Cao Cao

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Cao Cao

Wei Wu Di Cao Cao (155 years - 220 March 15th), the name is Geely, the word Meng De, nicknamed hide. Prefectural governor of Yuzhou Qiao (today) Anhui Bozhou Person Eastern Han Dynasty Outstanding in last years Politician , Militarist , Litterateur , calligrapher The founder of the regime of Cao Wei.

The end of Eastern Han Dynasty In the chaos of heaven, Cao Cao took the Quartet in the name of the emperor of heaven and eliminated it internally. Two yuan , Lv Bu , Liu Biao , Ma Chao , Han Sui And other separatist forces surrender to the outside world. Southern Xiongnu , Wu Huan , Xianbei And so on, it unified the northern part of China, and implemented a series of policies to restore economic production and social order, expand farming, water conservancy, reward mulberry, pay attention to handicraft industry, resettle the exiled population, and implement "rent modulation", thus stabilizing the Central Plains society and turning the economy around.

Jianan eighteen years (213 years), Cao Cao was awarded Wei Gong, the establishment of Wei Gong state, the capital of Hebei Ye City, and then enter the Wei king. After his death, Cao Pi, his son, called the emperor and pursued Cao Cao as Emperor Wu.

Cao Cao likes to express his political aspirations and reflect people's hardships through poetry and prose. He is a representative figure in Wei Jin literature. Lu Xun Praised as "the founder of the transformation of articles." At the same time, Cao Cao was good at calligraphy, Tang Dynasty. Zhang Wei " Book break "Cao Cao's" Zhang Cao "as" wonderful goods ".

Paul Mauriat's History

Early experience

Cao Cao was born in an eunuch family. " Romance of the Three Kingdoms It is called Han Dynasty. Cao Shen After that, Cao Cao

Father Cao song Eunuch Cao Teng Of Foster son Cao Tengshi served four generations of emperors. Emperor Huan of Han At that time, he was named Fei Ting Hou, and Cao Song inherited the Marquis of Cao Teng. Emperor Ling of Han Officer to Tai Wei.

In his youth, Cao Cao was alert, sensitive, and had the ability to deal with contingency at random. Lead a fast He did not study character or study, so the people at that time did not think he had any special talent. liang Qiao Xuan and others thought he was extraordinary. Qiao Xuan said to Cao Cao, "the world will be chaos, not the world's talent, but also those who can be peaceful." Nanyang He he He said to him, "the Han Dynasty will die, and the rest of heaven will be the same." Nanyang Xu Shao Known as a wise man, he once said to Cao Cao, "a noble thief, a hero in troubled times".

Cao Cao showed his interest and talent in Wu Yi in his early years. Well-read I especially like the art of war, and I copied ancient families. Art of war Strategy And notes. Sun Tzu's art of war The book "Wei Wu Zhu Sun Zi" was handed down. These laid a solid foundation for his later military career.

Cut a striking figure

Xi Ping three years (174 years), Cao Cao was cited as Xiaolian Entering Kyoto Luoyang For Lang. Soon, he was appointed Wei Wei in northern Luoyang. Luoyang is the capital of the Eastern Han Dynasty. It is a place where the relatives of the emperor live together. When Cao Cao arrived, he declared the ban, solemn law and discipline, and made more than ten sticks of five colors. Yamen Around, "all prisoners are killed." Emperor's eunuch Shuo Shuo Uncle Diagram Illegal night travel, Cao Cao relentless, will Diagram use Five color rod Execute. Therefore, "the capital has no chance to commit crimes." Cao Cao also offended some of them. Dignitary Because of his father Cao song Relationship, Kick upstairs Cao Cao was transferred to dunqiu (now Qingfeng county) order.

Guang and the first year (178 years), Cao Cao, because of the Tang brother-in-law Hou Qiang Hou Song Qi The eunuch killed and was implicated and was dismissed from office. After that, there was nothing to do in Luoyang and back home. Qiao County Live in leisure.

For three years (180 years), Cao Cao was called up by the court. Lang Lang Before this, the general general Wu Wu , Tai Fu Chen Fan He planned to kill eunuch, but he did not do anything to cure the eunuch. Cao Cao stated in his letter that Dou Wu and others were framed for the sake of official integrity, resulting in a full wave of the evil and evil spirits. But the loyal and loyal people were not reused, and their words were sincere, but they were not. Emperor Ling of Han Adopt. Later, Cao Cao repeated his advice, though occasionally effective, but in the Eastern Han Dynasty, the rule of law was becoming more and more important. corrupt Cao Cao knew he could not rectify.

The first year of Ping Ping (184 years), Yellow towel Uprising Cao Cao was worshipped as an outburst. baitalabure hafan Orders and orders Huang Fu Song United Front attack Ying Chuan The yellow towel army, the result of the big yellow towel army, chopped the first ten thousand level. And then moved to Ji'nan. Ji'nan In his term of office, Cao Cao was in the early stages of governance. Ji'nan (now Shandong) Ji'nan There are more than ten counties, and the county officials are more dependent on their potential, and they are corrupt and reckless. Before Cao Cao, all of his predecessors were not asked. When Cao Cao came to his post, he made great efforts to straighten out, and he played 8/10 long officials. Ji'nan shook and corrupt officials fled. "Political education is a great undertaking."

At that time, the Eastern Han Dynasty was extremely dark in politics, and even bought the official system. The court returned it to the eastern county. Lang Lang Cao Cao refused to cater to the dignitaries, and then returned to the countryside in the spring and summer.

At that time, the world was chaotic. Jizhou Governor's history Wang Fen United Nanyang Xu you Pei country Zhou Jing And local tyrannical plan to dethrone the emperor. Hefei Hou Events. Wang Fen and others had hoped that Cao Cao would join them, but was refused by Cao Cao. Then there's the northwest. Jincheng County (now Lanzhou )的 Frontier chapter , Han Sui He killed the governor and the Imperial Guard, and made more than ten thousand rebellion against the court.

In five years (188 years), Han Ling emperor set up eight Xiwei, Xiyuan eight in order to consolidate his rule. Cao Cao was appointed as the commander of the eight military academy.

Chen Liuqibing

In six years (189 years), Emperor Han Ling died. Liu debate When he ascended the throne, his Empress Dowager listened to politics. General general He Jin He wanted to destroy the ten regular attendants, but did not get the support of the Empress Dowager. So he summoned and became a state herd. brutal militarist who dictated policy in declining years of the Han dynasty To go to Beijing, forcing him to agree. However, he was not surprised to find that Dong Zhuo had not yet arrived in the capital. He had been killed by eunuch. In September of the same year, Dong Zhuo came to Beijing, took charge of the state affairs, and abandoned the emperor of Han Dynasty. Hong Nong Wang Instead, change their brother to Wang Wei. Emperor Xian of Han They sent people to poison their mother and son. Imperial College He is good at politics. Cao Cao sees brutal militarist who dictated policy in declining years of the Han dynasty Instead of cooperating with him, he changed his name to escape from the capital of Luoyang (now Luo Yangdong). talk of the devil and he comes Chen Liu After that, "scattered family wealth and righteous soldiers".

The first month of the first year (190 years), Yuan Shu Bohai and other leaders Yuan Shao As the leader of the alliance, Cao Cao served as general agent for the army. In February, Dong Zhuo, who was defeated by the Allied forces, forced the emperor to move to Changan (now the northwest of Xi'an in Shaanxi). She burned the palace, dug the imperial mausoleum, and robbed the people, resulting in 200 miles of desertion in Luoyang. And the Allied forces are afraid of Dong Zhuo's elite. Liangzhou No one dares to advance to Kansai. Wild jujube (now Yanjin North). Cao Cao thought that Dong Zhuo should "burn the palace, rob the emperor, and shake the sea". Cao Cao's journey to Xingyang Bian Shui (now southwest of Xingyang), and Xu Rong, general Dong Zhuo, clash, because of the huge number of soldiers, Cao Cao was defeated, most of them were wounded and wounded, and they were wounded by Liu Yuan. Cao Hong Saved, survived. Back to Zizyphus jujuba, Cao Cao suggested that all forces should be divided into western regions. Wu Guan (now Shaanxi Southeast of Danfeng, besieged by Dong Zhuo. The Guandong army is called Dong Zhuo, and each of them has their own evil intentions. Soon, there was friction between the armed forces. The coalition forces were disbanded.

In the first two years (191 years), Cao Cao was in the first place. East County Defeated by poison, white winding, solid and supporting, etc. Yuan Shao It is the prefect of the eastern county.

Three years (192 years), Qingzhou Yellow Army Great development, even breaking Yanzhou (rule) Changyi Today, Shandong Juye Counties in Southeast China, Yanzhou's history Liu Dai Jinbei facies Bao Xin Others welcome Cao Cao to take office. Yanzhou pasture Cao Cao and Bao Xinhe attacked yellow towel. Bao Xin died. Cao Cao set up Qi Fu and fought day and night, and finally defeated the yellow towel. In that winter, more than 30 million people were killed and more than 100 million people. Cao Cao picked up his strength and made up the army. Qingzhou soldiers He also helped Yuan Shao defeat Liu Bei, Shan Jing and Tao Qian's army.

In the spring of 4 years (193 years), Cao Cao was defeated in Kuang Ting six hundred Li. Yuan Shu The Heishan army and the southern Huns. Xu Zhou Mu Tao Qian The rate army invaded into the southern city of Yanzhou. Cao Cao defeated the army for Tao Qian and conquered more than ten cities in Xuzhou.

Fight for territory in ancient Central China

In the fourth year (193 years), Cao Cao's father Cao song On the way to Cao Cao, he was killed by Tao Qian. Cao Cao then went to Xuzhou (Tan Tan, now Tancheng, Shandong) to expand power to the southeast. Tao Qian's retreat Tan county Soon, Cao Cao's army grain will be exhausted and he will be removed from the army. In the summer of next year, Cao Cao went to Xuzhou again, slightly to the East China Sea. During the period of Cao Caozheng's murder in Xuzhou, the "dogs and dogs were exhausted" and "no return to pedestrians". Eastern guard Chen Gong Dissatisfied with Cao Cao, he stayed with Chen Liu. Zhang Xie Zhang's brother Zhang Chao Engaging in the middle age Xu Xu And Wang Kai and others conspire against rebellion, welcome Lv Bu For the Yanzhou herd. Lv Bu served as the famous general at that time, first for Dong Zhuo's Ministry. Wang Yun Decide to kill Dong Zhuo.

Only then Juancheng (now Juancheng, Shandong) and East County Fan (South) Fan County ) Dong'e (now Shandong) Yanggu Two counties are still under the control of Cao Cao, respectively, by Sima. Emperor Xu And Shou Zhang Ling Cheng Yu East County prefect Xia Hou Tang And so on, the situation is extremely critical. Cao Cao from Xuzhou Come back, I heard Lv Bu was in tun Puyang And then went to besieged Puyang. The two army held a stalemate for more than a hundred days. The locust disaster started, and the two sides ceased to fight. Cao Caojun also returned to Juancheng. At this point, Cao Cao lost Yanzhou (now Yuncheng, northwest of Shandong), and the military grain was exhausted. Yuan Shao Send someone to persuade Cao Cao to go to him and let Cao Cao move his family. Ye County Hostage. Cao Cao intended to promise Yuan Shao. Cheng Yu Dissuade Cao Cao from dispelled the idea.

Xingping In two years (195 years), Cao Cao fought the whole army again. Lv Bu Three defeat Dingtao (now Dingtao, Shandong), Lin Qiu (now Shandong) Yuncheng Northwest, etc., to stabilize Yanzhou. Lv Bu fled to Xuzhou to seek refuge. Liu Bei July, cause li jue , Guo Wei Fight, Emperor Xian of Han From Changan to the East, the imperial edicts of all the princes.

Jianan In the first year (196 years), Cao Cao met in August. Emperor Xian of Han In 1911, Han Xian Xian sealed Cao Cao. Si Li Wei , Lu Shang Shu Geng Shen, Move the capital Xu county. In November, Cao Cao was the first emperor of Han Xu and Han Xian Xian. Si Kong Row title of a commanding general A hundred officials always listen.

Jian an two years (197 years) first month, Cao Cao Crusade Zhang embroidery The army was stationed in the water, and Zhang embroidery lifted the crowd and surrendered immediately, the eldest son. Cao ang Nephew Cao An min The great will Wei and Wei Died in battle. Since then, Cao Cao has twice attacked Zhang embroidery, and has not completely cracked it. September, Cao Cao's eastern expedition. Yuan Shu Yuan Shu abandoned the army and fled to Huaihe. The four yuan was left behind.

Three years (198 years) in Jianan, Cao Cao, a visitor to the April Mao Mao Zhong Lang Jiang Section simmer Li Li, Yi three people In September, Cao Cao went to Xuzhou to attack Lv Bu who had long been against him. stay Cao Jun Under the offensive, the Lv Bu army was centrifuged up and down. In December, the Ministry of the army of Lv Bu Wei Xu , Song Xian And so on, to capture Chen Gong and return to Cao Cao. Lv Bu saw the end of the storm and gave up in the lower city. Cao Cao will Lv Bu. Chen Gong , Gao Shun They were executed, and Lv Bu was arrested. Zhang Liao And Taishan heroes. Zang Ba , Sun Guan Others, the initial control. Xuzhou

Jianan four years (199 years), Cao Cao sent Shi Huan and Cao Ren to break up the old part of Zhang Yang and get Hanoi county to expand their sphere of influence. Yellow River To the North of.

Battle of Guandu

After the elimination of consolidation, in order to deal with the following Yuan Shao In the war, Cao Cao made a plan for his life. Qingzhou Potentially influential Zang Ba Others attacked Qingzhou and occupied Qi (today's Shandong). Linzi ) The North Sea (now Shandong) Shouguang Southeast and other places, consolidate the right wing, and command the general. Yu ban Surveillance of the southern coast of the Yellow River Yuan Jun Soon, Zhang embroidery listened to the counsellors. Jia Xu Plan to surrender Cao Cao, Cao Cao rejoice, worship Zhang Xiuwei General Yang Wu It relieves worries.

Jianan four years (199 years) in December, Cao Cao's self rating rate was in the army. public ferry (now Zhongmu North, ready to face Yuan Shao.

Liu Bei stay Tao Qian After death, he was once appointed. Xu Zhou Mu After Xuzhou was Lv Bu Attack and occupy Liu Bei Go to Cao Cao. Cao Cao thought Liu Bei was a hero. Yuzhou animal husbandry , General left Shortly after Cao Cao conquered Xuzhou, Huainan Yuan Shu was prepared to flee to Qingzhou to Yuyuan Shao, and Cao Cao sent Liu Bei to intercept. Yuan Shu could not go up north and die of hematemesis.

Jian an five years (200 years), Dong Cheng Cao Cao was killed by others and killed by Cao Cao. Liu Bei then attacked Xuzhou's assassin. Vehicle helmet Occupy Xuzhou.

"Liu Bei takes Xuzhou. Rebel " Therefore, Cao Cao decided to levy Liu Bei in the East. All will say, "Yuan Shaoye is the one who contends with the public." Now, how do we get to the East after the arrival of Shaw? Cao Cao said, "Liu Bei is also a hero. If we don't attack it now, we will have trouble afterwards. Yuan Shaosui has great ambitions, but he will not see things too late. Then marched in to break Liu Bei's heart with lightning and Liu Bei fled to Yuan Shao.

Yuan Shao It was the most powerful force in the north at that time and the most powerful enemy of Cao Cao's reunification with the north. Yuan Shi, a great ancestor from Yuan Shao. Yuan an Below, "the fourth generation occupies three official positions", "the old people are all over the world", the influence is very big, after Yuan Shao obtains the Hebei, the peace, the quiet, the Qing four states the land, the strength increases greatly, has the army hundreds of thousands of people. Yuan Shao is his eldest son. Yuan Tan Second son Yuan Xi Nephew Gao Gan They are guarding the green, secluded, and three states. The rear is solid, and the soldiers are well armed. They do not put Cao Cao in their eyes at all. He selected one hundred thousand soldiers and ten thousand men, and decided to wipe out Cao Cao in one fell swoop.

Jianan five years (200 years), Yuan Shao life general Yan Liang And so on. Huaxian ) the self rate army entered the Tuen Mun. Li Yang (now Xunxian County East, to attack Cao Cao. Cao Cao is much more powerful than Yuan Shaoruo. In the south of the great river which Cao Cao occupies, Territory Both small and Place open to attack from all directions Broken, and not yet fully restored, supplies are not as rich as Yuan Shao. Cao Cao's strength is far less than that of Yuan Shao, whose total strength is probably only tens of thousands of people, and the troops on the front line, according to Wu Diji, say, "soldiers are dissatisfied with 10000, and wounded 12 or three". Pei Song Zhi Considering that this number is inaccurate, Cao Cao's strength will not be so small, but Cao Cao's strength is far inferior to Yuan Shao, but there is no doubt about it.

Yuan Shao army came to attack, Xu Du shook. Cao Cao comforted the crowd and said, "I know that Shao is a man. He is ambitious and intelligent, and he is fierce and thin. He should not be too weak, but many soldiers do not know what to draw, but he will not be proud of himself.

In February, yuanshao general Yan Liang and others laid siege to the white horse and opened the prologue to the war. In April, Cao Cao personally sent troops to the north. White horse enclosure He adopted counsellors. Xin you Plan, advanced Army Yanjin (now in the northern part of Yanjin), he made a trend to attack Yuen Jun by crossing the river, attracting yuan yuan to the West and then suddenly turned to the white horse. Cao Caojun suddenly killed, Yuan Jun was caught off guard. Guan Yu Decapitation Yuan Jun was defeated, and the white horse was surrounded by the solution. Cao Cao rescued the white horse soldiers and civilians, and withdrew along the Yellow River. Yuan Shaowen knew, immediately ordered Literary ugly Liu Bei crossed the river to catch up with Cao Cao. Cao Cao saw the pursuit of the troops, and ordered the sergeant to solve the saddle and set the horse. Yuan Jun pursued the army until he was fighting for the baggage and the formation was chaotic. Cao Cao led the only one. cavalry All of a sudden, the troops were chop up. Yuan Junda quake. Cao Cao won the first battle, took the initiative to withdraw, and continued to guard. public ferry

In August, the Yuan Shao army joined the camp, and in the tens of thousands of things, they moved to Guandu by the sand pile. Cao Cao divided the army to stay in the camp and wait for the opportunity to move. Yuan Jun launched a fierce attack on Cao Ying. Earth mountain From archery to Cao Ying's archery, and then digging a tunnel, he wanted to attack Cao camp from the ground, all of which was solved by Cao Cao's method of setting up a stone catapult and digging gully. The two armies attacked each other for nearly two months. Cao Cao was in a very difficult position for a long time.

In October, Yuan Shao brought more than 10000 cars and trucks from Hebei. Chun Yu Jun With more than ten thousand people escorting along the way, they stayed at forty miles from yuanshao camp. Wu Chao At this time yuanshao counsellor Xu you Xu made no plans for attacking Yuan Shaoxian, and his family members in Hebei were caught in law, and their hearts were remorse. They came to Cao Cao to offer Cao Cao a surprise attack. Cao Cao exultation, foot foot to meet, then Pro rides the elite step to ride five thousand people, the military member has a piece, Mahler mouth, changes Yuan Jun's military uniform to take the night to steal the attack from the path nests. Cao Cao army went to Wu nei, and ordered to set fire on all sides, and Yuan Jun was in disorder. Yuan Shaowen knew, hurriedly sent troops to rescue, Cao Cao around see "thief riding a little closer, please divide the troops to refuse." Cao Cao was furious and said, "thieves are white behind their backs!" The soldiers were fighting hard, so they broke up Yuan Jun, chopped Chun and Jo, and burned their grain. When Yuan Shao heard that Cao Cao attacked the nests, he thought it was a good opportunity to break the camp of Cao Cao, so he sent very few reinforcements and besieged the Cao Cao camp with heavy troops. Because Cao Cao reserved troops for more and more, Cao Ying had not been broken, and the news of the defeat of the Ukrainian nest had been heard. The general Zhang, Gao and other people surrendered to Cao Cao and Yuan Jun collapsed. Yuan Shao abandoned the army and fled to the north of the Yellow River. Cao Jun won the battle and cut off 70000 yuan, and won the treasure of Yuan Jun's books. Cao Cao counted the letters of Yuan Shao and got the letter of Yuan Shao, who colluded with his subordinates, and burned it.

On the objective condition, Cao Cao is at a disadvantage. But because he can analyze the objective conditions correctly and listen to others' correct opinions, he can foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses, adopt the correct strategy and tactics, transform the war to his own advantage, and finally win the victory through his own subjective efforts. Battle of Guandu Cao Cao defeated Yuan Shao, the biggest enemy. It is the general trend for him to unify the north. The battle of Guandu was also a famous example in the history of China's war.

Expedition Wuhuan

Jianan seven years (202 years), Yuan Shao died of illness, Yuan Shao's two sons. Yuan Tan , Yuan Shang No match. Yuan Tan was not against Yuan Shang, and beg Cao Cao to surrender.

Jianan nine years (204 years) in February, Cao Cao took yuan to send troops to attack Yuan Tanzhi aircraft, to enter the siege. Ye Cheng (now Hebei) Handan Linzhang West area. Yuan Shang returned to the army to rescue him. Fuyang River As a camp, Cao Cao went to encircle his camp. Yuan Shang was afraid to ask for surrender. Cao Cao refused. Yuan Shang fled by night, Yuan Jun collapsed. Yuan Shang fled to Zhongshan (now Hebei) Ding County ) Cao Cao ordered the man to take up the Yuan Dynasty's seal Festival Tomahawk to surrender the defenders of the Ye City, and the fighting spirit collapsed in the city. Ye city was defeated by Cao Cao. From this year on, Cao Cao moved his stronghold north to Jizhou Ye City. The decree army has since come out, and the capital of Han Xian di. Xu county Only a few officials are left.

Jianan ten years (205 years) in the first month, Cao Cao in the name of the negative agreement, attack Yuan Tan, Hebei, Qing two states calm down. Thus, Cao Cao returned to the Yanzhou shepherd for Jizhou pasture. After losing the battle, Yuan Shang fled. You Zhou Governor Yuan Xi. Soon, Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi fled to three counties again. Wu Huan In the same year, Zhang Yan, the leader of the Black Hills army, led more than ten thousand of his troops to surrender to Cao Cao.

Jianan eleven years (206 years), Cao Cao attacked Gao Gan, and tied up the state.

Jianan twelve years (207 years), Cao Cao in order to eliminate yuan's residual forces, and in order to completely solve the three county Wu Huan into the plug problem, decided to expedition Wuhuan. At the end of Han Dynasty, the three counties of western Liaoning, Liaodong and right Peiping were combined with Wu Huan, and they were the three counties of Wuhuan. Richard Three county Wu Huan and Yuan's relationship has been very good, and repeatedly invaded the border, looting population and property.

In May, Cao Cao arrived on his own. No end (now Jixian County ) During the rainy season, the road is full of water, which is "shallow, not accessible to horses and chariots." Cao Cao never comes from the end. Tian Chou The proposal was changed from a long cut away, but the path of "still has a small diameter can be found". Under the guidance of Tian Chou, Cao Cao's army ascended. Xu Wu Shan (now Hebei) Yutian North) Lulong se (now Hebei) Xi Feng Kou Nearby, "more than five hundred miles from the mountains," pointing directly to Wuhuan's lair. Liucheng (now Liaoning Chaoyang South).

In August, when Cao Cao was less than two hundred miles away from Liucheng, Wu Huan discovered it. So he and Yuan Shang, Yuan Xi and others were attacked by tens of thousands of cavalry. When the two army met, the Wuhuan army was very powerful, while Cao Jun was "only a small number of cars were left behind." Zhang Liao We urged Cao Cao to face the war. When Cao Cao looked up, he saw that the Wuhuan army was numerous, but the battle situation was not yet ready. Zhang Liao For temporary use. Zhang Liao commanded the avant garde troops to launch a fierce attack on the Wuhuan army with a slight movement of Wuhuan troops. The Wuhuan army was defeated and the dead were wild. Wu Huan Shan was also killed in battle. Cao Jun in Battle of Bai Langshan China has won a total victory of over 20 million.

Yuan Shang and others fled the separatist regime Ping Zhou Of Gong Sun Kang At this time, Cao Cao was advised to take advantage of the situation to attack Gong Sun Kang, and Cao Cao said, "my side makes Kang Chai send Shang, Xi head, not annoying soldiers." Then the army returned to the division. Not long after, Gongsun Kang killed Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi, and presented Cao Cao with Cao Cao. Therefore, Cao Cao said, "I am afraid of the other things." Thus, Cao Cao broke through the three counties of Wuhuan and completely eliminated yuan's influence.

November to Easy water Dai County, Wu pill Pu Fu Lu On the upper County, Wu Wan took his name to the king to congratulate him. Same year Guo Jia Because of acclimatized, bad weather, working hard day and night, died before Cao Cao returned north. On the way back, according to Cao Yun Chuan, "when there is cold and drought, there is no rehydration in two hundred Li, and the army has no food to eat. Thousands of people kill the horse and think of grain, and dig into thirty yards to get water." When we ask the former admonition, we should not be afraid of everyone. All of them appreciate it. They say, "walk alone and take advantage of danger." The advice of all the monarch is the reward of Wan An.

Battle of Chibi

Jianan thirteen years (208 years), opened up Mysterious pool Train the Navy. In June, Cao Caofei three counsellors of state He restored the prime minister system and became Prime Minister of the Han Dynasty. After settling the North basically, the soldiers turned south. July, March to Jingzhou. Liu Biao In August, Liu Biao died of illness. Liu Chung Take over Jingzhou pasture. In September, the Cao Cao army entered. Newfield Liu Cong thought that he could not resist the surrender of Jingzhou to Cao Cao.

At this time, Battle of Guandu Then he went to Liu Biao. Liu Bei Stationed in Fancheng (now Hubei) Xiangfan Liu Cong was surrendered to the army when he heard that he had surrendered. Jiangling (now Hubei) retreat. Jiangling is a major city in Jingzhou, and there are a lot of military supplies. Cao Cao heard that he was afraid that Jiangling would fall into Liu Bei's hand, and that the rate of five thousand cavalry was three hundred miles from Xiangyang (Hubei Xiangfan). Dangyang Chang ban (now northeast of Dangyang, Hubei) caught up with Liu Bei and broke up his army and then took up Jiangling.

After defeating Liu Bei, Cao Cao took the opportunity to swamp Jiangdong in one fell swoop, and Sun Quan and Liu Bei were at the same time. Lu Su and Zhu Geliang Under the efforts of others, the League was formed, and Sun Quan was governor. Zhou Yu The rate army thirty thousand, together with Liu Bei's twenty thousand men, formed a coalition to resist Cao Cao. Cao Cao went down from Jiangling to the East. Chibi (now Hubei) Wuchang County West Chi mountain and sun and Liu allied forces were disadvantaged and temporarily stationed in the army. Ulin (now Hubei) Honghu County Northeast), facing each other across the river. Zhou Yu used the strategy of cheat and surrender to command the general. Huang gai A small warship of ten ships, loaded with firewood, irrigated with ointment, and spikes on the top of the ship's nails, were falsely surrendered to the north bank and moved to two miles away from Cao Ying. All the boats fired together, and then rushed to Cao by virtue of the wind force. Cao Cao was defeated and the boat was burned. Cao Cao's army Klotski (now Hubei) Jianli Northwest) land withdrawal to Jiangling. Withdraw troops and return north.

Pacify Liangzhou

After the defeat of Chibi, Cao Cao took some measures to stabilize the interior. In the fifteen spring of Jianan, Cao Cao went down. Seeking advice He said, "it is not yet decided today. This is the two or three time when we are looking for a wise man." Cao Cao put forward the policy of employing people regardless of conduct and talent. The purpose is to collect talents as far as possible.

Jianan sixteen years (211 years), Cao Cao began to use troops in Guanzhong. In March, Cao Cao sent dispatch to lieutenant colonel. Zhong You General rate Xia Hou yuan Crusade against Hanzhoung Nanzheng Today, Shaanxi, the Middle East of the Han Dynasty, Zhang Lu was named in Guanzhong. Guanzhong Ma Chao , Han Sui , Yang Qiu When ten hearts are fearful, they are all at once. Cao Cao immediately sent General Cao Ren to attack Guanzhong, and Ma Chao and others waited for Tongguan.

In July, Cao Cao was defeated by the great army in Guanzhong and defeated the Allied forces in Guanzhong. Ma Chao and so on wanted to cut the ground, and Cao Cao refused. In September, Ma, Han and so on again requested to cut the land, and sent a son to join Cao Cao. Jia Xu The proposal made a false promise and defeated the Han and Ma Jun again. Han Sui and Ma Chao defeated Liangzhou, and Yang Qiu fled to settle down. Cao Jun Jian, Cheng Yi and Li Kan and other rebel forces, since then, settled in Guanzhong. In October, Cao Cao entered stability, and Yang Qiu surrendered. Cao Cao withdrew from the army and ordered Xiahou Yuan to continue the western expedition. In two years, Ma Chao was divided into three parts, namely, Ma Chao, Han Han, Song Jian, the Qiang and Di, and Hu Bu Guan.

One has reached the highest rank open to a subject

Jianan seventeen years (212 years), Han Xian Di allowed Cao Cao to "worship no name, sword on the hall", such as the Prime Minister of Han Dynasty. Xiao He Story.

Jianan eighteen years (213 years), Cao Cao called up four hundred thousand, personally South Sun Quan. In the first month of next year, Cao Jun entered. Ru Xu Kou (now Anhui) Chao County Southeast China, to break Sun Quan's camp in Jiangbei, and capture it. Gong Sun Yang Sun Quan was seventy thousand of his army, and he fought against Cao Jun before he reached the village. The two armies held a stalemate for more than a month, and Cao Cao lost his battle with the Navy. Because of the spring rain and the rising of the river, Cao Cao saw that it was hard to win.

In May of the same year, China's oldest known book of geography Kyushu. Cao Cao was appointed by Han Xian di. Wei Gong In addition to Jiuxi, Wei, and other countries, Ye Cheng Wei has ten counties in Jizhou, including Prime Minister, Tai Wei, general general and so on.

In the twenty-one years (216 years) of Jianan, Cao Cao was appointed by Han Xian Di in April. King of Wei There are thirty thousand families in the city, who are on the throne of the princes, who do not play the role of the emperor, but are not worshipped by the imperial edicts. They are called the police by the emperor's crown, vehicle clothing, banners, and rites and sacrifices. Princes are all waiting for the emperor. In name, he was Han Chen, who was actually emperor.

Jianan twenty-two years (217 years) winter October, Han Xian Di also bestowed on Cao Cao Wang Mian ten two, by golden roots car, driving six horses, set five when the Deputy car, Cao Cao in the five official middle Lang will Cao Pi Wei prince.

Competing for Hanzhoung

Jianan twenty years (215 years) in March, Cao Cao saw Liu Bei has achieved. Yizhou And Hanzhoung is the gateway of Yizhou. "If there is no Hanzhoung, there will be no Shu". Liu Bei is bound to take Hanzhoung. So Cao Cao took the first step, and the one hundred thousand army took part in Hanzhoung Zhang Lu. In May, he conquered Hechi, Wang Doumao. In July, the Cao Cao army entered. Yang Ping Guan (now Shaanxi) Mianxian Northwest. Zhang Lu heard that Yang Ping Guan failed and fled. Bazhong Cao Cao went to Nanzheng. Zhang Lu Treasure house. In November, Zhang Lu came down to Cao Cao, and Hanzhoung was owned by Cao Cao.

Jianan twenty-two years (217 years) spring, Cao Cao again south levy, rate army to attack Yu Kou, beat Sun Quan, Sun Quan sent Du Wei Xu detailed to ask for surrender. Cao Cao agreed and promised to become an affinity again.

After Cao Cao's main exit from Hanzhoung, Liu Bei launched an attack on Hanzhoung. Jianan twenty-three years (218 years), Liu Bei went to Yang Ping Guan. Xia Hou yuan After confrontation with Liu Bei, the Cao army repeatedly defeated the fierce offensive of the Liu Bei army. In July, Cao Cao flew to Guanzhong and took part in Changan, so that he could command the Hanzhoung war at any time. At the same time, the frontier fortress was renewed, and Cao Cao was killed. Cao Zhang Tian Yu North levy, big break Wu Huan Xianbei Coalition forces.

Jianan twenty-four years (219 years) the first month, Liu Bei from Yang Ping Guan Nan water. Hanshui River ), advancing in the mountains, stationed in the army Ding Jun Shan (now Mianxian, Southeast of Shaanxi), Xiahou Yuan dispatched troops to compete with Liu Bei for the terrain. Huang Zhong Cao Jun defeated. After that, Cao Cao took the opportunity to win Hanzhoung, but Liu Bei Hard wall No, Cao Jun and Liu Bei army were away from Hanzhoung for several months without any benefit.

Battle of Xiangfan

Jian an twenty-four years (219 years) in July, Cao Cao just withdrew from Hanzhoung, general Liu Bei. Guan Yu He launched an attack from Jingzhou to his southeast defense line Xiangfan and fan. Cao Cao heard the news and sent the general at once. Yu ban Rate soldiers to rescue Fancheng. In August, Guan Yu was in flood season. Take a big ship to attack, capture and cut. Pound March in Fancheng, surrounded by power. At that time, there were only thousands of Cao Jun in Fancheng. The city was flooded, and the water was only a few feet away from the tower. Cao Cao again Xu Huang Leading troops to rescue Fancheng. In October, Cao Cao arrived in Luoyang from Guanzhong and personally directed the rescue. Fancheng

king of Wu in the Three Kingdoms Era Because Guan Yu was in the upper reaches, he was unwilling to let Guan Yu develop, and he had already seized the heart of Jingzhou, so he joined Cao Cao in preparation for the general. LV Meng A surprise attack on Jingzhou Jiangling After receiving the letter, Cao Cao informed Cao Ren of the news and ordered him to continue to stick to it. Morpo (now Jiaxian Southeast, near the command, sent twelve battalions to reinforce Xu Huang, and ordered him to fight back Guan Yu. After fierce fighting, Guan Yu was defeated. Soon, LV Meng attacked Jiangling successfully. Guan Yu withdrew to Yizhou and was killed by Sun Quanjun on the way. Sun Quan sent the head of Guan Yu to Luoyang. Cao Cao ended with the battle of Xiangfan.

Old age of Heroes

After Cao Cao captured Guan Yu and captured Jingzhou, Sun Quan took the form of Sun Quan. title of cavalry general Jingzhou pasture. Sun Quan sent a tribute to Cao Cao, and persuaded Cao Cao to replace the Han Dynasty claiming to be the emperor of the great Wei Dynasty. Cao Cao sent Sun Quan to the inside and outside ministers, saying, "it is the child who wants to stand on the fire." Cao Cao's group of ministers took the opportunity to persuade Cao Cao. Cao Cao himself did not want to give up his independence. He said, "if fate is in me, I will be king Zhou Wen."

Jianan twenty-five years (220 years) in the first month, Cao Cao returned to Luoyang. In that month, he died in Luoyang, aged sixty-six years old. He left a decree before he died. According to Cao Cao's will, he was buried on February twenty one day (April 11th). Ye Cheng Western suburbs Gaoling

In October, Wei Wang Cao Pi Instead of the Han Dynasty, he was independent of the emperor, with the title of Wei, chasing Cao Cao as Emperor Wu. Tai Shu

Political initiatives

During the war of warlords in the Eastern Han Dynasty, the social and economic development of the Huang Huai basin was unprecedentedly destroyed, the people were slaughtered, the land was desolate, and the survivors were forced to leave their homes and left the other side. It can be said that "all the names are empty, but no one lives." "White bones are wild, and there is no cock in a thousand miles." Faced with this tragic scene, Cao Cao implemented a series of policies to restore the economy and stabilize the situation. From Cao Cao's political, military and economic performance, such as carrying out reclamation, building water conservancy projects, implementing salt and iron official selling system, played a positive role in social economic recovery and economic reorganization.


· Punish tyrannical

When Cao Cao started his career, he tried to change the situation of power and authority by using stricter laws. Because of trouble in the middle, Cao could not display his intentions. After his own political power, he will have to carry out all his efforts to suppress the tyrannical. Rule by law Policy. He said: "husband punishment, the fate of the people"; "disorderly governance, the penalty is the first". He used it. Wang Shu , Si Ma Zhi , Yang Pei , Lu Qian Full of favors, Jia Qu And other local officials, to curb unlawful tyrannical. If we compare Yuan Shaohe's and Cao Cao's treatment in Jizhou, we can see two different situations: "at the end of Han Dynasty, the government lost its breadth and breadth, so it did not take action". Under the policy of giving full play to Yuan Shao, "let the tyrannical tyrannical tyrannical, relatives merge, the lower people are poor and weak, instead of renting Fu, flaunt their wealth, they should not be punished". In this way, nature can not make "the people attach to each other, and armour is strong." Therefore, Yuan Shao was defeated by Cao, though he had a larger army, more troops and more grain. After he had been in Jizhou, Cao immediately reacted to the law of "powerful and powerful mergers" and received the effect of "happy people". Sima Guang said Cao "disorderly governance" is not without evidence.

· Stable situation

Han Xian Di was contended by the Western Liang army, and all the State counties and pastoral troops were fighting for self-improvement and severing tribute. The whole situation in China is the separation of warlords and warlords. Han Xian Xian imperial court, far from having the ability to control the political situation, at this time of crisis, Cao Cao seized the desperate end of the emperor, moved the county Xu county, and leveled the north by force, trying to further unite China, and played a stabilizing role in the Eastern Han Dynasty.

· Only talented

In the Han Dynasty, officials were selected. Benevolence and righteousness Filial piety and other aspects of feudalism Moral character We should also have noble Family background.

Cao Cao did not pay much attention to his reputation. He chose officials to "understand the principles of law" and run the rule of law. use Yan Cao , Mao Mao In charge of the election, "all of them are upright and upright, though they are famous at the time, and they will not enter the party without their own fame. People who live in frugality should not be encouraged by the integrity of the world, though they are too proud to be overrepresented. Social mood has improved.

In order to maintain and develop forces, let more people serve their own businesses without being restricted by the above standards. Only talented " As long as he has talent, even if he lacks the moral character of the feudal society, he will also pay attention to promotion. From 210 to 217 years, he has made three "seeking orders" to select and appoint talented people. Breaking the notions of the family of the clans, leading the middle and lower classes of the landlord class to suppress the tyrannical and strengthen the centralization of power.

· Paying attention to ceremony and emphasizing law

Cao Cao's thought was influenced by Confucianism, and its foundation belonged to the category of Confucianism. It was benevolent and courteous and courteous, and tried to educate people and administration by benevolence, morality and comity. On the other hand, Cao Cao's emphasis on law and practice, strict punishment, and strict law are very important in history. This constitutes another important aspect of Cao Cao's thought. This is called "disorderly punishment first." Therefore, Cao Cao's thought is a contradictory unity. Cao Cao, who was in troubled times, emphasized neither the criminal law nor the use of ritual. He has always been courtesy and emphasis on law, and both hands have been used. He has shown the unique ability of crafty in both etiquette and law.


· Unify the North

Cao Cao was skilled in the art of war and played a positive role in unifying the north. Yellow towel Uprising After that, Eastern Han Dynasty Disintegration, warlords fighting. In the scuffle, not only Dong Zhuo, li jue When the Liangzhou warlords massacred people and looted property, there was a "desolation of the people and the state". From two years (191 years) to thirteen years (208 years) of Jianan, Cao Cao eliminated the separatist forces in the north and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and unified most parts of northern China. Cao Cao's war in northern China lasted 17 years. the Wei state of the Three-Kingdoms Period The war of founding a state laid a solid foundation for the unification of China in the Western Jin Dynasty.

· Master the art of war

Cao Cao studied the art of war, had profound military theories, and had read Sun Wu, Wu Qi and other former military affairs.

The book of the family is written on the basis of learning the art of war, and it is written in the book "the book of arms". Written by A brief explanation of Sun Tzu "To start a commentary on the thirteen chapter of" Sun Tzu ". He advocated the concept of war with "righteous action", emphasizing that teachers should be famous and conform to moral principles. In strategy and tactics, it is flexible and changeable.

In terms of employing troops, Shi called him "marching in the army", greatly relying on Sun Wu's law, and setting things up for strange reasons. There are more than one hundred thousand words written in the book of war, and all the conquests will be carried out by new books. In a series of battles such as Lv Bu, Zhang Xiu, Yuan Shao, Ma Chao and Han Sui, we often use the tactics of attacking the west, avoiding reality, hiding, copying, raiding, alienating, robbing grain, attacking and rescuing it, and throwing objects into enemy. Li Jing Li Wei's question right. Ho ho Fei's works such as Dr. Ho's theory praises Cao Cao's march in the army.

· Manage troops strictly

In the field of troops, he was strict with the army and the law was strict. Once in the army's March, Cao Cao's orders were not allowed to trample the horses on the ground. If there were any violations, they would all beheaded. The soldiers walked down the horse in fear of breaking the wheat seedling. But Cao Cao's war horse was terrified and stepped on the wheat field. He drew his sword and cut off his own hair to show his punishment. " Tong Dian The "Wei Wu order", "Wei Wu ship war order" and "Wei Wu Bu war order" included in the military code also reflect his strict military orders.

· Cherish the talents

In the aspect of imperial defense, Cao Cao pulled out of the ban and entered the ranks of the battle line, took Zhang Liao and Xu Huang in the dead captivity. Cao Cao can take advantage of his generals' characteristics. For example, Xu Chu, Wei Wei Zhuang Wu powerful, loyal to the law, Cao Cao let them fight for the Army front, the rest of the same line of soldiers; Zang and Fu have faith in the East soil, Cao Cao will be green, Xu two states entrusted to him, so that they can concentrate on dealing with Yuan Shao, do not need to orient to read; descend the Wen Ben Ben is the general of the Liu Biao account, in the Jianghan area, there is Wynn, Cao Cao as Jiangxia prefect, with the side of things, so that the Royal Sun Quan.


· Implementation of field control

Between the Han and Wei dynasties, social production was severely damaged and there was a great famine. During this period, food supply became the biggest problem of all military blocs. Because of the shortage of military food, it was innumerable. Cao Cao set up farmland in the north, built water conservancy projects, solved the problem of shortage of military food, and played a certain role in the restoration of agricultural production.

In the first year of Jianan, Cao Cao adopted the advice of jujube and others, and broke through the material seized by the yellow towel to raise the people in the field. So Cao Cao ordered field officials to be set up in various State counties. Land reclamation Land reclamation In the form of state investment, the reproduction efficiency is higher than that of ordinary farmers. Therefore, in a short period of time, the local farmers and soldiers, the sound of dogs and dogs, belong to the place. The problem of grain in the Cao Cao group was effectively solved in the field of reclamation. Therefore, Cao Cao said, "after that, it will enrich the country and destroy the group and conquer the world."

At the same time, Cao Cao took various measures to support the reclamation. Peasant economy In response to the loss of population at that time and the desolation of farmland, Cao Cao has adopted measures such as recruiting refugees, migrating population, encouraging agriculture, mulberry, water conservancy and household registration. In addition, Cao Cao has promulgated decrees in succession to restore the normal rents system and prevent the powerful from annexing small farmers. Jianan five years, Cao Cao issued a new levy system, to Jianan nine years, it is clear: "its land collection of four acres of land, two households out of silk, two pounds of cotton, he can not be good at developing." The series of measures before and after Cao Cao made the collapse of the self employed peasant economy have been restored and developed. This has become the strong economic foundation of Cao Cao group.

· Reform of census register

After breaking the Ye City, Cao Cao changed the heavy poll tax in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. Household modulation For land owners (including farmers and landowners), the rent is four litres per mu, two silk and two catties per household. This policy has greatly reduced the burden on farmers and gained consistent support.

· Water conservancy

When Cao Cao was alive, he vigorously built water conservancy facilities and worked very well, such as the seven gates and three weirs built in Zhou Yu's hometown of Shucheng. Ren Zong of Northern Song Dynasty It can also irrigate twenty thousand good fields every day.

· Advocate integrity

At the same time, Cao Cao also paid great attention to saving money and set an example to promote honesty. In the history books, Cao Cao was called "frugal and frugal, not gorgeous," but the Imperial Palace was not beautiful, and the imperial service was not the same, but the curtain was bad. To put it simply, clothes are not garish, shoes are not carved and embroidered, curtain screens are patched down, and bedclothes are "worn away". Under the great correction of Cao Cao, the luxury of the Eastern Han Dynasty has been twisting, and people in the world are honest, thrifty and self disciplined. Even high-ranking dignitaries did not dare to extravagantly extravagantly, or even some strange things that some people deliberately wear ragged clothes to please Cao Cao. Fourteen years after Jian an, Cao Cao had to order to correct this strange unhealthy trend.

Cao Cao's Testament also embodies his consistently frugal style: "the world is not yet stable, and it has not been followed by Gu." Funeral is done. None of its troops will be allowed to leave the Tuen Mun. There are divisions and rates. When you take time to serve, there is no treasure. "


· library

Cao Cao loved tomb and six arts. In the process of unifying the north, attention should be paid to the protection and collection of books. In five years (200 years), Jianan defeated Yuan Shaohou and ordered to "collect all his treasures." After Wei Wei, he set up a government official who was in charge of ancient books and records. He collected extensively the official and folk books of the Eastern Han Dynasty, which were scattered in the war. He was arrested in the three and the secretarial provinces of China and foreign countries. I also asked Cai Wenji, the daughter of Cai Yong, to talk about his book collection. Cai Wenji wrote the book and wrote it without any mistakes. Because he attached importance to the cultural construction of the country, he gradually established the National Library of Wei.

· Religion

Cao Cao's incorporation of Taiping Road and the power of the five Dou Mi Dao concentrated on the control of the alchemists and even the "emperor of heaven". In the first year of the first year of Cao Pihuang's life, Cao Cao's "God's destiny in my" Wei Shi's great career was realized. From the rise of Cao Cao's forces to the Han and Wei dynasties, many important historical events were deeply related to primitive Taoism.


· Xiongnu

Jianan twenty-one years (216 years) in April, Han Xian Di appointed Cao Cao as Wei Wang. In July, the South Hun Nu was sent to Chai Chuen for a visit, and was detained in Ye City. Cao Cao took the opportunity to divide the southern Huns into five parts, and chose Han people to supervise Sima.

· Wu Huan

At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wuhuan (also known as "Wu pill") occupied three counties in western Liaoning, upper valley and right Peiping, each of which was king, often invaded four states in the north and "killing civilians". Wu Hun Tun Tun, the chief of the three kings, was better than Yuan Shao, who once helped yuan Tsun destroy Gong sun Zan. After the war of Guandu, Yuan Shao died shortly after he returned to Jizhou, and his son Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi went to Wuhuan again. Cao Cao's northern expedition to Wu Hun ton came from the strategic need to eliminate yuan's forces and unite the three counties. Battle of Bai Langshan Cao Jun won the battle and captured Wu Huan's captive to the Han and the more than 10 000 people, and two states of Wuhuan Wan Yu (the grassroots unit of Wuhuan Hukou) moved to the mainland. To promote the gradual integration of the Wuhuan people with the Han people, which has a positive effect on consolidating the social order in the north and making the people's production and life stable.


Cao Cao advocated it when he was alive. Flimsy Burying

Historical evaluation

Historical book evaluation

Chen Shou " Romance of the Three Kingdoms "At the end of the Han Dynasty, the world was in chaos, and the heroic heroes came together. But Yuan Shaohu regarded the four states as strong enemies. Tai Shu Plan and plan In the Han Dynasty and the white policy, the official materials, because of their devices, are not only the best but also the best. It can be described as a very extraordinary person.

Shen Wang " Book of Wei "The imperial army of Tai Dynasty has been reluctant to give up the book for more than thirty years. The book tells the martial strategy, while the night thinks the classics. It is all in tune to create a new poem and to string it up.

Past appraisal

Li Zan When the time is going to be chaotic, the hero of the world has never had Cao Cao.

Bao Xin The husband is not alone in the world. He can always play the hero in order to set things right.

Zhang Liao Ming Gong Authority As for the four seas and Liao's imperial edicts, they will not dare to harm them.

Cool and luxuriant Cao Gong worries about the danger of the country and the bitterness of the common people. The rate of the righteous army is that of the world, and it is not worth two.

king of Wu in the Three Kingdoms Era The only way to kill people is to get rid of them. Flesh and blood Think cool ears, Royal will be rare since ancient times.

Sun Chu Tae Tsu, Kami Take, should take charge of the riots, the summer of the Kun District, the concord of the Concord, the set of heaven's destiny, and the Hongyuan of the Sui Dynasty.

Lu Ji After the end of the Royal Han Dynasty, the value of the king's way was much more violated. He kept the heavy yuan to cultivate the scales, and stroked Qingyun and flew away. Yun Shen road takes Zai De and the spirit of wind to Fan Wei. Destroy the crowd and strike the enemy. It means that the eight poles are far away. The third is the lack of scriptures and the opening of heaven and earth. The most important part of the repair network is the emblem of Nu Da Yin. To sweep the clouds, Zhen Guan should go all the way. Peter Dade covered the moon with Qi Hui. Ji Yuan has nine merits.

Pan an Wei Wu he uses Ting Zhen to uphold the meaning of the word to cut off the rebellion. Although he uses many of them, the system is better than the temple.

Liu Yuan When a man is hankor and Wei Wu, he calls the Han evil.

Wang Dao Xun Wei Wu, the master of political affairs, Xun Wen Luo, the most meritorious service.

Pei Song Zhi Wei Tai's machine is changed without any reason.

Yuan Rong Shu Cao Cao and Cao Pi went on the horse and talked about it.

Zhong Rong Cao Gong is straight and sad.

Li Shimin The emperor takes the posture of martial arts, often difficult. The duty of a pillar is similar to that of the past.

Wang Bo Wei Wu uses troops as if Sun Wu. Facing the enemy and making strange things, there are few losses. Therefore, the East bird can be cunning and the north is strong. In the north of the gang, Liu Cong hangs his hands and hangs his hands. In the midsummer of the Qing Dynasty, we took the emperor to make the princes and the superheroes.

Wei Yuan Zhong Wei Wu Gang, a god of the crown, is still under the law of sun and Wu. It is false that there is a spirit of Xiang Ji, Yuan Shaozhi Ji, and all of them are wiped out of their wisdom and will eventually be disillusioned.

Zhu Jing Shi In the first place, we should observe the power of Cao Gong Ming Ming, and God will become poorer, and the soldiers will not be disappointed in the danger. Second, the emperor of the Wei Dynasty was invincible, the God machine walking alone, the war fifty-six, the Kyushu seven or eight, the people and the world, the world admired, and the weak and the weak.

Zhao Xu In the process of planning and planning, they beat up Yu Yu, North broke Yuan Shao, southern captive Liu Cong, Dong Ju Gong Sun Kang, Xi Yi Zhang Lu, Kyushu hundred counties, ten and eight, their achievements were not investigated, but they died in the middle ages.

Zhang says The king did not see that Wei Wu created the heaven and the earth. The day brings the strong men to break the battle array, and the night to receive the Ci Fu Fu Hua house. The city is surrounded by Western Shanyang, and mulberry trees are covered with Zhanghe music. The city is replaced by the people in the ruins. Takazuka Takichen on the Ye side, the dust of the eyebrow man. On the bronze dance, only the autumn wind is killing people.

Zhang Ding You can't see that the Han Dynasty has lost the unity of the three spirits, and Wei Wu contended for six Dragon Wars. Swinging the river to make China, it should be southern to fight the world. The dark capital of the Purple Street opened, far away from the yellow star. It is not in the Zhanghe River for a long time. The article is still new to the orchestra. Unfortunately, in the song and dance hall, there are many people who worry about it.

Mu Shu It is only the emperor's hero that makes him brave for several years. How strong is Wu and Yong Shu?

author of the history Zizhi Tongjian Wang knows that people are good at observing and difficult to fake. Knowledge of talent is not only cheap but also useful. With the enemy Chen, the meaning of leisure, if not to fight, until the decisive plane wins, momentum is full. The meritorious service should be rewarded, and no money should be paid. The usage is urgent, the crime will kill, or shed tears, but there is no forgiveness at all. Elegant and frugal, not gorgeous. Therefore, we can mow a few men in a few seas.

He Qu Fei : Cao Cao's wandering alone, with his wisdom, should be replaced by Ding Yan's and Ji's, and the three counties of the East, Lv Bu and Ji dun. And Cao Gong Zhi's paintings often come out, but many are sleepy. The so-called "potential" and "brave" will be defeated if they fail. Then the world began to take Cao Gongzhi as invincible, while yuan and Lu were not enough. As for the power and power of the other, and all those who hold all the wisdom and bravery, they all know that Cao Gong is strong in intelligence and not easily enemies. 2. If the troops are not Sun Wu, they will not employ Han Xin or Cao Gong.

Su Xun Xiang Ji has the ability to make the best of the world without taking care of the world. Cao Cao has the worry of taking the world without taking the amount of the world.

Wang Anshi Fame and fortune know who is. Why do we need to see the rest of the land?

Hong Hao Yuan Benchu: laughing at the emperor's side. Head back to Guandu, the disaster of mercy. Cao Gong goes to Xi Shang, Qi Yao Ling, Han Bai. The bullying has already been completed, and its military capacity has been overflowing. Zhang built big cities and worked hard for the people. Although the North broke Wu pill, the South was also trapped in Chibi. Eight wild thoughts annexed, the two nations did their best. The four mausoleum sends grudge. The flying birds are flying by dust. Looking back at the bronze sparrow stage, advocating noisy dart.

Zhong Xing (1) the chief culprit is not two people. If there is a spirit in the article, how can it become a group? 2. To know clearly that the money is not useful is not relentless.

Zhang Pu (1) MEng De Jun army for more than thirty years, his hands refused to give up his book, and his cursive script was Cui Zhang. His music was better than Huan Cai, weiqi Wang Guo, rehabilitation, Fang Fang, Zhou Gong's so called multi skill, Meng Decheng had it. 2. Celebrities in the late Han Dynasty, Kong Rong, Wu and Lv Bu, Meng De Shi and his long.

" Popular romance of the Three Kingdoms "Xiong Zai, the hero, swept the wolf smoke. All things are wise and wise. Long drive millions of people, and pay close attention to the thirteen article. At the same time, who will dare to give the whip?

Chen Ming Ming Meng Detian has a very high score, and the cause is so successful.

Yellow Moses Wei Wu is talented and talented, and he is also a hero. He is good at using power and tactics. But from ancient heroes, is there anyone who does not need all kinds of tricks?

Lu Xun Cao Cao is a man of great skill, at least a hero. Although I am not a party of Cao Cao, I always admire him very much.

Mao Zedong (1) Cao Cao is a great statesman and strategist, and also a great poet. Cao Cao unified northern China and founded Wei. He has reformed many evil policies in the Eastern Han Dynasty, suppressed the tyrannical and powerful forces, developed the production, implemented the system of land reclamation, and urged the reclamation of wasteland, the implementation of the rule of law, and the thrift of thrift, so that the society that suffered great damage began to stabilize, recover and develop. (2) past thousand years, Wei Wu whipping, and east facing Jieshi's remains.

historian He is a hero in troubled times, so he is expressive in literature, sad, generous and brave.

Tan Qiqi Cao Cao is a historical figure who has merits, faults, merits and sins.

Qian Muwei Cao Cao can be a political, military and literary person, but also an entrepreneur. However, he is a great villain, so he is a historical villain. Under this six hundred years of Chinese history, Cao Cao can not blame it.

Huang Ren Yu (1) Cao Cao in the Three Kingdoms is not more crafty than his characters such as Liu Bei and Sun Quan. Moreover, he has the courage to say, dare to do, bold and heroic, uninhibited romantic. Cao Cao can excel, because he is free of limitations and has broad vision. However, although he saw that traditional morality could not solve the problem of the same day, he did not know that giving up traditional morality could not save the same day.

The history of Chinese Qin and Han Dynasties in Cambridge: the fatal blow to the Han Dynasty was left to Cao Cao, one of the most striking figures in Chinese history. Cao Cao was a humble poet, a great poet, a strategist and a realist political thinker. He opposed Confucian etiquette and moral fetters.

personal works

Cao Cao has profound knowledge of literature, calligraphy and music. Author of A brief explanation of Sun Tzu "And" the book of war ". Meng De Xin Shu And other books.


Cao Cao's literary achievements are mainly characterized by the characteristics of prose nowadays. There are more than 20 articles in Cao Cao's poems. Yuefu Poems Body. The content can be divided into three categories. One is about current affairs, the other is mainly based on expressing ideals, and one is poetry about immortals.

There are some works related to current events. Xi Lu Xing " Artemisia " Bitter cold " Stepping out of the summer gate To express their political aspirations, and to reflect the hardships and hardships of the people at the end of the Han Dynasty. The two poems of "Xi Lu Xing" and "Hao Li Xing" were written in the early years of Jianan. Previous reflection He Jin In order to kill the eunuchs, Dong Zhuoru and Luoyang broke up, and the other one wrote the various counties in Guandong to recruit soldiers and seek Zhuo, and each had ambition to kill each other. The poem is written in a succinct language and highly generalizes this historical process. Therefore, it is called "the record of the Han Dynasty". History of poetry "Too" " Bitter cold It is written in Jianan eleven years. The poem depicts the cold, barren, steep and vivid images of the Taihang Mountains in winter, and also writes the complex feelings of the poet. " Stepping out of the summer gate It was written in Jianan twelve years when it was called the three county Wuhuan. The poem includes "Yan" (Prelude) and four explanations. "Yan" focuses on the complex feelings of the poet during his expedition. One solution " Watch the sea "To write the impression of stepping into the stone tablet; two solutions." Winter October "Three solutions to" different soil ", to write in the way to see and hear; four solutions. Turtle life "Wrote the ideological activities after winning this important battle. There are poems that express ideals. Du Guan Shan " Wine in pairs " Short songs And so on. The first two chapters write political ideals. The peace and prosperity he envisages is the politics of the good master and the good minister. This is undoubtedly progressive under the realistic background of social destruction in the late Han Dynasty. " Short songs The theme of the book is "seeking virtue." Mountain is not tired of high The sea is not deep. Treat worthy men with courtesy Poetry, such as "returning to heaven", expresses the desire to be wise and eager to recruit talents, so as to become a great career.

In artistic style, Cao Cao's poetry is simple and unadorned. They win with deep feelings and profound feelings. In poetry sentiment, it is characterized by generosity and sadness. Generous and sad. literature of the Jian'an period The common tone, but in Cao Cao's poems, it is the most typical and prominent. In the poetic genre, Cao Cao's Yuefu Poems did not copy the rules of the Yuefu, but developed. Such as "Xi Lu Xing" and "Hao Li Xing" are all in Han yue fu. Elegy But he used the old questions to write new contents. Cao Cao created the tradition of writing the current affairs in Yuefu, which has far-reaching influence.

Cao Cao's achievements in literature are also reflected in his literature on Jianan. Seven leading writers during the Jian An Period at the end of the Han Dynasty On the constructive role, Jianan literature can thrive in the context of long war and social ruin, and it is inseparable from his attention and promotion. Liu Xie When discussing the reasons for the prosperity of Jianan literature, it was pointed out that "Wei Wu is the king of the same king and the poem of love". In fact, he was closely related to the main writers in Jianan period. Cao Pi and Cao Zhi are his sons, the seven sons. Cai Yan And so on. It can be said, " Ye Xia literati group It was formed on the basis of the material conditions he provided, and their creation was also influenced by his advocacy.

In addition, Cao Cao also has many other essays handed down, such as "please catch up with Guo Jiafeng's table", "let the county self Ming Zhi Ji", "and Wang Xiushu", "Si Tai Wei Qiao Xuan Wen" and so on, the text is simple, emotional, fluent and straightforward.

Cao Cao's writings, according to Qing Dynasty Yao Zhen - Chung " Three Kingdoms arts and records "Textual criticism," Wei Wu Di Ji "Volume 30, Volume 1," Military book "13 volumes and more than ten kinds, but many of them have been lost. the Ming dynasty Zhang Pu Collect 145 poems and essays as "Wei Wu Di Ji". Hundred and three families in Han, Wei and Six Dynasties In. Ding Fu Bao There are also collections of Wei Wu Di in the famous collection of Han, Wei and Six Dynasties, which received slightly more works than Zhang Puji. In 1959, Zhong Hua Book Company According to Ding Fu, Ben added, adding to "Sun Tzu notes" and adding "Wei Zhi Emperor Wu Ji", "Cao Cao chronology" and so on. Cao operation set "


Cao Cao is a generation of calligrapher but little known. This is mainly due to the less calligraphy works handed down by Cao Cao. "The book review of the Tang Dynasty" said: "fuck books like golden flowers, all over the place, exquisite, Jingyu splendor, Yao Yao bright charm." Zhang Hua in the Western Jin Dynasty Naturalis Historia "In the" Han Dynasty, Anping Cui, "Zi Zi", "Hong Nong Zhang Zhi", "Zhi Di Chang" and "good Tzu Shu" and "Tai Zu Ya". Calligraphy critics in the Southern Dynasties Yu Jian Wu In its " Books In addition, Cao Cao's calligraphy works are included in the Chinese characters, called "Li Mo Xiong Zhan". Calligraphers in the Tang Dynasty commenting on Zhang Huaiguan's monograph on calligraphy criticism Book break It is called Cao Cao's "Yung Gong Zhang Cao", which is regarded as a wonderful piece of Zhang Cao's works. From this, though Cao Cao's calligraphy works can not be regarded as divine goods or top quality, he is quite well known among famous calligraphers throughout the country.

There are historical records, Cao Cao often with calligrapher Zhong, Liang Hu , Handan Chun , Wei Cheng , Sun Zi Jing Others learn about books and art. In particular, he liked to taste Liang Hu's character, and he used the special five elixir to wee blood from Cai Yong's "written style" which was rejected by Wei Cheng.

Although Cao Cao was good at books, he probably had no chance to write because he was busy with war and government affairs. In Song Zhengqiao's "Tongzhi Jinshi Lue", Cao Cao only included a "great tablet" written by Yang Shen. In Ming Dynasty, he also mentioned the "Jie Jie table" written by Cao Cao when he talked about the Yuan Dynasty. Ye Yi Bao In " Jin Shi Lu "Cao Cao said that on the side of the" Yellow Crane Tower "in Wuchang, he wrote three words:" big moon ", which is large, vigorous, and correct. When Cao Cao was in Hanzhoung, he wrote two words "Dun Xue" on a big stone in the South Gate of shinmen River, and now he moved to the Hanzhoung Museum. Bozhou " Cao Cao underground troop Road The two words of "Dun Xue" seen in the loci were inscribed by rubbings and two on top. Official script The word "Wei king", which is inscribed with small characters, is obscure and obscure.

Kinship members


· Grandfather: Cao Teng

· Grandmother: Wu's (Cao Tengzhi) Opposite food "Wife"

· Father: Cao song

· Mother: Ding

Wives and concubines

· Mrs. Ding Cao Cao, the original wife, has no children.

· Madam Bian Cao Cao's wife, Empress Bian, Wuxuan Four sons, Cao Pi, Cao Zhang, Cao Zhi and Cao Xiong.

· Mrs Liu Cao Cao's concubine is the two son of Cao and Cao Shuo.

· Madam annulus Cao Cao's concubine was born three sons, Cao Chong, Cao and Cao Yu.

· Lady Du Cao Cao's concubine is the two son of Cao Lin and Cao Gun.

· Lady Qin Cao Cao's concubine is the two son of Cao Xuan and Cao Jun.

· Lady Yin Cao Cao's concubine gave birth to Cao.

· Wang Zhao Yi Cao Cao's concubine, Cao's foster mother.

· Chen Ji Cao Cao's concubine, Cao Cao.

· Sun Ji, the concubine of Cao Cao, the three sons of Cao, Cao Biao and Cao Qin.

· Li Ji, the concubine of Cao Cao, born three sons, Cao, Cao Zheng and Cao Jing.

· Zhou Ji The concubine of Cao Cao was born by Cao.

· Liu Ji, Cao Cao's concubine, gave birth to Cao Cao.

· Song Ji The concubine of Cao Cao is born of Cao Hui.

· Zhao Ji Cao Cao's concubine was born in Cao Mao.

· A, Zhang Ji The widow, in the romance of the Three Kingdoms, is Mrs ZHOU


· Son

According to "Wei Zhi Wen Di Ji", "Chen Xiao Wang biography of Ren Cheng" and "Wang Wen Shi Wang Gong biography", there are 25 sons of Cao Cao. The order of Cao Cao's son is not to be tested.

1. Cao Pi Wei Wendi

2. Cao Zhang King of the city

3. Cao Zhi CHEN Si Wang

4. Cao bear Xiao Huai Wang

5. Cao ang Feng, Wang, the eldest son.

6. Cao song King of war

7. Cao Chong Deng ai wang

8. Cao Ju The king of Pengcheng

9. Cao Yu Yan Wang

10. Cao Lin Pei Mu Wang

11. Cao Gong Nakayama Yasuo

12. Cao Cao Jiyang Huai Wang

13. Cao Jun Chen Yugong Wang

14. Cao moment Fan Yang Min Wang

15. Cao Gang Zhao Wang, the last

16. Cao Shang The prince of Linyi

17. Cao Biao Chu king

18. Cao Qin Just a child

19. Cao Cheng Aki Masako

20. Cao Zheng Dai Dai Gong

21. Cao Jing The spiritual child

22. Cao Jun Fan an Gong

23. Cao spine Hirozong Masako

24. Cao Hui Dongping Ling King

25. Cao Mao The king of Leling

· daughter

There are 6 researchers.

1. Princess Qinghe The name is unknown. Xia Hou Wife

2. Cao Xian Han Xian Xian

3. Cao Jie The queen of Han Xian

4. Cao Hua Han Xian Xian

5. Princess of Anyang The name is unknown. Xu Yun Wife

6. Princess of Jinxiang The name is unknown. He Yan Wife

· Foster son

There are 3 researchers.

1. He Yan General general He Jin The grandson is beautiful but has no line. He married Cao Cao, the princess of Jinxiang.

2. Qin Lang

3. Cao Zhen

Collateral system

Records of Cao's family in the Three Kingdoms, Wei Shu, Zhu Xia Hou Cao biography Xia Hou Cao Cao Clansmen In laws, these people are reused by Cao Cao.

· Cao Ren Zi Zi filial piety, Cao Cao from brother, grandfather Cao Bao Father Cao Chi ;

· Cao Hong Cao Cao is from his brother.

· Cao Chun Zi Zi and Cao Renzhi di.

· Cao Xu The word is fierce, Cao Cao. Clan My grandfather, Cao Ding, was a prefect of Wu County. Cao Cao praised it as "my family".

· Xia Hou Tang The character lets.

· Xia Hou yuan Word extraordinary talent Xiahou Dun From younger brother Cao Cao married his wife.

· Xia Hou Shang Word, benevolence, Xiahou Yuan from son.


Cao Ba Later, Tang Xuanzong, a painter in the period of Cao, was able to draw good works. Du Fu There are two poems, "Dan Qing Yin" and "general Cao painting horse picture", expressing their admiration for their painting skills. Ferry bearer Takamuko no Kuromaro And monk also claimed to be Cao Cao's descendants.


See also: Tomb of Cao Cao


Qiao Shui Jiao Jiao

When Cao Cao was ten years old, he went swimming in Longtan and suddenly met a fierce crocodile. The crocodile attacked Cao Cao with his teeth, but Cao Cao was not afraid of it. He kept composing with the crocodile. The crocodile could not get out of the mouth, so he ran away. When Cao Cao returned home, he did not mention crocodiles to his family. Later, an adult saw a snake and was afraid of shrinking. Cao Cao laughed and said innocently, "I am not afraid of crocodiles in Longtan, but you are afraid of a snake. It is ridiculous!" People asked, Cao Cao told the truth, all the young Cao Cao's courage.

Intelligent Yuan Shao

When Cao Cao was young, he Yuan Shao Two people often like to play Rangers. The two of them once went to see other people get married, took the opportunity to sneak into their master's garden, and yelled at midnight: "there are thieves!" Green cottage The people inside came out to see, yuan and Cao two people pulled out their sword and robbed the bride. After they ran out, they lost their way and fell into thorns, and Yuan Shao could not move. Cao Cao shouted again, "thieves are here!" Yuanshao was in a panic, and jumped out of his own. The two men finally escaped.

Guan Yu concubines

Qin Yi Lu Go to Yuan Shu to marry the Han Dynasty imperial clan woman as wife. His ex-wife Lady Du And son Qin Lang Stay in Pei. Jianan three years (198 years), Cao Cao besieged Lv Bu at lower Pei. Guan Yu Repeated requests can be made after the city is broken. Lady Du For my concubine. When Cao Cao saw Guan Yu's repeated requests, he suspected duer's beauty was different from that of ordinary people, so he went to see duo himself. Cao Cao therefore refused. Guan Yu Mrs. Nadu asked herself for her concubine. Lady Du For my concubine. Qin Lang became Cao Cao's stepson. Cao Cao is extremely fond of love. Qin Lang Every time he saw Qin Lang, he said to the guests, "is there anyone in the world who loves my stepson so much?"

Assassinate Zhang rang

Cao Cao once entered private service. Zhang let The mansion tried to assassinate. Zhang rang found that he was sent to hunt down. Cao Cao waved his halberd and came out from the court. The guards of Zhang rang could not get close to him. Cao Cao fought and withdrew and fell back to the wall.

Console oneself with false hopes

Once Cao Cao took the lead in battle and found no water on the way. The soldiers were very thirsty. So Cao Cao told his men to send a message to the soldiers: "there is a large area of Meilin ahead, many plum, sweet and sour, can quench thirst." The soldiers were drooling after hearing. By virtue of this, they can reach the source of water ahead.

Wen Zhao Zhen Hou

Wei Empress Wen Zhao Zhen Virtuous and beautiful, at first Yuan Xi His wife is very popular. After Cao Gong attacked the city of Ye, he summoned Zhen's haste quickly, but his followers all told him, "Cao Pi has already gone." Cao Cao said, "this year's attack on ye city is just for her."

Cutting hair for the first time

One year, when everything was in good harvest, Cao Cao commanded the army to pass through the wheat fields, and ordered, "do not destroy the wheat, kill the violates!" All the riders in the army dismounted, holding the wheat by hand. Cao Cao, who did not want to sit on his own, unexpectedly ran into the wheat field and brought in his master book to punish the crime. The main book replied with the allusions of the spring and Autumn Period: since ancient times, the criminal law was not used by the honorable people. Instead, Cao Cao said, "what is the law of our own and violating itself? How can we command our subordinates? However, as a commander of the army, I am not able to die before I finish my task, and I request to impose criminal law on myself. So he took the sword and cut off a piece of hair and threw it on the ground.

Welcome back to Wen Ji

After settling down the north, Cao Cao came out of the old man. Cai Yong In the eleven years of Jian an (AD 207), the messenger dispatched his daughter with Kim Bi. Cai Wenji Repaying the country from the Hun land of the north, remarried to Chen Liuren Dong Si And let her organize more than 400 books of Cai Yong's books, which has contributed to the spread of Chinese culture.

To compose poems while holding the lance horizontally in the saddle

On the eve of the battle of Chibi, Cao Cao was in charge of the army. Conquer southward To fight with the coalition forces of Sun Quan and Liu Bei. The night is bright and clear, and he sets wine on the big river and sets the feast. When Cao Cao was drunk, he stood at the bow of the boat and sang generously. Su Dongpo In " Former Chibi Fu It calls it " Wine Linjiang He is a poet.

Exquisite writing

Cao Cao once passed. Cao E Under the tablet, Yang Xiu Accompanying. The inscription on the back of the stone tablet reads " Yellow silk Eight words: the young woman, the grandchild, and the mortar. Cao Cao asked Yang Xiu, "do you know what this means?" Yang Xiu answered, "yes." Cao Cao said, "don't tell me before you wait. I'll think about it." Out of thirty miles away, Cao Cao said, "I already know." Order Yang Xiu to write what he knows alone. Yang Xiu wrote: "yellow silk, colored silk, written in the word" absolutely "; the meaning of young woman, maiden, written in the word is" wonderful "; granddaughter, is the daughter of the child, written in the word is" good "; Ju Ji, by the device of Xin, Sheng Wu Xin appliance. Another explanation for five Xin is green onion, garlic, pepper, ginger and mustard. Five Xin Utensils. This says It means "excellent words". Cao Cao also wrote down his own ideas, which is the same as Yang Xiu. So he exclaimed: "I can't compare with you for thirty years, and I can understand the meaning of the inscription."

Keep his wife and children in mind on his deathbed

Cao Cao left the decree before his death, saying: "my maidservants and song and dance entertainers were very hard-working, so that they lived in the bronze sparrow terrace (site at the site of the city of Linzhang, Hebei, twenty kilometers southwest of Ye City). They were properly housed. They put six feet of beds on the main hall of the Taiwan Court, put up spiritual accounts, and offered food for food in the morning and evening. Every month, one, fifteen and two days, from early to noon, they played music and dance to the accounts. You should always go up to the bronze sparrow terrace and visit my Xiling cemetery. The rest of the incense can be distributed to the ladies without sacrificing them. People in different rooms have nothing to do, but they can learn to make belts and shoes. "

Rod kill lucky

Cao Cao, a favorite concubine, often sleeps with Cao Cao in the daytime and lies on Cao Cao's bed. Cao Cao once said to her before going to bed, "remember to wake me up later." When the concubine saw Cao Cao sleeping soundly, he made no decision to wake him up. When Cao Cao woke up and found that he had missed the hour, he ordered the concubine. Stick responsibility To death.