Bing Xin

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Bing Xin

Bing Xin (October 5, 1900 - February 28, 1999), female, formerly known as Xie Wanying, Changle, Fujian province (now Changle District, Fuzhou), China Association for democracy promotion ( China Association for Promoting Democracy ) members. Chinese poets, modern writers, translator Children's literature writers, Social activist , An essayist 。 The pseudonym Bing Xin was taken from " A heart of ice in a jade pot "

In August 1919, Morning paper "Bing Xin published his first essay," the twenty-one day's hearings "and his first novel. Two families " In 1923, before and after studying abroad, they began to publish the general name. Send small readers "Communication prose" becomes Chinese children's Literature The foundation work. In Japan The University of Tokyo She was hired as the first foreign female lecturer. Chinese New Literature The course returned to China in 1951.

February 28, 1999 21:12 Bing Xin Beijing Hospital At the age of 99, he was called "the old man of the century".

Character experience

Bing Xin was born in October 5, 1900. Fuzhou Three square seven

Lane Xie family house (now gulou district East Bridge No. 17) The house is also Lin chuemin The former residence is the grandfather of Bing Xin. Xie Luo en Bought from Lin Juemin's family. The ancestral home is Changle Heng Ling Township, now called Fuzhou city. Changle District Heng Ling village. Bing Xin's great grandfather, Xie Da, went to town to make a living. 。 The following year in May, the family moved to Shanghai.

1903, because father Xie Bao Zhang Commissioned by the Navy Training Camp battalion commander, he was also responsible for organizing the Naval School, moved to Yantai with her father, and spent 8 years in her happy and colorful childhood. In Yantai, she began to study. During her initiation study, she had been in touch with classical Chinese literature. At the age of 7, she read " Romance of the Three Kingdoms "," Water Margin And so on. At the same time, I read it. commercial press A series of "speaking departments" published, including famous British writers. Dickens The critique of realism in nineteenth Century.

1911 (1912) ) entered the Fuzhou women's normal school. Preparatory course Study.

In 1913, he moved to Beijing with his father. Iron lion alley In the middle scissors lane, his father Xie Baozhang came to Beijing to serve as the director of the naval department of the Republic of China.

He attended Beijing missionary school in 1914. Bevan girl 。

In 1918, he joined the science department of Xiehe women's University, and began to aspire to be a doctor. After that, he was subjected to the "54" movement. New Culture Movement Transferred to the Department of literature, he was selected as a student union instrument and enrolled in the student movement. He participated in the publicity work of the Beijing Federation of women's academic circles. During this period, I wrote novels. The sage is haggard. Poetry Anthology Stars and spring water "Short story" superman "

In the morning paper of August 1919, Bing Xin published his first essay "twenty-one days of hearings" and his first novel. Two families " The latter used the pseudonym of Bing Xin for the first time. As the works directly related to major social problems, it soon affected. After that, The sage is haggard. " leave one's country or the capital of one's country " bore to death "Problem novels" highlight the devastation of the feudal family on human nature, the intense conflicts facing the new world and the two generations, and the pain brought by the warlords' melee.

Participated in 1921 Mao Dun , Zheng Zhenduo Initiated by others Literary Research Society And strive to practice

For the purpose of life, a collection of novels has been published. superman "Poetry anthology" Clusters of stars And so on.

Entered in 1923 Yenching University During Yantai, Bing Xin was in a Minister The family is baptized to the Lord. After graduation, to the United States. Boston Of Wellesley College Studying English literature, specializing in literary studies. Before and after studying abroad, he wrote the essays of travel and foreign lands and sent them back to China for publication. Send small readers "Is the early Chinese children's literature. In the same year, she won the scholarship of Will Sri women's University in America.

In 1926, he returned home from the master of Arts degree. Yenching University Peiping women's College of Arts and Sciences Tsinghua University Chinese Department teaches.

1929 and Wu Wen Cao After marriage, he went to Europe and America to study with his husband. He made extensive visits in Japan, the United States, France, Britain, Italy, Germany and the Soviet Union. For example, in the United Kingdom, Bing Xin and Stream of consciousness novels Wuhrer, a pioneer writer, had a long talk on literature and China.

From 1929 to 1933, there were "Fen" and "Fen". South return "," Winter girl And so on. Also translated Lebanon Writer Carol Kahlil Gibran The prophet. Written in late 1933. The living room of our wife "Content" is suspected to be insinuate. Lin Whei-yin To become a literary arena. Public case 。

During the war of resistance against Japan, he wrote the name in the name of "man" in Chongqing. About women " He has also been actively engaged in creative and cultural salvation activities in Kunming and Chongqing.

After the victory of the war of resistance, it was in 1949 to 1951. The University of Tokyo The new China Literature Department teaches the history of Chinese new literature. He also published some essays in local newspapers and periodicals.

In 1951, she returned to China from Japan. stay The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution During the period, he was searched and entered. Cowshed Under the scorching sun. In early 1970, Bing Xin was put down to Hubei. Xianning The 57 cadre school received Labor Transformation until 1971, the president of the United States. Nixon Before his visit to China, Bing Xin and her husband Wu Wenzao returned to Beijing for the translation task. Then she and Wu Wen Cao , Fei Xiaotong And other cooperative translation. The Outline of History " World History And other works.

Communist Party of China The Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee Later, the motherland entered a new historical period, Bing Xin ushered in the second climax of his life. In June 1980, Bing Xin suffered from cerebral thrombosis first and then fractured. But she persisted in her creation. empty nest "Won the national excellent short story award. Then he wrote "everything is fine." "A distant monk" and other excellent works. In prose, in addition to Three send readers Besides, four series of articles have been created. Think of writing "My autobiography", "about men" and "miscellaneous notes of volts". Her literary works have reached a new level with a large number of works, rich content and unique writing style. In the past nine years, I published my request, my thanks, and a letter to a reader.

In September 1994, Bing Xin was admitted because of heart failure. Beijing Hospital The condition worsened in February 13, 1999, at nine pm on February 28th of the same year. Beijing Hospital He died at the age of 99. After the death of Bing Xin, Zhu Rongji , Li Ruihuan , Hu Jintao And other central leaders and Chinese Writers Association The leader and writer representative visited her in person.

Creative characteristics

Novel

When Bing Xin portrayed characters, most of them did not use thick ink and heavy colors, nor were they meticulous and meticulous. Only by sketching, and with a few strokes, the characters were like the lotus of water, and the fresh spirit came to the surface of the water. "61 elder sister", " Winter girl "," Little orange lantern "Portrays three young girls who live in different times. Bing Xin created a series of ideal and perfect young women's images in the novel. Most of them are kindhearted, gentle, beautiful, lively and generous, steady and dignified. They are young and energetic, and win the dignity of women with their wisdom and ability. They are respected by men for their brilliant achievements in their careers. In addition, there are a series of young people who love their motherland, the great mothers who are kind and gentle, the sensible old granny, and the knowledgeable old professors.

In terms of artistic expression, Bing Xin is good at borrowing and using Lyric techniques. Work on

In the product, the emotion is expressed directly in the narrator's tone, and sometimes reveals the author's subjective feelings through the mental activities of the characters' language or characters, so that the novel has a strong Lyric color.

Bing Xin often likes to use the first person narration. Taking "me" as the clue to start a story, full of deep feeling, pouring out what I saw, heard, suffered, felt and touched, made the reader feel that everything that happened in the novel was the truth of life, no fictional weaving elements, no romantic color, no artificial dramatic conflict, no vulgar humor, realistic and cordial feeling. This gives the author greater freedom and flexibility. Origin and destination Turning and changing, the author's strong expression of feelings can be expressed more smoothly.

Bing Xin's novels are rather rare and great works, mostly fresh and meaningful treasures. Many of her works seem simple but meaningful, leaving people with endless aftertaste. She retrieves a piece of real life, a part of her journey, showing a side of the complex social life. There are no strange and tortuous stories, but no heroic deeds of gold and iron, but they have a philosophical pursuit. She often uses smart eyes to observe the society and examine life; from the impact of interpersonal relationships, she has sparked sparks, captured the philosophies contained in life, entrusted her feelings, and had fresh philosophy and poetry.

In the structure of novels, most of them adopt two way structural frameworks and mutually reflecting formats. She often takes two families, two figures, two events, and the two sides of the ocean as the main line to balance the development, but the outcome is quite different. Through sharp contrast, it gives people inspiration and thought-provoking. In the description of novels, she often uses the technique of white drawing, with concise brush and ink, without contrast, to outline a distinctive image, showing her unique poetry.

Bing Xin's works often arrange the activities of the characters in the morning, dusk, and moonlit nights; the scenes of the activities are set up in the seaside, lakeside, parks, mountains and boats; with the description of natural scenery, the beauty of the characters and the beauty of the environment can be integrated into one, so as to achieve a harmonious atmosphere and create a special warm atmosphere.

Prose

Bing Xin's prose is broad and profound. Through vivid descriptions of his own experience, Bing Xin vividly and vividly reflects some aspects of China's turbulent social life in the past century. In Bing Xin's prose, we can see in semi colonial and semi feudal China. Imperialism , feudalism The bureaucratic comprador class oppressed the ravages of the Chinese people, and heroic people, patriotic youths, fought bravely and fought bravely. At the same time, Bing Xin's prose theme also extends to many countries' history, geography, culture, customs, and the sufferings and struggles of the masses. Readers can get rich international knowledge, such as the ancient culture of Egypt and India, the long history of Sino Japanese relations, the past and past of Italy, the folk art of Scotland, the development of cultural exchanges between China and the rest of the world, and the profound friendship between the peoples of the world and the Chinese people.

Bing Xin's prose embodies Bing Xin's unique style. Bing Xin is good at picking up films in his life.

Broken, weaving in their own emotional waves, with keen eyesight and meticulous feelings, the deep affection and the triggering of foreign objects are dissolved together, and the feelings and scenery blend together, giving readers a sublime beauty enjoyment. Bing Xin attaches great importance to the beauty of prose. Her prose is original and ingenious. In seemingly ordinary subjects, creativity is extraordinary and the structure is changeable. This is a sentiment of beauty which is condensed by her attainments and living environment.

Bing Xin paid special attention to the emotional expression in his prose creation. Bing Xin often displays his own aesthetic psychology and aesthetic ideal with the help of natural scenery.

Bing Xin's prose is not only clear and beautiful, but also full of essays. Bing Xin is good at picking up the essence of literary language, weaving the language that is concise, vivid, accurate and fresh into his works, so that Bing Xin's prose has a poetic and beautiful language. Moreover, the inner rhythm and rhythm, like the third and tenth chapters of the past (2), are very particular about the length of the sentence from the height of the mood to the speed of the rhythm. Bing Xin's prose is not only able to read, but also to recite, to read naturally, so that readers can feel the beauty of music in their music.

Children's Literature

Bing Xin's children's literature is full of love and hope for children. Bing Xin starts from the characteristics of children, combines education with interest, and moves with emotion. Bing Xin never appeared as an educator of young children. He did not teach children with empty preaching and rigid admonition. Instead, he used children's children's heart to heart talk, and spoke in a cordial, euphemistic tone of voice and inner feelings in his life, and the narration was so interesting, so pleasant and pleasant, as if there was a magic force attracting small readers. When Bing Xin poured out his feelings, he was so emotional and pure and thick, and his mood was continuous. He moved the hearts of the young children, and inspired them to be inspired, inspired and inspired by their works. It is an important part of Bing Xin's children's literature to educate patriotism and inspire the sense of national pride and national pride of children. However, Bing Xin's works do not directly discuss how great our motherland is, how cute, why we should love our country, etc., but express our love for our motherland with ingenious conception and vivid scenes.

In the children's literature after the founding of the People's Republic of China, patriotic feelings are more intense. The author's heartfelt praise for the motherland is not abstract and empty, but expressed by Bing Xin's own feelings. This feeling is based on the comparison between the old and the new, the old and the old, and the author's close observation, and the combination of art is vividly and vividly reflected.

In his children's literary works, Bing Xin often interspersed some knowledge of astronomy, geography, history and Science in accordance with the characteristics of young children's thirst for knowledge. But Bing Xin did not simply impart knowledge, neither as systematic as a textbook, nor as a popular science book, but in a flowing description, which contained a wealth of knowledge. It can be said that knowledge is embedded in the image, and by artistic means, vividly and vividly depicted, the children can expand their knowledge and add new wisdom in interesting reading.

Bing Xin used children's literature to educate young children in beauty, but it was not abstract concept but closely related to specific social life. For example, the green trees, the green fields like the green carpet, the artificial lake with golden light in the setting sun, the hometown of the beautiful fish and rice flowers and fruits, is a diligent, brave and intelligent people who has reconstructed the desert land. Here is the beauty of flowers, mountains and rivers, and the beauty of urban and rural areas. In the beauty of nature, it melts into the beauty of social life. This kind of aesthetic education can inspire children to love life, love life, love their careers, inspire them to fight for the transformation of the world, and strive to create a better future. Children's literature, like other arts, is a kind of action that contributes to struggle, upward and beautification.

Prize record

Due to translation Kahlil Gibran The prophet Sand and foam India Tagore " gitanjali " the gardener He was awarded the national cedar medal by the president of the Lebanese Republic in 1995.

Love and marriage

On the president Jackson cruise to the United States, Bing Xin and Wu Wen Cao Acquaintance. Bing Xin Boston Will Sri's women's University Research Institute for literature degree, Wu Wenzao in Dartmouth College Studying sociology, they gradually get to know each other from each other's communication. In the summer of 1925, Bing Xin and Wu Wenzao went to Cornell University to study French. Bing Xin was awarded in 1926. Master of Arts The degree returned home, while Wu Wenzao continued to stay in the United States. Columbia University A doctorate in sociology.

In June 15, 1929, Bing Xin and Wu Wenzao, who returned home from study, held a wedding ceremony at Yanhu college, Yanjing University. Leighton Stuart They hosted their wedding.

social activities

· Social duty

After returning to China in 1951, he took an active part in various social activities. Chinese Writers Association Second, Third Council members and secretaries, consultants. China Federation of literary and Art Circles Second to four members and vice chairmen of the National Committee. China Association for democracy promotion Vice chairman of the Central Committee , National People's Congress The first to the five table. Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Member of the Standing Committee of the fifth to seven National Committee and the eighth, Ninth National Committee, vice president of the national welfare foundation for children and the Standing Committee of the Chinese women's Federation. She has contributed to the development of Chinese literature, the cause of women and children, and the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.

· Public welfare

In 1938 (during the war of resistance against Japan), during the war, he went to live in Kunming, Yunnan, and gave compulsory lectures in Kunming Chenggong simple normal school.

After the founding of new China, it has successively been the primary school and the whole country. Hope project China's rural women's education and development fund and people in Anhui and other disaster areas donated more than $10 million.

In response to Ba Jin's initiative to establish the China Modern Literature Museum, he donated a large number of books, manuscripts, calligraphy and paintings that he collected, and led the establishment of the "Bing Xin library".

When she heard the news in 1998, she donated two thousand yuan, and later knew that the disaster was serious, and donated ten thousand yuan to the disaster area.

· Cultural exchange

Shortly after the founding of new China, Bing Xin returned from Japan and devoted himself to various cultural undertakings and international exchanges. She has visited Japan, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and other countries, and has spread friendship among the peoples of the world.

Character evaluation

"I read Bing Xin's poetry, the biggest disappointment is that she was attacked by a short woman writer, and few women writers. I from " Clusters of stars "And" Spring water Miss Bing Xin, who knows, is a poet who is below freezing.

" Clusters of stars " Spring water This kind of genre can never be elegant in Poetry Garden. This is probably the easiest thing to do, to catch a specious poem, choose a few beautiful words to arrange it, then become a collection. This is one of the easiest poems to slack off, a poem that should not be regarded as fashion.

Ms. Bing Xin is a prose writer, novel writer, not suitable for poetry; Stars and spring water "It's not worth copying. It's fashionable." ( a leading figure in the Crescent Moon Society )

Here, we feel that Ms. Bing said, "there is only sympathy and love in the world, and only help and help each other in the world." this "ideal world" refers to one of the elements of literature and art, "smile"; the so-called "nihilism of life" refers to "the reality of suffering", which means the so-called "tears". And she said, "I want to eulogize" ideal ". I don't want to paint" reality "to earn people's tears. ( Mao Dun )

"There you are, the light is on.

From generation to generation, young people read Bing Xin's book and learned about love: love stars, love the sea, love the motherland, love all good things. I hope young people will read a book about Bing Xin and have a sincere love. ( Ba Jin )

"A good and beautiful star has fallen, and her light will remain in the hearts of generations." ( Wei Wei )

"I remember when Bing Xin died that year, I arrived at Beijing Hospital at night and gave the last farewell to the old man. Her daughter took out a notebook and asked me to sign it. I respect the old man very much and love her works. She is a man of character and a loving and sentimental person. " ( Wen Jiabao )

The broad humanity embodied in Bing Xin's literary works is its vitality. Although the number of works is small and there is no long story, Bing Xin's sound works and a careful insight into the side of human nature are like " Little orange lantern Like that, gives us the radiance of a warm atrium. (Hagino Shuji, Japan)

"Outstanding Chinese in twentieth Century" master in literature A loyal patriot, a famous social activist and a close friend of the Communist Party of China. ( China Federation of literary and Art Circles )

Commemoration of future generations

Bingxin Literature Museum

In December 24, 1992, a national social academic group. Bing Xin Research Society Founded in Fuzhou, a famous writer Ba Jin As president, a series of research and activities have been carried out since then. In order to publicize Bing Xin's literary achievements and the spirit of literature, the Executive Council of the Bing Xin Research Association proposed that, under the direct leadership of the Fujian Federation of Arts and culture, the Fujian provincial Party committee and the provincial government approved the establishment of Changle in the hometown of Bing Xin. Bingxin Literature Museum 。 It has a large exhibition of Bing Xin's life and creation, Bing Xin Research Center, conference hall, reception hall, etc., covering an area of 13 mu, with an area of 4500 square meters, and it was officially opened in August 25, 1997.

Bing Xin Award

Bing Xin Award By scholars in 1990 Lei Jie Qiang , writer Han Su Yin They were co founded and set up below. Bing Xin's new prize for children's Literature , Bing Xin children's Book Award Bing Xin prize for art, Bing Xin prize in composition 5 awards. The ice heart award is held once a year, and is presented after Bing Xinsheng. In the early days of his founding, Bing Xin personally reviewed the award-winning works. The award is the only international Chinese children's literature and Art Award in China. The world's Chinese articles can be included in the awards. The winners are not only writers in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, but also other countries.

In 1992, the Bing Xin children's Book Award added the "Bing Xin children's book new award", and the first prize was made in that year. From the ninth session, the award was renamed "Bing Xin's new prize for children's Literature". Since 2002, the Bing Xin prize in photography literature has been added. Ice core writing award has been added since 2005.

Bing Xin Memorial Hall

Bing Xin Memorial Hall The site of the official residence of the chief prosecutor of the Eastern customs and taxation department on the Yantai hills. In 2006, the building was published by the State Council as part of the modern architectural complex of Taishan. National key cultural relics protection units 。 Since January 2008, the Cultural Department of Yantai has reconstructed the Bing Xin Memorial Hall in its old site. It was completed in late July 2008 and officially opened to the outside world in August 3rd.

Bing Xin Memorial

The Bing Xin memorial is located in Beijing. Chinese culture celebrity sculpture Memorial Garden 。 Tombstone sculpture Zhang Di Ti A literary creation, On the tablet is the portrait of Bing Xin and his wife carved from white marble.

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