Luxian county is the "hometown of dragon culture" and "the hometown of Longqiao" in China. There are hundreds of ancient Longqiao bridges in the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Luxian County, which is the largest group of Longqiao in China and even in the world.
Longnao bridge, the largest stone slab bridge with Dragon carving in China, was appraised by experts of ancient bridge construction in China as an ancient bridge comparable to Lugou Bridge and Zhaozhou Bridge. In 1996, longnao bridge was listed as a key cultural relic protection unit in China.
Longnao bridge is located on the Jiuqu River in the northern suburb of Luxian County, where the ancient post road from Luzhou to Longchang passes. It was built in the Hongwu Period of the early Ming Dynasty and has a history of more than 600 years. In the 43rd year of Qianlong reign, "the emperor ordered the Jiuqu River longnao bridge 90 Li north of Luzhou Yongning road to be protected.".
Longnao bridge is 54 meters long, with 12 piers and 13 holes. The eight piers in the middle are carved with four kinds of auspicious animals, namely, Qilin, Qingshi, four dragons and white elephant. "The two sides of Qilin guard, the elephants drink freely, the Qingshi bridge roars, and the Dragon King roams with the dragon". It is rare in China that the history of the Dragon brain bridge is perfectly combined with the artistry of carving and the scientificity of its structure.
Characteristics of stone bridge
Longnaoqiao is an ancient stone bridge which integrates architectural modeling and stone carving art. The eight piers in the middle are carved into auspicious beasts with giant stones, including four dragons, two unicorn, one elephant and one lion. Dragon carving is unique in shape, with the title of "treasure pearl" in the mouth, which is completely hollowed out and can be moved by hand. When the wind blows, the Dragon nose makes a noise. Elephant nose curls, long tooth stretch, fat body droops, the appearance is self-contained, give a person a sense of peace and tranquility. The lion and the unicorn are lifelike and have their own characteristics. The bridge is a stone pier stone beam type flat bridge. Emperor Qianlong of Qing Dynasty once gave a decree to "Qin Ming Yongning Road, the north of Luzhou City, 90 Huali Jiuqu River, longnaoqiao to protect it."
Longnao bridge is a rare ancient bridge in China, which has been well preserved up to now. The longnao bridge is east-west, with three piers on each side of the East and the west, all of which are plain without carving. The heads of the eight piers crossing the river in the middle part (facing the upstream end) are respectively carved with auspicious animals of ancient folklore. There are four dragons, two unicorns, a green lion and a white elephant. This layout is unique and rare in China. Its arrangement is well conceived, pleasing to the eye and natural, giving people a sense of imposing.
Longnao bridge, stone carving techniques and techniques are very skilled, inheriting and developing the stone carving tradition of Qin, Han, Tang and Song dynasties. Exaggeration and realism are combined, and round carving is used to make all parts of the stone bridge carved, vigorous and firm, exquisite and regular, symmetrical proportion and vivid shape. It is a rare bridge building in ancient China because of its exquisite craftsmanship, skillful technique and vivid image. Stone carving in the details of the processing, meticulous. There is a giant dragon carved on each of the four piers in the middle. The eyes, ears, mouth, nose, eyebrows, whiskers and horns on the dragon head, as well as the armor, wings and flowing clouds on the dragon body, are bright, clear and smooth, and the overall look is lifelike.
In the mouth of the dragon, there is a "jewel" weighing more than 30 kg. It is carved from the whole stone by hollow carving technology. It can roll freely, but it can't be taken out. It's really interesting. On the left and right piers of the dragon, one is carved with a lion and the other is an elephant. It is natural and serene. It also reflects the ingenuity and skill of ancient craftsmen. In particular, the treatment of elephant carving is very skillful and ingenious. Such as the body carved thick, concise and clear outline, trunk curled, long teeth tilted, big ears drooping, natural appearance, give people a peaceful, dignified feeling. On the outside, two unicorns, with ribbons in their mouths, open their mouths and glare at their eyes, are crawling on the piers with two flame patterns. Cow's hoof shaped foot, a step on the book of war, the other step on the sword, majestic and majestic.
The dragon, lion, elephant and Kirin appear on the upper side of the bridge, and the tail appears on the lower side. They are arranged in order with great momentum and magnificence. If the water in the river only submerges the bridge board, these mascots only show their heads and tails in the water, just like swimming against the water in the river, which can be described as another great spectacle.
History and culture
Dragon brain Bridge
Longnao bridge is located on the Jiuqu River in the north of Yuchan street, Luxian county seat, Luzhou, Sichuan Province. It is a stone carving bridge with unique shape and beautiful layout. Longnao bridge was built in Hongwu (1368-1398) of Ming Dynasty, which has a history of more than 600 years. Because there are four ancient temples on Qiaotou slope: longnao temple, Longyan temple, Guanyin temple and Yufo temple, it is named longnao bridge.
Walk on the narrow bridge deck, through 600 years of time and space, touch these auspicious animals. At the same time, the eight headed auspicious beasts held their heads high and opened their mouths to meet the upper reaches of the river as if they were roaring at the same time. There are four giant dragon heads in the middle, and the two in the middle are especially huge. One male and one female have two unicorns in the West and the white elephant green lion in the East.
Over the years, ruiwu's exquisite carving has not changed. From the head of the dragon head, you can see from the top of its nose to the tail of its head! The dragon's beard is like a circle of lace around the dragon mouth, and it is like a circle of flame. Look at the scales of the dragon body, and follow the graceful curve of the dragon body, line by line, piece by piece, and gradually become smaller from the beginning to the end; the Dragon body is decorated with beautiful lines and smooth cloud patterns on the surface. The dragon is not only on the water surface, but also flying in the sky, which is a flying dragon in the sky! What is particularly surprising is that no two of the four dragons are exactly the same. Even the ears, whiskers, scales and even the clouds on the dragon have changed.
Longnao bridge is an ancient stone bridge integrating architectural modeling and stone carving art, which has high historical value, artistic value and scientific value. Longnao bridge inherits and develops the traditional stone bridge construction technology of Qin, Han, Tang and Song dynasties. The carving axe is generous, the lines are flexible, the shape is simple and dignified, the shape is vivid and natural, the arrangement is exquisite, and the view is natural and magnificent.
Research on cultural relics
Longnao bridge is not the "three bridges in China". It is a key cultural relic protection unit in China. It is one of the first two national treasure level cultural relics in Luzhou. Therefore, it has attracted much attention.
Longnao bridge has a total length of 55 meters, a width of 1.90 meters and a height of 5.30 meters. There are 15 bridge piers with 13 holes. Two piers at the East and West ends of the bridge are plain without carving, and the heads of eight piers in the middle are carved with four dragons and one like a lion and two unicorns, all of which are carved with round carving technique. The pier faces upstream first, and the water is cut to kill the water potential.
There are 30 stone beam slabs in total, each of which is 3.70 m long, 0.95 m wide and 0.60 m thick. Each section is placed in the pier slot side by side, so that the bridge deck is flat, the stone beam does not slide left and right, and its stability performance is increased. All the components of the flat bridge do not need mortise and tenon joints. They are built by using the weight of stones themselves. Each stone bar weighs about 6.8 tons, and the self weight of four layers of stone bars is 27.2 tons. With the weight of stone beams and slabs, the weight of each unit of the bridge body has exceeded 30 tons.
Longnao bridge is famous for its exquisite stone carving art. The stone carvings of the longnao bridge are arranged above the eight piers in the middle. In the middle of the four piers, each pier is carved with a dragon; then it is separated from the East and West, with a lion carved on the West and an elephant carved on the East; and the two piers near the lion and elephant are carved with unicorns. On the back of the stone carving animals, the deck stone slab is placed. The upstream of the bridge is the head, and the downstream of the bridge is the tail.
The stone carvings of dragons, kirins and lions on the bridge are of different sizes, mainly protruding their heads. From west to East, they are: the head of the unicorn weighs 5.5 tons; the head of the lion weighs 4.2 tons; the head of the Dragon No.1 weighs 5.6 tons; the head of the dragon, also known as the Dragon King, weighs 7.5 tons; the head of the third dragon weighs 6.3 tons; the head of the fourth dragon weighs 5.8 tons; the head of the elephant weighs 4.4 tons; and the head of the unicorn weighs 4.4 tons.
There are three types of bridges in ancient China. One is suspension bridge, one is stone arch bridge, the other is beam slab bridge. In the early stage of the suspension bridge, it was mainly composed of plant vines, and later developed into an iron cable bridge. The Luding Bridge passed by the Red Army during the long march is famous all over the world. Zhaozhou Bridge and Lugou Bridge are the most famous stone arch bridges in China and the world. They are famous for their long history, architectural science and related major events. The longnao bridge ranks first in China.
Why is the Dragon brain bridge the first in China? Longnao bridge is an epoch-making architectural work in the history of bridge construction, which has got rid of the monotonous situation in the history of beam slab bridge construction. It started the artistic architectural style of beam slab bridge, and reached the peak level at the beginning. It is a pioneering masterpiece of ancient Chinese bridge architecture from simple and practical to art flashy without departing from practical value. It is the first cultural bridge with cultural expression and practical value in ancient China, which develops and enriches Chinese bridge culture. It turns people's daily traffic road into an art road and a national cultural appreciation road. It integrates the artistic modeling of stone carving, scientific construction and construction, and social changes, which has profound connotation of the times and national cultural characteristics. In the history of architecture, the bridge has entered the stage of appreciative Road culture from simple road traffic means, and the Dragon brain bridge bears the symbolic significance. This kind of significance is not in the bridge itself, but in the cultural significance of the bridge.
The legend of the Dragon brain bridge: the Dragon brain bridge on the JIUQUXI River in Luxian county is famous in Luzhou. Its past life and present life are full of legendary color. It is also said to be related to the mythical characters such as Nezha, Yang Jian and the Dragon King of the four seas in the list of gods.
In 1985, Mr. Cheng Siyuan described the longnao bridge on the JIUQUXI River, which is located in the northwest of Luxian county and 45 kilometers to the right of Lulong highway. It has a magnificent shape, fine carving and realistic shape. It has been built about 600 years ago and is still well preserved. It is a rare large stone carving dragon bridge of Ming Dynasty in Sichuan. The stone carvings of the Dragon brain bridge are exquisite and magnificent, and they are very clear and colorful.
Two Unicorn mouth with ribbon, mouth angry eyes, two flame legs crawling over the bridge pier, a foot in the shape of a cow's hoof, one stepping on the "book of war" and the other stepping on the "sword", which is magnificent. Green lion's feet step on "Hydrangea", "Yugui", smile can be Ju. The white elephant has a big nose and a drooping chest. The four dragons are particularly brilliant and vivid. Each dragon has a long head with a sharp angle and a graceful dragon whisker under its neck. It has sharp teeth and sharp teeth with its mouth open. It weighs about 30-40 kg. It can roll in the mouth without falling out, and its nostrils are high. However, there are a lot of legends about the Dragon brain bridge in the history. It is possible to compile a mythological novel.
It is said that Nezha killed the three princes of the Dragon King in the sea and offended the dragon family. After Li Jing whipped Nezha's golden body and burned the Nezha temple, the evil cults of the three mountains and five mountains began to stir up evil spirits. In particular, all kinds of dragons and snakes, who had ties with aobing, the Third Prince of the Dragon King, believed that the opportunity to revenge on Nezha's hometown had arrived. They climbed out of their nests in daze, the hidden mountains, and gathered clouds around chentangguan and Cuiping mountain. The places where these cattle, ghosts and snakes pass through are full of smoke, pestilence, landslides, death of human beings and animals. For a time, people in the four townships were forced by Li Jing's ban. They did not dare to go to the ruins of Nezha temple to ask him to show his spirit and eliminate evil spirits. They had to go to a small slope behind Cuiping mountain and carve a piece of Nezha's spiritual position with a wooden card. They prayed to Nezha Temple by burning incense, praying for Nezha to show his holiness, drive away demons and reduce monsters, so as to protect the family's safety and prosperity of the six animals 。
Wisps of cigarettes, accompanied by bursts of grief, drifted to Cuiping mountain and Zhenwu mountain, and awakened Yang Jian, a righteous and jealous God of war, who was in the cave under the God of Zhenwu. After that, Yang Jian and Nezha were the vanguard officers under Jiang Ziya, and they were brothers and sisters with Nezha. Today, in the cave, I heard people praying for Nezha to subdue demons and demons. However, Nezha's gold body was destroyed, his temple was burned, and his real body was not recovered. So he immediately got up and drove Xiangyun to check.
When Yang Jian came to the sky behind Cuiping mountain, he saw the smoke burning around and the crowd kneeling on the ground, crying bitterly and constantly telling their respective misfortunes. Then he dropped a cloud from the sky and said in a loud voice: "listen, I am a close friend of Nezha. I know your suffering carefully. I will take the place of Nezha's three brothers to relieve the disaster for you. Please go back! "Then he rose to the clouds. When the people on the hillside saw a god of war falling from the sky, their majestic image and sonorous voice aroused people's admiration.
When Yang Jian was lost in the air, people came back from the surprise. In a flash of joy, there was another wave of worship to the zenith, and then slowly dispersed. From then on, people came here to burn incense and pray in case of disaster. Over time, people called this small slope "wangshenpo".
This time, when Nezha's gold body was destroyed and the temple was burned, it was hard to return the real body. The evil dragon leading the storm was a unicorn dragon sleeping in the Tianquan cave in the stone forest. This one Horned Dragon is the in laws of Wang Aoguang of Donghai dragon and the old father-in-law of Ao Bing, the third prince. After learning the news that his son-in-law was killed and cramped by Nezha, he never forgot to avenge his son-in-law. After Li Jing whipped Nezha's golden body and burned the temple, a large number of dragon sons, dragon grandchildren and mountain water monsters came straight to chentangguan. Along the way, the storm, darkness, flash floods, I do not know how many houses have been destroyed, how many good fields have been destroyed, that overwhelming prestige, Li Jing, Chen Tang closed, scared out of control, self-knowledge is difficult to cope with. When he was restless, he suddenly called on the Erlang God Yang Jian to see him. Knowing that the Savior had arrived, he was overjoyed and rushed Yang Jian into the living room.
After entering the hall, Yang Jian said rudely, "chief soldier Li, I came for the sake of your son Nezha, to save the people's disaster. If it were not for your selfishness and disregard for the feelings of father and son, how dare the demons move about? How could the common people suffer this disaster. Well, that's all I've said. I'd like to think twice and say goodbye. " With that, no one was seen. This made Li Jing blush and speechless. Although she was not satisfied, she did not dare to offend the famous God of war. Had to quietly walk to the Chenglou of chentangguan to watch the Erlang God Yang Jian subdue demons and demons. This one Horned Dragon is a mountain spirit who has practiced for thousands of years. It is the overlord on one side and has a cruel nature. At this time, Zhenghua became a Taoist with a square scarf on his head, a black Taoist robe, a silk belt around his waist, and a pair of hemp shoes on his feet. Standing on the crest of the Jiuwan estuary, he waved a small black dragon flag in his hand, directing the jiaoqun in the water and the mountain spirits on the land to kill chentangguan.
Yang Jian appeared in time, stood in the clouds, sprinkled a handful of beans, and immediately turned into thousands of heavenly soldiers and heavenly generals. He stopped the mountain spirits on the land. With a bright eye on his forehead, he shot at the unicorn. Then he said, "unicorn, if you don't practice hard in Tianquan cave, come out to harm living creatures, you have violated the law of heaven. It's not easy for you to practice this idea. Go back quickly and spare you from death God will not forgive you. "
The one Horned Dragon was very angry when he heard the words and said, "Er Lang God, Nezha killed my son-in-law and didn't say anything about him. I'm looking for revenge. It's none of your business. You'd better mind your own business." Yang Jian: "Nezha has already died with his life. The Dragon King of the four seas and taibaixing have ended up face to face. What revenge do you take? Nezha is my brother with a different surname. I can't let you do anything wrong. I advise you to leave quickly... "
Without waiting for Yang Jian to finish, the one Horned Dragon would open its mouth and blow it to the water. A water column as big as a yellow bucket is like a water dragon. He whirled like an arrow and shot at the Erlang God. Yang Jian dodged the water arrow, swung his three pointed two blade sword in his hand and flew to the unicorn. The water arrow smashed half of the boulder in front of it, and its power was frightening. One Horned Dragon will be in the hands of the Oolong flag, to meet Yang poke, launched a fierce battle on the water. I saw the waves overturning and surging. The sky was dark and the wind was strong. The God Jinjia was going to show his power, and Taoist Wu Yi turned the evil wave.
They fought from the water to the sky, and then from the sky to the water. They were inseparable, and the sun and the moon were dark. The one Horned Dragon could not win the battle for a long time. He opened his mouth and spat out a cloud of black smoke. Yang Jian saw the black smoke with a blue flame, and knew that it was extremely poisonous. Will also be a mouth, a breath of real gas, the black smoke blowing away. When the unicorn dragon saw this, he kept shaking the flag in his hand, opened his mouth secretly and spit out a breath of poisonous gas. This kind of poisonous gas is colorless and tasteless. It is hidden in the Dan field of the unicorn dragon and is raised by the internal elixir. Anyone who is invaded will not survive.
Yang Jian has long been invulnerable to all kinds of poisons, and has a keen eye on his forehead to focus on every move of the unicorn. So, seeing the unicorn open its mouth, spit out the true Qi to seal the poison, and stab the unicorn's throat with a three pointed two blade knife. The one Horned Dragon did not know that Yang Jian reacted so quickly. He was in a cold sweat, and his body tilted back. He wanted to escape from the disaster. However, Xiao Tianda, who was beside Yang Jian, had already peeped at him. Seeing that the unicorn leaned back, he immediately jumped over and bit the unicorn's throat. The pain made the unicorn roll on the spot, getting rid of the dog and fleeing by the earth.
That group of mountain water monsters, see Unicorn has fled, the Dragon without a head, immediately scrambled to flee. When Yang Jian saw that these evil spirits and devils had escaped, he immediately led the way by Xiaotian dog and drove to seek the unicorn.
Yang Jian, led by Xiaotian dog, went south for more than 200 Li, and was suddenly blocked by a Yin river. Xiaotian dog repeatedly sniffed on both sides of the river several times, but did not know where Unicorn fled. Yang Jian only saw: the mountains are stacked with barriers, the peaks are abrupt, and there are many strange rocks, such as stalagmites emerging from the ground. They are various and confusing.
Stone carving of dragon brain Bridge
Yang Jian flew to a high peak, opened his eyes and looked around. He saw one of the Milky cliffs rising from the ground. There were few trees, no birds, no monkeys, no black air. He thought, "this evil spirit must be hidden here. I will go to my old nest to find it." With a kick of his feet, he flew to the rock. Yang Jian took Xiaotian dog around the mountain rock and found a big hole in the black ancient longluo, which was blocked by a small rock. If it wasn't for the extremely smart nose of Xiaotian dog, ordinary people would hardly find it. Xiaotian dog takes Yang Jian and rushes into the cave. A small river flows into the cave. The water is clear and clear. The scales of the fish in the river twinkle and the internal organs are transparent The hole is extremely wide. Profound. Most of the Dragon sons and grandchildren in the cave have gone to chentangguan and haven't escaped back. A group of old and weak women and children dragon left behind in the cave, saw Yang Jian and Xiaotian dog rush into the cave. Immediately dive into the lower cave and report to the unicorn.
The unicorn learned that Yang Jian had been chased, and that his life was hard to protect. So the old and weak women and children hid in the cave at the bottom, endured the pain of their throat, and quietly came to the cave above from the stratum, concentrating on preparing for a final fight with Yang Jian. He saw the hound rushing ahead. Gnash one's teeth with hatred. He wanted to tear the dog to pieces, but he knew that the real enemy to deal with was Yang Jian, the God of Erlang, rather than the dog. Therefore, he tried to endure the resentment in his heart and transported the internal alchemy which he had practiced for two thousand years to his mouth, hoping to take advantage of Yang Jian's unpreparedness and give him a fatal blow.
Wheezing dog is so sensitive that he has already smelled the hiding place of Unicorn, and then he runs to the place where unicorn is hiding for more than ten Zhang. Then he stopped, turned his head and said hello to Yang Jian. Then he barked at the hiding place of Unicorn. Yang Jian saw that the unicorn was behind the stalactite in the cave. He immediately took a rope from the treasure bag, pulled out the demon sword and said, "unicorn, you are in the end. How long can you hide there? I will not destroy your nine clans if you come out obediently. If you resist, you will be destroyed.
Seeing that the attack was not successful and that he was afraid of being destroyed, the unicorn came out from behind the stalactite and said, "Erlang God, you can count your words. You and I haven't won or lost just now. How about going out for a fight? If you lose, I'll be at your disposal. If I win, you have to be dealt with by me, too? ,
Yang Jian said with a smile: "good! Evil does not oppress justice. Is God afraid that you will not succeed? "
Unicorn Dragon: "Erlang God, this is just a fight between you and me. You can't use the wheezing dog or hurt my people. Do you agree?"
Yang Jian: "good! It's a deal. " Seeing that Yang Jian had been caught in his trap, the one Horned Dragon shot at Yang Jian the inner alchemy that he had cultivated for more than two thousand years. Then he jumped up and smashed a big hole in the top of the cave. A skylight was opened to rush out of the cave, which made a dark hole dusty and filled with smoke. The sun came into the cave from the top of the mountain. Yang Jian had always opened his eyes in the dark, and was very observant of the unicorn's every move. However, he never expected that the evil dragon would take the last fight after his life's cultivation. When he saw the fiery ball flying towards him, he immediately summoned all treasures to his sect, and danced the rope into a big net, in which the inner Dan net was placed, and followed the unicorn out of the cave top (this skylight is still in use today) It is preserved in the Tianquan cave, where the upper water is washed down into a waterfall, forming a water curtain spectacle). Then he threw the hot Neidan to the side, only heard a thunderbolt, shaking the mountains. With infinite power, Neidan blasted the rock into a big funnel-shaped grotto with a radius of more than 20 kilometers. This earthquake suddenly erupted, killing all the families of Unicorn hiding in the ground and turning them into various kinds of stones, which have been preserved to this day. In the black hole, Yang Jian could still catch the inner alchemy that he had cultivated all his life, and destroyed his descendants with his inner alchemy. While running away, I shed tears and looked back at my cave from time to time.
Yang Jian, the God of Erlang, stood in the cloud to search for the dog of wheezing. He did not expect that the inner alchemy of Unicorn dragon was so powerful. In the spectacular scene of smoke, lava flow and volcanic eruption, we finally found that xiaotiangou was standing in the clouds opposite the volcano, barking incessantly. The roar of the dog in the sky was too loud to hear. To hunt down the unicorn. At this time, the unicorn, together with several evil dragons, had escaped more than one hundred miles away, panting for a rest at a small river. Because of the loss of Neidan, there was no more than 2000 years of Taoist practice. In addition, the wound on his neck was bitten by an asthmatic dog, which made him have to stop to rest and drink some water. When Yang Jian chased down to the river, several evil dragons, such as unicorn, were stretching their heads into the river to drink water. Yang Jian rushed down from the air like lightning, waved the demon sword, chopped off the heads of several dragons, fell into the water, and blocked a small river. Seeing this, Yang Jian immediately stabbed the dragon with a three pointed two blade knife, and then stirred it violently. The blocked water level immediately came out of the Dragon mouths. Later, the dragon head turned into stone, and people laid stone slabs on the tap to build a bridge for people to pass by, and called the bridge "dragon brain bridge".
In January 2013, Luxian County started the maintenance and protection project of longnao bridge, with a total investment of 4 million yuan, and the first phase of the project is nearing the end. In the second phase project, Luxian county will also set up a complete security system for the longnao bridge, and install network monitoring, infrared monitoring and automatic alarm system.
Longnao bridge is located on a small river between hills and valleys, which is remote. There are no suitable rocks to be mined and no roads to connect with. The piers and slabs of the bridge are boulders. There are 30 pieces of bridge slab stone, the maximum single weight is about 5.9 tons; there are 56 pier stones, and the maximum pier stone (dragon body giant stone) weighs about 13.6 tons. Where did such a large and heavy rock come from?
According to the requirements of "repairing the old as old" cultural relics, the raw building materials and structures should be used as far as possible, which is consistent with the original stone quality. Looking for materials has become a top priority.
According to the records of the local Zhang family's genealogy and the principle of "adapting measures to local conditions and local materials", Luxian cultural relic workers had no large-scale transport machinery at that time, and they were very likely to transport stones by water. The cultural relic workers went up the river to find the stones from three places and compare them with the stones of the stone bridge of the longnao bridge. After the "DNA" identification of experts and scholars, they concluded that these stones came from a place called Yantan dam in the upper reaches of Jiuqu River.
All the craftsmen responsible for repairing the bridge came from Luxian county. Luxian stone carving is a provincial intangible cultural heritage. Many craftsmen are descendants of the construction of the Dragon brain bridge. In order to achieve the purpose of repairing the old as the old, the craftsmen used their own unique skills, repeatedly rubbing the new trunk with green grass to make it look like the long-standing dark blue color.