaration of "rehabilitating" Cao Pi's literary achievements. Ye Jiaying said that Cao Pi is a "rational poet". He is restrained and introspective, and "wins by feeling and rhyming".


Cao Pi's essays are compiled by Yan Ke Jun. Three dynasties, Qin, Han, Three Kingdoms, Six Dynasties Compilation and Wei Hongcan Cao Pi collation annotation "(Anhui University press, 2009 10 first edition) compared to see the system, including seventy-five imperial edicts (including remnant articles), thirty-seven books (including incomplete articles), twenty-six articles (including incomplete articles), six articles, four strategies, four orders, three written articles, three inscriptions, three articles, strategic essays, one article, one text, one article, one article, one essay, and other essays. Cao Pi's achievements in prose can be said to be comprehensive, extensive and expanding in content. The author worries about his mood and feelings and writes it between the lines. At the same time, it can break the shackles of the system and release the feelings in the pen. In the prose, the writer is sensitive to the subtle and sensitive feelings, and the language of love and emotion is everywhere, which often touches the hearts of the people. So it was Pei Song Zhi It is known as "beautiful words" and its style is strong.

In terms of subject matter and content, such books and essays are rich in subject matter and wide in contents. Cao Pi has tried to expand the traditional themes, which is the demonstration of the enlargement of the contents of the epistolary. It also reflects the custom of giving gifts to each other at that time, which is of certain significance to understand the interpersonal interaction between the people at that time. Moreover, Cao Pi has strong literary criticism in his prose. Cao Pi has put his views on literature actively into the epistles. Similarly, Cao Pi's expression of political opinions and ideals is deeply reflected in the contents of his prose works. In another sense, Sun Quan is a good diplomatic document. The wording of this book is rigorous and hard and soft. It has made sense, advantage and integrity.

Cao Pi's books and essays not only involve a wide range of subjects, but also are full of emotions in reflecting market conditions. All the delicate and affectionate features of Cao Pi's poems are also published in prose. Cao Pi's books and essays are not only of literary and artistic features. The clever diction is also very outstanding.


Among the twenty-eight works written by Cao Pi, sixteen are ordered. From the overall content, lyric and chanting are the main reasons, while the institutional aspect has changed the huge volume of Han Da Fu, which has become a short and exquisite mourning quotation. Its content is touched by the true feelings of the pen, touches all aspects of social reality, and brings individual joy, sadness and joy into the small quotes of the market.

Life record: during the Jianan period, Ci Fu began to develop towards the trend of short and market oriented, and its style has obviously changed. Layout is closely related to real life, reflecting the reality of society, recording the author's personal experience. There are many contents in Cao Pifu's works that express the aspirations and feelings of the times. Cao Pi's School hunting Fu "Cao Pi" is a very complete Fu. In his fu, he does not use much ink, but three hundred words will describe the hunting scene.

Writing feelings: Cao Pi created his works for love. His works are full of sentiments. Looking at the different perspectives of emotion from the row. Widow Fu "," Fu Fu "More expresses the author's sympathy for the lower class women. Cao Pishan wrote works on women's themes, and her poems have the emotional line of "widow's Poems" and their works. The author combines the realistic portrayal of the widow's lonely life with the feelings of the four seasons of the year. The scene shows the widows' infinite melancholy and sadness. Cao Pi's exquisite and gentle brushwork always touched the helpless widow's sad feeling and could not be relieved.

Physical objects: Cao Cao takes Cao Pi, Cao Zhi Others wait The Assassins During the play, Cao Pi brothers gave the same title each one, so his brother Cao Zhi also had the same title Fu. Cao Pi's Mount Tai Fu "Is a singing of the bronze sparrow terrace, magnificent. Xiao Fu The writing of this Fu is fresh and delicate. When describing the scenery, he has done "writing pictures, looking like paintings." Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature "Harmony". From the emotional color reflected in Fu, it is full of nostalgia and joy for the good times. The author depict the beautiful scenery of Yangchun in March with the bright rhythm of the bright language, and combine the joy of this time with the lively scene of nature, revealing the desire of Cao Pi's heart for peace and tranquility, and the sentiments of young upward striving.

Cao Pi's poetry style affects the style of his fu. The Fu of poetry is characterized by his works and has obvious symbolic significance.


Cao Pi's Literary theory "The thesis" is the earliest literary theory and criticism work in China. It was written in Cao Pi's title for Wei prince.

Evaluation Kong Rong Chen Lin, Wang can , Xu Gang , Ruan , Ying Yang , Liu Zhen Style and gain and loss, " Seven leading writers during the Jian An Period at the end of the Han Dynasty This is the origin of this theory.

(2) it is put forward that "literature is mainly based on Qi, and the body is clear and turbidity and strong."

3. Affirming the historical value of literature, "covering the articles, the great undertaking of the country, the great event of immortality".

Lu Xun In the relationship between the demeanor of the Wei and Jin Dynasties and the relationship between articles and medicine and wine, he said that he (Cao Pi) said that poetry and prose need not contain lessons, and oppose those views that contained lessons in poetry and Fu. From the perspective of modern literature, an era of Cao Pi can be said to be "an era of literary consciousness" or "a school of art in modern times".


Cao Pi is the actual leader of the Ye Xia literati group. literature of the Jian'an period The spiritual framework plays a key role in the formation of " Jian An Feng It has far-reaching influence on later literature.

Cao Pi command Liu Xiao , Wang Xiang , Miao attack Others compiled the first China. Category books " Imperial view "The official organization of the compilation of the first class books;

Second, the book of essays and essays created the trend of literary criticism and the ancestor of Chinese literary criticism.

3. yan ge xing "Is the first complete seven character poem in the history of Chinese literature, which has great influence on the creation of seven character poetry in later generations.

Character evaluation

Three countries

· Zhu Geliang Cao Pi's killing and self-reliance is the name of the emperor.

· king of Wu in the Three Kingdoms Era And Cao Zi PI, Jie inverse ugly, recommended as a traitor, steal the throne of heaven, and ruthless Mody, looking for PI fierce trace, blocking soldiers stealing land, not Volvo.

· Cao Zhi Xiang Wei, a sage, is young. Study six books, learn not only the court, but also concentrate on the mind. It is so beautiful that it looks like jade.

· Huan stage In the name of Zhao Hai, Jen Sheng Da Jie is a member of Ren Guan Zi.

· Bian LAN To study the classics, to pay attention to the chapters and to look at the light, so that they will not be born out of the world. It is wowen Wynn and the literati belong to Germany. I saw all the comments and praise, but Shen Siquan was in Yunfu.

· Zhang Ti Although Cao Cao has built up the middle summer, the people are afraid of their power but not their virtue. PI, Rui Cheng, the torture of heavy services, things drive, no age.

The two Jin Dynasties and the southern and Northern Dynasties

· Chen Shou Wen Di's talent and literary talent, his writing skills, his knowledge and skills, and his talent and skills; if he combined with a great degree of encouragement, and with a sense of fairness, he will cherish the heart of Guangde, and then he will become a master of ancient times.

· Yan Yan Wei Wei is afraid of seeing and abolition.

· Liu Yuan The yellow towel is boiling in Kyushu, and the castration is in the four seas. Dong Zhuoyin's popularity is fierce, and Cao Cao and his son are fierce.

· Li ban It is not unashamed to see King Zhou, Prince of Jin, Wei Prince Zi and Wu Taizi sun Deng. He Gu Xian's high Lang, later generations do not catch it!

· Ge Hong Since Jianan, Wei's martial arts, the end of the system, is frugal, this is the way of Mo-tse, it is feasible.

· Liu Xie Wei Wen's talent is foreign and pure, and it's called "planting thousands of miles". However, Zi Jian is quick and handsome, and poetry is beautiful and superficial. And Yuefu Qing Yue, "Dian theory" argument, the use of short length, nor ignorant. But the vulgar sentiment and the same echo made Wen Di respecting himself.

· Yuan Rong Shu Cao Cao and Cao Pi went on the horse and talked about it.

· Shi Dao Heng Guang Wu is still able to lengthen the heart of Yan Ling, and Wei Wenquan's training of Guan Ning is very important.

· author of an epochmaking work in phonology From Wei's life, the LORD loves carvings, and the family abandons the words, and the human is heavy. He also chose a virtuous Jinshi instead of his hometown, and sent it to Taiwan.

· Xiao Tong Do not pursue Son Jin, but things like Luo Bin's tour; many ashamed son Huan, and Xing and Zhang Chuan's reward. Yang Xuan Xuan Pu, Ji Ji Ying, Ruan Zhi; Xu round Bo Wang, also recruited Long Yuan companion.

Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties

· Yen Chih-Tui The talented people from the emperors, Han Wu, Wei Taizu, Wen Di, Ming Di and Song Xiao Wudi are all negative.

· The monument of CHEN Si Wang Temple: Wei Gao Zu Wen emperor, Shaoxing four seas, shiny five, all of them are numerous.

· Wang Bo Wen Di is rich in spring and autumn. He should be allowed to give up his dung.

· Hao Zhi jun Emperor Xi Wei's decree, despite the fact that there are young masters and no empress, is the cause of the trouble.

· Liu Zhi Ji Wen Di is not brave in his military career. He is good for the country. He is tolerant of good and evil.

· Tang emperor whose reign started brilliantly and ended disastrously Sigh: the cycle of the solar terms, the joy of the United States and the emperor, where the hundred can meet, the salt can be composed, and the five words are the Japanese end, and the seven rhymes become their large numbers.

· Zhang says Zhou Wenwang is also the prince of Chongli. He is also tireless in the imperial palace.

· Ken Wang Wen Di is eight years old. He can read ancient texts and read history. And the throne, Yi Shang and modest. Do not waste books.

Song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties

· Fan Zhong Yan Wei Wei's imperial concubine Li Kuo Fei, after killing Zhen Zhen, was buried by the extradition of the imperial palace.

· Huang Tingjian Heroes of the world do not know themselves. Nanyang Longdi Wolong day, Bei Gu Lu before the loss of time. The overlord divided the world three times, and the ministers ten times Cao Pi. The cold stove night sends the dust book to read, looks like the overlapping transportation to raise a game chess.

· Su Che The three emperors, such as Han Wu, Wei Wen, Tang De, Wen, Xuan, all worked in poems and essays, compared with the literati. As for the world, it is not enough to look forward to the first emperor.

· Chen Liang As for the people who were tired at that time to have a long talk and no fear, they could not be three times. Therefore, when Wu and Shu contended for the emperor, the Chinese people almost stayed shoulder to shoulder. They had been in office for seven years.

· yelu chucai Zhong Mou takes Meng De, Ge Liang Bei Cao Pi. Only Jin is complete, Ping Wu mixed eight dimensions.

· Hao Jing Peter is responsible for the stolen goods. pilfer Thief. Fuck death and take it for granted, but you can think of it from the perspective of tolerance and Zen. You think that Shun and Yu are coming back and their self deceit is very much. In addition, you are not too proud of your arrogant son, but you are not very careful in your conduct. Kongming calls it "Earth Dragon" and "dog".

· Zhang Pu Wei King's business is not enough, but the official is the official. The imperial Ministers must not play the Empress Dowager; the latter should not often serve as a political official, but the stone chamber golden policy can be a treasure forever. The relatives saw Han Yan long, and the women's master put out their hands. The tyrant was founded, and the force was more old. Until the Shanyang public was immortal, Yang Biao, the courteous minister, did not take his ambition.

· Hu Ying Lin There are no three generations of poetry. They are both disseminators and heroes. However, the white horse keeps the bell, while the Biao also can poetry. In addition, the force of Shu Zhihui is outstanding. How can he grow up? The son is so, Sun Zhongmou generation is full of Tao!

· Fang Xiao Ru The emperor of the Han Dynasty and the emperor of Wei were both the masters of the talent, not the sage of wisdom. The great emperor could not kill the children. Wen Di could still serve Shanyang. Ever known as King Wu's sage, he could endure his king? I must know that it is not enough.

· Wang Shi Zhen Since the three dynasties, the beauty of human essays is not that of Han Emperor Wu and Wei Wen di.

· Tan Si Tong If emperor Fu Han Wu's life is loyal to the emperor, Emperor Wei Wen's imperial edict has Kong Rong's articles on the world. Since Xun Kuang's collection, Zhang Rongyuhai, who has compiled the title, has been in a fog and is unable to overcome.

Modern times

· Zhang Taiyan Today, people all say that the classics of Han Dynasty were the most prosperous, and the Three Kingdoms had faded. Although Wen Di is good at writing, he seems to be a first-class member of the word family. Wei Shu is not Confucian, but Yin Yin. Therefore, the imperial edict is not quoted. How can we only use the words and phrases?

· republican revolutionary Wei Wei and Han are different. They cover four words.

· Mao Zedong Cao Pi is also his (Cao Cao) son, and has some talent, but far less than Cao Cao. Cao Pi was also mediocrity in politics, but he later became emperor, Wei Wei emperor. In history, Jianan literature is actually concentrated around their father and son. A family of two generations is talented and famous, and rarely seen in history.

· Guo Moruo Cao Pi is much more politically aware than his son, and sometimes he is superior to his father in the statesman's manner. If the official is not an official, he must not go to the various departments to prohibit his wife from making preparations for the administration. He will not be limited in his seniority, but in fact, he should pay more attention to punishment, pay less taxes, ban taxes, prohibit revenge, prohibit sacrifice, pay a memorial service, and strive for frugality.

· Ma Zhi Jie From Cao Pi's political facilities, there are also some good things. Taking Cao Pi compared with other feudal emperors, he is still above average.

· Florence Chia-ying Yeh Wei Wei emperor, when he ascended the throne, went down to the imperial edict and laid down a thin tax edict. He is indeed an ideal emperor, hoping to make the world better. But it was a pity that the emperor who had only been working for seven years died and died at the age of forty.


Favorite grapes

Cao Pi loved grapes very much when he was alive. Rose peach This is recorded in "Wu Jian Shu" and "Zhao Qun Yi": "the elders of the three generations know that they are dressed and that the five generations know food. This statement is taken for food, not for the elderly. There are many precious fruits in China. When Zhu Xia was involved in autumn, there was still more summer, drunkenness and sleep. Sweet but not sour, not crispy, cold but not cold, long and juicy, except to quench thirst. And brewed wine, willing to be tillers, drunk and easy to wake up. The solid of the road has been drooling and swallowing. The fruit of the other is better than the others. Cao Pi also wrote in his edict: "there are longan litchi in the south, and grapes in the West than in the West." It can be seen that Cao Pi really loves grapes.

Be good both in civil and in military affairs

Cao Pishan fencing and shooting, a good game. carrom In the Literary theory In his autobiography, he even prides himself on his remarkable arrows, which can "shoot around". On one occasion, Cao Pi captured the general peacefully. Liu Xu General Fen Wei Deng Exhibition Feast together. Cao Pi had always heard that Deng chin studied martial arts, was good at using all kinds of weapons, and could also make empty hands. So Cao Pi talked about swordplay with Deng Zhan and talked about it. Cao Pi said bluntly: "I used to have done research on swordplay, and also got a brilliant teaching. I think what you have just said is wrong." Deng Jie listened to Cao Pi's words, was very unconvinced, and asked Cao Pi to compete in actual combat. At this time, after the wine was hot, everyone was eating sugarcane, so they took sugar cane as their sword and went down to fight. After a few rounds, Cao Pi struck Deng's arm for three consecutive times, and all of them laughed. Deng chin blushed and was more unconvinced. Cao Pi deliberately said, "my sword is fast and concentrated, and it's hard to hit each other's face, so it's just hitting your arm." Deng Zhan said, "don't mention it. Let's do it again." Cao Pi knew that Deng would suddenly attack the middle road suddenly, and he would pretend to be unwittingly to attack Deng. Deng Zhan, as Cao Pi had expected, rushed fiercely, but Cao Pi quickly flashed back. It was like the wind, volley from the top and hit the forehead of Deng's exhibition, which made people who drink together could not help screaming.

After the end of the sword, Cao Pi and Deng Zhan continued to drink, and Cao Pi laughed and said to Deng Zhan, "once there was a famous doctor named Yang Qing. He once called" two. Chun Yu Yi Abandon all his old secrets, and teach his secrets. I think general Deng will abandon the old techniques and accept the new important fencing methods. When the voice dropped, all the seats could not help laughing.

Always on the stage

When Wei Wei emperor Cao Pi was in power, he built the tomb of emperor Yuntai in Xuchang, and began to set up courtyards, such as Tai, which had always been the residence of Queen Wen Deguo after Taiwan. According to the chronicles of Xuchang County, "forever starts". Wei Wende The Queen's taste is lost. In the early five years of Huang Dynasty (AD 224), Cao Pi had a large army and went to Xuchang. It was summer and autumn, and it rained for more than 100 days. The towers of the city were damaged. The ministers invited the queen to live in a safe place. Queen Guo said, "in the past, the king of Chu went on a trip, and Jiang's residence gradually rose. The river suddenly rose, and the envoys came to meet Jiang's name instead of King Chu. certify authenticity by matching tallies Jiang did not go resolutely and was finally swallowed up by the river. Now, when the emperor is in the distance, I haven't been in danger before I move elsewhere. How can I do that? So ministers no longer dare to mention this.

Crying and hanging Wang Can

Jian an twenty-two years (217 years). Seven leading writers during the Jian An Period at the end of the Han Dynasty One of Wang can At the time, Cao Pi, who was still the son of Wei, had a very deep friendship with him. In the hall, Cao Pi suggested: "Zhong Xuan (Wang Canzi) likes donkey calls before life. Let's learn a donkey and send him away." So the tourists began to learn the donkey's call.

Reference to a fight among brothers

Cao Pi was born Cao Zhi In the seven step, make a poem, or else he will be executed. In the seven step, Cao Zhi recites: "boiled beans are like soup. The beans burn in the kettle and the beans weep in the kettle. This is the same root. Why is it so urgent? Cao Pi felt very ashamed when he heard the poem.

Note: this incident is not seen in the official history of the Three Kingdoms. This poem is not seen in the book of Cao Zhi. Its authenticity has always been debated. Some people believe that there are brothers and sisters, but the existing seven step poems are false for future generations.

Prophecy comes true

Emperor Ling of Han Xi Ping five years (176 years), Qiao County over the emergence of Huanglong, Guang Lu doctor Qiao Xuan Asking Tai Shi Ling Mono He said, "what is auspicious sign?" Shan replied, "there will be a king who is born here. In less than fifty years, there will be Huanglong. The sky is often related to personnel. This is the response of heaven and man." Inner yellow people Yin Deng Keep that in mind. Forty-five years later, Yin Deng was still alive. Yan Kang In the first year of the year (220), Huang Long appeared again in Qiao County. When Yin Deng heard the news, he said, "the words of a single word have come true." (March)

Fortune telling

Cao Piren's five senses military officer in charge of the security of the royal palace When I was in a banquet, I was a friend. Jian Ping Zhu Asking about your life span, Zhu Jianping said, "your life expectancy is eighty years old, and there will be minor calamities at the age of forty. I hope you will be more careful." Cao Pi was indeed forty.

Family members


· Father: Cao Cao Meng De, the official to the prime minister, the Wei king and the Jizhou herd, Cao Pi was enlisted as the emperor of Wu.

· Mother: Bian Shi, Cao Cao's wife, Cao Pi is queen empress, posthumous posthumous. Empress of Wuxuan


Excerpts from Cao Pi's younger brothers:

· Cao ang (? - 197 years) Mrs Liu The eldest son was born, but was raised by Cao Cao. Zhang embroidery Rebel and died in the war. After being chased by Cao Pi, he was mourning for the king.

· Cao Zhang (? - 223 years), Bian empress second son, nicknamed "Huang Xu Er", for a brave warrior, has broken down generation county Wu pill. In the four years (223 years) of Huang Chu, he was appointed king of the city.

· Cao Zhi (192 to 232 years), Bian empress three sons, good at literature. On the Goddess of Luo River " Although Cao Cao was doted on, he failed to compete with his brother Cao Pi. In the first six years (225 years), Huang became king Chen.

· Cao bear Bian, the four Queen, early morning.

· Cao song Mrs. Liu's second son, early morning. Nephew Wei Mingdi Cao Rui Later, he was the king of mourning. There are sons Cao Qian and Sun Cao Yan, and Cao Yan die after they die.

· Cao Chong (196 to 208 years). Madam annulus The eldest son, a famous prodigy, died when he was 13 years old.



· Queen Guo Queen Wen de.

· Zhen Empress Ming Ming emperor Cao Rui, Princess of Dongxiang. Ming emperor ascended the throne and pursued the posthumous title of Queen Wen Zhao.

Imperial concubines

· Li Guizhou Cao Cao.

· Yin dignitaries

· Cai Guizhou

· Pan Shuyuan, Sheng Cao Rui.

· Zhu Shuyuan, sang Cao Jian.

· Chou Zhaoyi, born Cao Lin.

· Xu Ji Cao Sheng Li.

· Suu Kyi Sheng Cao Yong.

· Zhang Ji, Sheng Cao Gong.

· Song Ji Sheng Cao Yan.

· Sun Suo, or Wang Sunsuo.

· Liu is one of the two daughters of Han Xian di.

· Liu is one of the two daughters of Han Xian di.

· Ren, Jianan was deposed.



According to the biography of King Weive Vuvens, there are 9 sons of Cao Pi. The order is not to be tested, but the order of the birth mother is in order.

· Emperor Ming of Wei Cao Rui The mother is Zhen empress. In the early seven years of the early Qing Dynasty, Huang began to ascend the throne in 226 years.

· King of mourning Cao Xie The mother is Li Guiren. Die early. After death, he was dued as "Gong Gong" and posthumous.

· Beihai mourning King Cao Xu The mother is Pan Shuyuan. Wei Mingdi ascended the throne to be the king of Yang Ping county. Taihe six years (232 years) relocated the king of Beihai.

· East Wu Yang Huai Wang Cao Jian The mother is Zhu Shuyuan. In the six year (224 years) of Huang Chu, he was named Wang Dong Wu Yang and died in that year.

· Donghai Ding Wang Cao Lin The mother is Chou Zhaoyi. Zi Dong Hai Wang Cao Qi Noble townships Cao Mao

· The king of Yuan City Cao Li The mother is Xu Ji. In the six years (225 years) of Huang Chu, he was restored to Yuan Cheng Wang, and he died in three years (229 years).

· Handan Huai Wang Cao Yong The mother is Suu Kyi. In the six years (225 years), he changed to the king of Handan, and died in three years (229 years).

· Qinghe mourning King Cao Gong The mother is Zhang Ji. In the three year (222 years) of Huang Chu, he was king of Qinghe, and he died in four years (223 years).

· Guang Ping ai wang Cao Yan The mother is Song Ji. In the three year (222 years) of Huang Chu, he was named Guang Ping Wang and died the following year.

· Cao Cao Early death.


· Princess of Dongxiang Mother Zhen.


· Cao Ba Cao Mao's descendants, Tang Xuanzong's painters, could draw good works, and officials to left general Wu Wei.

Tomb ruins

Wei Yang's first mausoleum in the first Yangshan mountain is very simple.

The body is not sealed or planted, nor does it build a mausoleum garden, Shinto, etc. there is no trace on the surface. The buildings in the mausoleum are not extravagant, and the funeral objects are mainly tile, in order to prevent future generations from digging and stealing.

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