Cao Can

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Cao Can

Cao Can(? - 190 BC) , Han nationality Peixian people In the Western Han Dynasty, the founding fathers and famous generals were the following. Xiao He Later, the second dynasties in the Han Dynasty were called Cao. Xiang Guo "

209 BC (first year of Qin II), following Liu Bang In Peixian, we fought against the Qin Dynasty, fought a hundred battles, repeatedly built up military achievements, and seized two countries and one hundred and twenty-two counties. When Liu Bang was emperor, he rewarded the meritorious ministers for his contributions. Cao was second of the people in Pingyang. Han Hui di When the official arrives at the prime minister, he follows the rules of Xiao He. Follow in sb.'s footsteps It's called.

Paul Mauriat's History

Early experience

Pingyang Hou Cao Can, Pei people. In the early years, he was a prison officer in Qin Chao County, a prison official (probably a warden), but he was quite famous. Xiao He For the chief of Cao Can, Liu Bang The official of the escort (Ting Chang) is his subordinate.

Cao Can and Han Gao Zu Liu Bang, Xiao He, Fan Qiao All of them are Peixian people, but Xiao and Cao have become officials. Most of the counties have good reputation. Liu and fan two are equal to the local bullies. They are very different in the eyes of their parents in the countryside. However, Xiao He, Cao Can, Xiahou Ying and so on all have deep friendship with Liu Bang.

Fight against Qin

See also: Peasant war at the end of Qin Dynasty

Liu Bang do Prince Peter At the beginning of the incident, Cao Can Middle jujube The identity followed Gao Zu. Cao Can troops attacked the army of Hu Ling and Fang, and attacked the troops of the Qin Dynasty and county, and broke the enemy soldiers. Cao Can took Xue county to the East and went west in the outer city of Xue county. Surabaya County Sheriff

The army. Then he attacked Hu Ling and seized it. Cao Can troops transferred to guard side. Fang and already rebelled and surrendered to the king of Wei. Fengyi He also rebelled and surrendered to Wei king. Cao Can went to attack Fengyi again. Prince Peter To seven doctors of Cao Can. Title of nobility Cao Can attacked Sima Xian, Xi (n) in the eastern part of Dang County, defeated it and captured Dang County, foe father and Qixian's Xin Yi post. Cao Can attacked the western part of Xia Yi City and went to Yu county to attack Zhang Han's army. When he attacked yuan Qi and Kang Fu, Cao Can first boarded the tower. Cao Can's official rank was promoted to five doctors. Cao Can went to the north to rescue Dong'e, and attacked the army of Zhang Han, captured Chen County, and pursued Puyang. Attack Dingtao and win Lin Ji. South rescue yongqiu, strike Li you The army defeated it, killed Li and captured the Qin Dynasty army. At that time, Qin defeated Zhang Han. Xiang Liang The army killed the Liang Liang. Prince Peter and Xiang Yu The army returns to the East. Chu Huai Wang He was appointed as the sheriff in charge of the army of Dang county. He is known as Jian Chengjun. Later Cao was promoted to Qi Gong and belonged to Dang county.

From then on, Cao Can defeated the enemy troops in the south of Chengwu by following the army that he had attacked. Attack in the south of Chengyang Wang Li The army fought against the army in the bar and defeated it. Pursuing the defeated enemy troops, they went west to Kaifeng, and attacked Zhao Ben's army, defeated him, and put Zhao Benwei in Kaifeng City. Facing the West and meeting the General Commander of the Qin Dynasty Yang bear The army defeated it and captured Sima and Yu Shi of Qin Dynasty. Cao Cansheng was a leader. The heir attacked the Yang Wu with his father, took down the shafts of the Yellow River, and blocked the the Yellow River ferry. The army returned to the army and defeated it on the northern side of the corpse township. follow Prince Peter To attack the south, CH (U) u, fighting in the east of Yangcheng outer city with Lu Jun, who broke the array of Lu army. Following the public's attack on Wu Guan and Guan Guan, he took these two points. First, he attacked the army of the Qin Dynasty in the south of Lantian, and attacked the northern part of Lantian in the night, defeated the Qin army, then arrived in Xianyang and died in Qin Dynasty.

Competition between Chu and Han

See also: battle between Chu and Han

Xiang Yu In Guanzhong, seal. Liu Bang It's Hanwang. Hanwang sealed Cao Can as the completion Hou. Cao Can follows Han Wang.

In Guanzhong, it was promoted to general. Then he followed Wang to return to the army to settle the three Qin Dynasties. At first, he fought down the debate, the old road, the Yongxian and the T (I, Tai) counties. In the south of the good army, Zhang Ping's army defeated it and surrounded it. In the east of the township and the high oak area, the army attacked the three Qin and defeated it. Surrounded again Zhang Ping Zhang Ping escaped from good break. So Zhao Benhe attacked the army of Shi Bao and defeated it. He seized Xianyang from the East and renamed Xianyang as new town.

Cao Can took charge of the army for twenty days. The three Qin faction sent equal men to attack Cao Can, and Cao Can sent troops to attack and defeat the enemy troops. Hanwang gave ningqin to Cao Can for food. Cao Can took the general's identity as a leader to surround Zhang Han in the abandoned hills, and to follow Han Wang as he was the lieutenant. When he arrived in Hanoi, he took up Wu Xiu, crossed the Yellow River from Wai Jin, and attacked the dragon in the East in Dingtao (J, Ju), and his army defeated him. East of Xiaoxian, Pengcheng and Dang county. Attack Xiang Ji In the army, the Han army failed to escape. Cao was surrounded by lieutenant and captured Yong Qiu. Han Jiang Wang Wu In Huang Huang's rebellion, Cheng was rebelled in Yan County, and Cao Can defeated the army. Zhu Tian Hou was in rebellion against Yan, and Cao Can defeated the rebel army again, and won the reversion of Yan. Kun Yang attacked Yu Yu and pursued Yanyi. The army returned to Wuqiang and then attacked Xingyang. Cao Can worked as a general and lieutenant from Hanzhoung, and swept the princes with Hanwang. When Xiang Yu defeated and returned to Xingyang, he spent a total of two years.

Sasuke Han Xin

205 BC (Han Gao Zu two years), appointed Cao Can acting the left prime minister, the leader stationed in Guanzhong. After more than a month, Wei Wang Bao Rebellion, Cao Can's identity as Deputy Prime Minister. Hanxin The army attacked the army of Sun Wei, general Wei, and defeated the army of sun Suo in the East. Take the opportunity to attack the city of Yi and capture Wei Xiang Wang Xiang. In Quyang, the king of Wei moved to Wuyuan and caught the leopard of Wei Wang alive. After capturing Pingyang, Wang Wei's mother, wife and children were captured, and all of them were divided into fifty-two cities. Liu Bang gave Pingyang to Cao Can as a food city.

Cao Can later followed Han Xin on the east side of Wu county to attack the state of Zhao.

Xia Shuo The army defeated the Xia's army and killed Xia. Hanxin And the former king of Changshan Zhang Er Rate the soldiers to Jingxing to attack Cheng Jun. Chen Yu At the same time, Cao Can was ordered to return to the army and besieged General Zhao of the state of Zhao in Wu County. General Qi broke through and fled, and Cao Can pursued and killed him. So Cao took the troops to the camp of Ao Cang Han Wang. At this time, Hanxin had already defeated Zhao and made a new country.

Han Xin attacked the Qi state to the East, and Cao Can belonged to Han Xin as the Prime Minister of the left and defeated the army under the Qi state. The army returned to the army to attack the counties, Luoyin, plains, and county. Soon follow Hanxin On the false side Long he The army defeated the enemy forces, chopped the dragon and captured his minister, Zhou Lan. The Qi State has been settled, and over 70 counties have been obtained. Captured the original Qi king. Tian Guang The prime minister, Tian Guang, replaced Xu Zhang, the prime minister, and the general Jiaodong Tian of the former Qi.

Han Xin became king of Qi, leading the army to CHENXIAN, joining him and beating him together. Xiang Yu And Cao stayed to calm the Qi state.

Hou Pingyang Feng

Xiang Yu was dead, and the world settled down. In 201 BC (six years in Han Dynasty), the title of the vassal was. The imperial court and the rulers of the princes rely on them so that the title of the title is handed down from generation to generation. The ten thousand six hundred and thirty families in Pingyang are given to Cao Can as food city, and the title is called Hou Hou in Pingyang.

Cao Can's achievements: a total of two princes and one hundred and twenty-two counties were captured, three kings and three generals, six generals, Sima, Jun Hou and Yushi.

When Cao was first employed as a Pei official, he was very thick with Xiao He. After the start of the incident, Cao Can often took the lead in the battle, while Xiao He held the Guanzhong for the prime minister. There was a gap between the two men. And in the time of enclosing, the rank of the meritorious service will start. Even so, two people still know each other very well.

Serve as prime minister

Liu Bang became emperor. Hanxin It was called the king of Chu and Qi Guohuai as the county. Cao Can returned the prime minister seal. Soon the emperor took the eldest son. Liu Fei As king Qi, because of his youth, he appointed Cao Can as the state of Qi, Sasuke Qi king Liu Fei.

Cao Can took the lead in the attack of Qi state. Chen Chan Zhang Chun's army defeated the enemy troops. Qi (NG) ng rebelled, and Cao Can followed the state of Qi, and followed king Liu Fei, who led one hundred and twenty thousand people, and attacked Gao. Cloth The army defeated the enemy. South to QE County, and returned to the army to settle the bamboo, Xiang, Xiaoxian, Liu county.

In 194 BC (the first year of emperor Xiao Hui), he abolished the decree of the princes and states and changed Cao Can to Prime Minister Qi. When Cao was the Prime Minister of Qi, there were seventy towns in Qi. At that time, the world had just been settled, and mourning for Wang was very young. Cao called all the elderly and scholars to ask for a way to appease the people. But there are many different opinions about the number of readers in Qi state. He heard that there was a G (male) in the west of Jiao Xi, who had studied Huang Lao theory and sent him to him with a generous gift. See Ge Gong Later, he told Cao Can that the way to govern the country is to be clean and clean, so that the people can make peace on their own. In this way, we have talked about this. Cao then left the main hall of his office to make him live in it.

Since then, the main point of Cao's governing the country is to adopt Huang Lao's theory. Therefore, he became Prime Minister of Qi State for nine years, and the state of Qi was stable. People praised him as a wise prime minister.

Succession to Han Dynasty

193 BC (two years of filial piety emperor) Xiao He Before death, Xiao He turned to Emperor Xiaohui. Liu Ying The recommended ministers only have Cao Can. After hearing the news of Xiao He's death, Cao Can told his patrons to pack up his clothes quickly and said, "I am going to enter the kingdom of Korea." Soon after, the people sent by the court came to call Cao Can.

When Cao Tsai left, he told the Prime Minister of Qi Qi to say: "we should take the prison market of Qi as a sustenance of some people's behavior, and treat these behaviors with caution. The later prime minister said, "is it more important to govern the country than this?" "This is not the case," Cao said. These behaviors are good and evil in prison. If you interfere with them, where do the bad guys live? So I put the matter ahead.

When Cao joined the imperial court to become a state, everything was in accordance with the law of Xiao and nothing changed. And from the counties and princes of the country to select some simple and not good words of the good people, immediately called the appointment of the prime minister. Those who want to pursue their fame in the official language, who want to pursue their fame and reputation, have to repulse them.

Cao can see that others have slight faults and always hide them, so they are safe.

Cao had been in the Han Dynasty for three years. After his death, he was posthumously named Yi Hou. Son of Cao Can Cao Cao He took over from his father. The people praised the deeds of Cao Can, saying: "Xiao He has made laws and regulations, and is clear and uniform; Cao Can succeeds. Xiao He In accordance with the rule of Xiao, he did not change his statutes. Cao Can implemented his inaction, so the people were calm. Cao Can died in three years, and he was on the same name as Xiao He in the history of Han Dynasty. Follow in sb.'s footsteps "One word has become a good story in history.

Historical evaluation

Numerous ministers: "Hou Cao, Pingyang, was founded by seventy people, who scored the greatest amount of work and was the first."

The song of the people said, "Xiao He is a law, if he draws a picture, he will take care of it instead of losing it." It is pure and clean.

Sima Qian "Cao Xiangguo can participate in the battle of the city, so it can be more than those of Huaiyin. And the letter was extinguished, and the successor was only successful. For the Han Dynasty, it is very quiet. However, after the coolness of the Qin Dynasty, the people took part in the rest and did nothing.

" Tai Shi Gong's Preface "With the letter of Wei, breaking Zhao Baqi, then weak Chu people. It will never change if we continue to see each other. "Li Shu Yong Ning, Jiaxin does not cut power and energy."

Ban Gu "Xiao He and Cao Can were all officials of the Qin Dynasty. Hanxing, according to the end of the sun and the moon, how to trust and take care of Hanshin's expedition. The world is established, because of the people's disease, Qin law, along with the beginning of the flow, two people concentric, then Anhai. Huaiyin, the cloth cloth and so on have been destroyed, only what, the Senate is good at the name, the rank and rank ministers, the sound applies the later generation, is the generation of ministers, celebrates the flow of the Miao descendants, the Sheng Yi Zai! "

Cao Cao "Xiao He, Cao Can, county officials, Han Xin and Chen Ping are ashamed of their shame. They can laugh at the king's deeds."

Emperor Xu "Xi Xiao Cao Xiang Han, carries it quiet, draws the song of one, this clear heart foundation also."

Lu Ji "Pingyang music road, in the change. Yuan yuan, hey, there is such a martial arts. Long drive of the river, east of the East. Cooperated with Huaiyin.

Ge Hong Deng Yu and Ma used to live in the fields, but they were good at employing soldiers; Xiao He did not care about the classics, but better than Zai Fu.

Si Ma Zhen "Cao has been a Pei Hao official since his beginning. From the beginning, we should first set aside good intentions. Hold on to the sword and seize the enemy's land. Both of them were killed. The northern bird Xia said that the East was to be irrigated. The seal is sealed and the work is done without two. The city jail does not disturb. He is the Lord of Pingyang.

Wang Anshi "The hair and mountains and rivers are 100 wars, and the white heads are also empty. It is not a new dance, but it needs an old man. "

Hong Mei "Xiao, Cao , C, Wei, Fang, Du, Yao, Song Weihan, Tang Ming Xiang, do not wait to recite. However, the first six gentlemen were at last, while Yao and Song Xiangming were only three years old. When Shawhoce died, he was promoted by Wei and Cao, while Wei and Hong were concentrating on politics; Fang Qiao was not able to raise money for every argument; Yao Chong avoided the throne and recommended the Song Dynasty to be his own generation. Only a wise man knows a good man, but a posterity can not. "

Chen Yuan Liang "Yi Dai, Gong Han. It is the only thing that comes out when we plan. There are many wars. Fame first. It's expensive and clean. It is good to be honest. Nine years ago, the prison market was very sympathetic. When you are three years old, plan not to lose. Pingyang is the best. "

GUI you Guang "In order to nurture the people and let the people depend on them, the loyalty of the community depends on it. It is in ancient times, if you pay, take off, turn over soup, spit noodles, and so on, you can be honest and honest. The big ones are Cao Can, Zhou Bo, Bing Ji, Di Renjie, Guo Ziyi, Pei Du, Lv Duan, Wang Dan and Han Qizhi.

Zeng Guofan "The ancients called Lide, meritorious service, and lien as three immortals. Lide is the most difficult, since Zhou Han, rare German propagator. Meritorious service such as Xiao Cao, Fang, Du, Guo, Li, Han, Yue, Liyan, such as horses, classes, Koreas, Europe, Li, Du, Su and Huang, how many people have there been in ancient and modern times?


The son of Pingyang Cao Cao When he was high, he was appointed Dr. Yu Shi. Emperor Xiaowen ascended the throne and dismissed him as Hou. Cao Zhu died twenty-nine years later. His posthumous title is Jing Hou. The son of Cao Cao Qi He took over Hou's position and died for Hou's seventh year. His posthumous title was Jane Hou. Cao Qi's son Cao took over from Hou. Cao was married. Princess Pingyang Son Cao Xiang Cao had contracted the disease and returned to the state. Cao Shi died in twenty-three years, and his posthumous title was Yi Hou. Cao Xiang, the son of Cao Shi, took over from Hou. Cao Xiang married Princess Wei and gave birth to Cao Zong. Cao Xiang died for sixteen years, and his posthumous title was "Hou Hou". Cao Zong, the son of Cao Xiang, took over from Hou. During the two years (the first 91 years), Cao Tzong was convicted and executed by the emperor's Prince.

Four years of Yuen Kang, Xuan Xuan, Sun Zhisun, Cao Can Xuan Du Ling Public Riding Xi Zhao Fu family, so that the worship of Cao. In May, two years in May, Cao Tsai and sun Tsun's grandson Cao, who was the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, continued to seal thousands of households. In the first year of the Yuan Dynasty, there were one thousand households plus two thousand households. At the time of Wang Mang, Hou Ben started his career.

Emperor Wu of Guang Wu built up two years of martial arts, and Cao Hong, who was a soldier, decided to Hebei. Cao Honghong, son of Cao. To Ban Zhao's "Han Shu" and "meritorious list", there were eight marquis. But Cao Can's Pingyang Hou system is still cut off.

Emperor Zhang of Han Jian Chu In the two year, Cao Zhanwei was restored to the throne by Chao Zhao. Rongcheng Hou Continuation of Cao Can Si Soon, it was cut off again. In the first three years of Emperor Han and emperor, Da hung Lu, the emperor's imperial edict, visited Cao Zhan's close relatives. After this time, the Rongcheng Hou, who was sealed by Cao's descendants, was never cut off in the Han Dynasty.

According to records of the Three Kingdoms, Cao Cao, founder of Cao Wei, is also Cao Can. Therefore, after entering Wei Dynasty, Cao Hou's seal of Rongcheng Hou was still able to continue. After the death of Cao Wei, the Hou family of Rongcheng was cut off.

Commemoration of future generations

In the three years (782 years) of Tang Zhaojian, etiquette made Yan Zhenqing recommend to Tang Dezong that sixty-four ancient famous generals were to be followed, and the temple was set up for them, including "Hou Cao Can, Pingyang of Han Dynasty".

In the five years (1123) of the Song Dynasty, the song room set up temples for the ancient famous people according to the Tang Dynasty tradition, and seventy-two famous generals also included Cao Can.

Cao Zhong Han Tomb

The legend of Cao Zhong tomb is the tomb of Cao Can in the Western Han Dynasty. Liu Bang In the case of Pei, the other countries are concerned. Xiao He The same pulse advocates the idea of recuperating and recuperating. enlightened administration of the Han emperors Wen and Jing And laid a good material and theoretical foundation. The tomb is located 150 meters west of Cao Zhong village, De Ping town. Its tomb is about 8 meters high, and its circumference is 100 meters. It is a tomb of the earth in the Sui and Han Dynasties.


Follow in sb.'s footsteps

Son of Cao Can Cao Cao (zh) be a Chinese doctor. Han Hui di Complaining of Cao Xiang's disregard for politics, he felt that he looked down on himself, so he said to Cao, "when you get home, try to ask your father privately:" the emperor has just departed from the ministers, and the emperor is very young. You are a country, you drink all day, and you will not report to the emperor when you are in trouble. What do you think of national affairs? But don't tell me what I told you.

Cao returned home on holiday, and accompanied his father in his spare time, turning Hui's meaning into his own words and exhorting Cao Can. Cao Can listened to the fury and hit Cao board two hundred boards. He said, "hurry up and serve the emperor." state affairs are not what you should say.

When he came to court, he criticized Cao Can and said, "why punish?" Cao Cao ? Last time I asked him to advise you.

Cao Can took off his hat and apologized and said, "please your majesty consider it carefully, and who are you superior to the emperor in the Ming Dynasty?"

Hui said, "how dare I compare with the emperor?"

Cao said, "sire, look at me and Xiao He who is more virtuous?"

"You seem to be inferior," said Hui. Xiao He "

Cao said, "Your Majesty's remarks are quite right. Emperor Gao and Xiao He have settled the world. The decree has been made clear. Now, your majesty is going to hang on to his clothes. I will wait for my duty to follow the original law and not to change it at will. Is that ok?

"Yes," said Hui. You take a rest. "

Excessive drinking

According to the previous Han Dynasty book, when Cao was in charge of the same country, he drank too much, so that the people who came to the meeting could not speak up and could not speak. Therefore, when he talked to Cao Can, Cao could not stop drinking until he got drunk. But this wind imitated the subordinates, and their subordinates enjoyed the feast. Some of them were deeply affected by this, hoping that Cao would correct them. But when Cao Xiang saw them, they called their subordinates to drink and make merry.

Cao Can drank all his wine all day long. The officials and guests below Dr. Qing saw Cao's political affairs, and those who came there wanted to persuade him. But when these people arrived, Cao Can immediately gave them wine to drink. After a while, some people wanted to say something, and Cao Can made them drink, until they left after they were drunk, but they could not speak and admonish.

The backyard of the Xiang state residence is close to the houses of the officials. The houses of the officials are drinking and singing all day long, shouting and shouting. Cao's followers were very disliked by the officials, but there was no alternative for them. So he invited Cao to play in the backyard, and heard the voices of those officials singing and shouting loudly and loudly. Cao Can asked people to take wine and set up seats to drink, and also high. Song call Call and correspond with those officials.

Records of historical records

Sima Qian's historical records fifty-four, Cao Xiang Guo Shi twenty-fourth, is a biography of Cao Can. This article mainly describes Cao Can. Battle field His work and his "clean and useless" governing thoughts and actions. Sima Qian For Cao Can Heroic fighting Basically, the strategy of governing the country is affirmative. It is believed that the policy adopted by Cao Can has made the people able to recuperate, and has also been praised by people all over the world.

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