Bamboo carving

Home Culture 2019-08-10

Bamboo carving

Bamboo carving, a traditional folk carving art, uses bamboo roots to carve characters and animal and plant images, or carves characters and pictures on bamboo materials and bamboo utensils. Usually also refers to the sculpture crafts carved with bamboo roots, bamboo materials and bamboo utensils.

Bamboo carving is mainly popular in southern China. In the Ming Dynasty, the bamboo carving art in Jiangnan reached its peak and developed into two schools with different characteristics. One is the Jinling School represented by Nanjing bamboo carving; the other is the Jiading School represented by Jiading bamboo carving in Shanghai.

On May 20, 2006, bamboo carving was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.

Historical Origin

Bamboo carving is a special art in China. Because it is not easy to preserve, little is found in archaeological excavations. The painted Dragon-pattern bamboo tenant unearthed from Mawangdui Tomb in Changsha, Hunan Province, is an earlier bamboo carving vessel known today. The bamboo spoon is decorated with dragon pattern and braid pattern, and is exquisite and precious by two techniques of relief and carving through. The Book of Southern Qi Dynasty, Shao Zhuan of Ming Seng, records that Emperor Qi Gaodi gave Shao Seng the bamboo shoot and sheath crown as he wished. Gengxin's poem "Fengbao Wang Huijiu" in the Northern Zhou Dynasty contains the verse "burning leaves in a wild stove, holding bamboo roots in a mountain cup", which shows the general situation of bamboo carving at that time. Bamboo carving in Tang Dynasty is well documented in Song Guo Ruoxu's Book of Pictures and Witnesses, Volume V. Bamboo carving skills and works at that time share the same interest as gold and silver carving and stone carving lines at that time, and the carving method of "keeping green" has appeared.

The bird cages made by Zhan Cheng, a bamboo Carver in the Song Dynasty, are all carved into palaces, figures, landscapes, flowers, birds and birds on bamboo slices. They are well-prepared, delicate and exquisite. Its high sculpture, fine workmanship and ingenious conception can serve as a model for future generations and have far-reaching influence.

The bamboo carving art with a long history developed into a special art in the mid-Ming Dynasty.

During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, bamboo carving became more and more prosperous in China. Bamboo carvings in Jiangnan, where bamboo is abundant, are divided into Jiading School in Shanghai and Jinling School in Jiangsu Province. The two groups of bamboo carving artists not only carve round figures from bamboo roots, but also engrave on bamboo pen holders and fan bones. Some of them are good at creating special artistic effects of "keeping green" by making use of different textures in the bark and skin. The Jinling School is headed by Pu Zhongqian, whose style of bamboo carving begins to be simple, and then gradually finely crafted. Jiading School of bamboo carving has a greater impact. Most of the authors are good at painting and calligraphy. They use knives like pens and appreciate both elegance and vulgarity.

In the mid-Ming Dynasty, only a few artists with high cultural level devoted themselves to bamboo carving. Later, bamboo carving skills became more and more exquisite. They were handed down by their father and son, taught by their teachers and apprentices, or imitated privately. Bamboo carvers with high cultural accomplishments and artistic attainments emerged, and carved works representing the highest level of the Ming Dynasty. Bamboo carving has developed into a special industry.

The period of Jiajing and Wanli in Ming Dynasty was the flourishing period of bamboo carving. The famous "bamboo people" are Zhu He, Zhu Miao and Zhu Zhizheng's grandfather and son. Zhu's three generations of bamboo carving treasures can be spread to today's rare. In the Shanghai Museum, Zhu Zhizheng's incense was carved from a piece of purple bamboo with a base. The body is decorated with incense to carve the immortal's Dantu. The characters and devices carved. Landscape layout is not inappropriate, and the charm of figure form is appearing. In the Qing Dynasty, the bamboo carving penholder was made with the "Jiaofu" style. Carved from a natural Elliptical Flat bamboo, it is a natural wonder. On the front is the fisherman's nocturnal pool, the fisherman and hermit look lifelike; the water surface is sparkling, the reed bends down; the background is Emei mountains, trees towering, standing on rocks, flowers and leaves, branches and vines, lifelike. Another treasure of bamboo carving in the Palace Museum is also very famous. The author of the work is estimated to be Jiading Bamboo Man of the Qing Dynasty. The bamboo carving penholder of the cattle picture is carved by a section of two partial bamboo roots with a radius of 14 centimeters. Its diameters arc and curves vary from top to bottom. According to the situation, the author uses his pen and knife to carve the picture of "cattle herding" on the hillside. The background of the picture of cattle herding is cut but uneven. The author uses the natural bamboo knots to make it narrow and narrow undulating mountain path. There are two cattle on the facet. Daniel is the first to bend the corner. He is strong and calf is at ease. He seems to be peeping at the insects jumping in the grass. His image is very lifelike. The author uses the tendons of bamboo muscle skillfully. The carved mountain body shows the function of bamboo tendons, just like the axe of Chinese painting techniques, which makes the mountain steep and the ground moss densely spread, doubling the wild interest.

The reason why bamboo carving became a special art in the mid-Ming Dynasty was that bamboo was cheap and easy to get, and that famous bamboo carvers appeared and formed schools. Cheap bamboo wants to compete with the noble red sandalwood, ivory and rhinoceros horn. Only by innovating in sculpture techniques, changing in shape and decorative themes, can it constantly climb new artistic peaks. This process is the necessary and sufficient condition for the birth of famous bamboo carvers. At that time, two bamboo carving centers were formed, one in Jiading, Zhejiang Province (now Jiading, Shanghai) and the other in Jinling, Jiangsu Province (now Nanjing). Later generations crowned factions by region, so there were Jiading faction represented by Zhu He and Jinling faction represented by Pu Zhongqian. Experts divide the development of bamboo carving art into three stages: the early Ming, early Qing and late Qing.

There are three main techniques of bamboo carving in the Ming Dynasty: first, the Jiading School expresses high relief or round carving profoundly, and the representative figures are Zhu He, Zhu Miao and Zhu Zhizheng, who are known as "Jiading Sanzhu" or "Zhu Sansong". Second, the Jinling School carves objects with simple or slight chisel, and the representative is Pu Zhongqian. Zhang Xihuang is the representative of Yangwen pattern carving.

From the early Qing Dynasty to Qianlong (1644-1795), bamboo carvings were classified as the early Qing Dynasty. In terms of time span alone, the early Qing Dynasty included two periods which people used to divide into the early Qing Dynasty and the middle Qing Dynasty. In the early Qing Dynasty, bamboo carving was very developed. Bamboo carving artists inherited the carving method of Ming Dynasty, and at the same time, there were many innovations. Wu Zhiqi created the shallow relief of "Bo Di Yang Wen", Feng Xilu and his ___________. The round sculpture of the door, Zhou Hao used a knife to carve landscapes and bamboo stones, Pan Xifeng scratched and polished at will to get natural interest. They were influential at that time, and their skills reached the acme. No one could follow their example. During the Qianlong period, the trend of imitating ancient times prevailed. Bamboo carvings imitating bronze ware also appeared in bamboo carvings. Many ingenious ideas were found. Bixiao ancient bronze ware was a competent thing. Ding, Mao, Zun and pot were all available. It can be seen from the bamboo carvings of Qing Dynasty (Figure 3). Yellow appliances, poor workers and skillful workers, break through the inherent cylindrical shape of bamboo, so that the shape of objects rich and varied, texture with the feeling of ivory. Therefore, it can be said that the early Qing Dynasty was the peak of bamboo carving.

In the late Qing Dynasty, the bamboo carvers themselves could not draw and carve themselves. They had to ask the painter to design the drawings for them. The bamboo carvers became simple carvers. They could only make articles on the surface of bamboo, but could not carve one layer for others to draw another layer. Therefore, most of the bamboo carvings in the late Qing Dynasty were written in low and shallow Yangwen or Wenwen, with the shape of a multi-arm shelf and fan bones. On the contrary, the popular round carving objects in the past, such as the pen holder and the incense holder, can hardly be found. Therefore, bamboo carving art declined in the late Qing Dynasty. There were more bamboo carvers in the late Qing Dynasty than in the early Qing Dynasty, but they were rare. Highly accomplished Shangxun, who is good at carving and retaining the green, and the use of "shallow engraving of subsidence". As long as its historical and artistic value is very high, some bamboo carving works without endorsement occupy a certain position in the history of bamboo carving as well as masterpieces of the same name.

Main varieties

Revolving bamboo carving

One kind of bamboo carving. They are also called "sticking spring", "bamboo spring", "backspring" and "asparagus". Saw the bamboo into a bamboo tube, remove the knots and green leaves a layer of bamboo springs. After boiling, drying, flattening and glue synthesis, they are inlaid on the wooden tyres and bamboo slices, then polished, and then carved patterns on them. The contents include characters, landscapes, flowers and birds, calligraphy and so on. The Beijing Palace Museum has many spring-turning products from the Emperor Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty. At that time, in Shanghang, Fujian Province, the spring-turning products were quite exquisite. Since then, Shaoyang, Hunan Province, has become an important producer. After Daoguang Xianfeng, Jiading in Shanghai has also become one of the production centers. Huangyan in Zhejiang and Jiangan in Sichuan are also famous producing areas. The sculpture of the turning spring is mostly on the thin surface of the bamboo spring, so the shallow sculpture of the shadow pattern is the main form, and some are also made of thin sculpture. It's glossy, like ivory. The main products are practical tea cans, vases, desk lamps, photo frames, jewelry boxes, stationery boxes, penholders and fruit trays.

Bamboo carving

One of the bamboo carvings. Remaining green is to use a layer of green bamboo on the surface of bamboo as a carving pattern, and then shovel the bamboo green beyond the pattern to reveal the bamboo muscles underneath, hence the name "Remaining green bamboo carving". Bamboo green is made of deep mountain winter bamboo, which is treated by anti-mildew and moth-proof technology, and the finished product has a smooth surface. Bamboo is as clean as jade, its flesh is silky, and its color is light and shiny. The older the flesh is, the darker the flesh is, and the color is like amber. It is advisable to make full use of this difference in texture and color in bamboo carving, and adopt the method of leaving all, more, less or no green bamboo carvings in different layers to form a natural fading effect of color from deep to shallow. The light and obscurity are applied according to the scenery.

The penholder, arm shelf, box, fan bone and other objects carved in Remaining Green are not only exquisite, but also moist in appearance. The color is similar to amber. The longer the years go by, the redder the bamboo muscle is, the more prominent the pattern part is. If you often play with rubbing, it will be smooth as fat and warm as jade.

Zhuqing bamboo carving began in the Tang Dynasty. By the late Ming Dynasty, Zhang Xihuang, a bamboo carving artist, developed the carving methods of his predecessors, which made the Zhuqing bamboo carving break through the previous pattern forms and achieve the realm of both the charm of pen and ink and the interest of carving. Li Baoxin's Notes of Old School Ancient contains his bamboo carved landscape arms on the shelf. "The color of bamboo skin is the color of clouds, sunset and cooking smoke. Create nature ingeniously. No kind of characterization." Zhang Xihuang's wonderful use of bamboo stubble. His representative work is the "Landscape Pavilion Pencil" now hidden in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. The artists of bamboo carving in Qing Dynasty developed on the basis of inheriting the techniques of Ming Dynasty. The bamboo carving in Qing Dynasty pays more attention to the effect of painting and calligraphy, and the artistic level has been improved. But by the end of the Qing Dynasty, the bamboo carving technology was declining day by day. There were not many famous scholars left in Qing Dynasty, and excellent works were rare.

In the mid-20th century, most of the artists in Liuqing lived in Shanghai, such as Xu Subai in Wujin, Jiangsu, Zhici'an in Suzhou and Zhang Renzhi in Wuxi. On the basis of inheriting Ming and Qing famous scholars, they have made great progress.

Xu Subai, Zigenquan, Xiaozhong, loved carving bamboo since childhood, and then took it as a profession, with ingenious expression techniques, meticulous carving, vivid and vivid, especially in the performance of flowers, birds, grass and insects. His dragonflies, cicadas, butterflies, birds and so on all have their unique expressive techniques. Chi Ci'an can leave small letters of fly head on the fan bones. It is also exquisite to carve and draw with the combination of green lettering and shallow relief. Zhang Nianzhi is a rare bamboo carving artist. She skillfully uses the most superficial layer of bamboo green to express the near and bright parts of the scenery, and deeply expresses the vision on the exposed bamboo muscles, which makes her works more stereoscopic.

There are abundant bamboo carvings in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, and the materials for bamboo carvings are still very strict. Must enter the mountain in autumn and winter season, chooses 4 to 5 year old bamboo, requests the epidermis to be smooth, the knot length does not have the spot. Cutting, can not damage its skin, according to the need to make tools, sawing or splitting particles wipe off the greasy bamboo surface, sunshine for a week, and then placed indoor ventilation overhead drying.

Sculptures remain green, mostly made into utensils, and then on the bamboo surface to draw a good picture, using a variety of sculpture techniques to manipulate knives. Leaving green bamboo carving is very particular about using knives, carving knives are made of spring steel, with different styles and different knives; used for cutting edges, with beveled knives; shoveled blanks, with flat knives; engraved green parts, with flat and round knives; engraved hair and so on, with slotted knives. When depicting thin wings such as dragonflies, the ribs should be protruded. Seven tenths of the bamboo leaves should be removed from the film with a circular knife. The transparent texture of thin wings can be fully expressed by the contrast of color and depth of carving. For example, the dragonflies and rose flowers carved by Mr. Xu Subai, the bamboo carving artist, are ingenious, delicate and subtle, with strong image texture, elegant and elegant, floating on bamboo, which can be regarded as the treasures of bamboo carving.

Technological Techniques

technique

One of the bamboo carving techniques in the sun-grain sandy ground. It is a kind of Yang pattern carving method. The ground is made of sand grains, such as fine sand, coarse sand, walnut, citrus (an orange peel) and so on.

One of the techniques of Wenzhu carving in Bodiyang.

There are three meanings. One refers to the shallow relief carved by Wu Luzhen in the Qing Dynasty, which is shallower than the high relief carved in the Ming Dynasty, hence the name "Bo Diyang Wen". One refers to Yangwen which is lower than Wuluzhen's shallow relief. The so-called "thin earth Yang Wen" scrapes all the bamboo fields outside the pattern or the bamboo fields around the adjacent pattern, makes the pattern slightly higher, and then carves.

One of the deep bamboo carving techniques. A kind of depth, deeper than the general depth. Bamboo forest surface light element, known as the ground, carved images of all the subsidence, there are five or six layers, beginning to reach its deepest, so the name "deep subsidence". This method began in the early Qing Dynasty.

Bamboo carving ground pattern is one of the techniques of bamboo carving.

Its ground pattern has four; one is the bare ground, that is, the flat ground. The second is the open space, that is, the carved hollow space. Three are geometric patterns, such as thunder, ripple, scale, brocade, etc. Fourth, rough land, namely sandy land, is named after its shape. The ground is covered with grain, and the ground is supplemented by grain, and the grain is formed according to the place.

Technology

executive summary

Bamboo carving is rich in forms. In addition to round carving, relief and other different forms of expression, it also extends the techniques of retaining green, pasting yellow, mosaic and so on. Bamboo carving works have their own advantages in technology according to different varieties and origins. Architectural reliefs, ornaments and pastry carvings are all engraved in shadow; Ningbo workers are famous for bone inlay, while Chaozhou workers are good at carving through.

Circular engravure

It refers to the complete three-dimensional sculpture, that is, the whole image of the scene is carved around, with three-dimensional space, without any background, can be appreciated from any angle around. This kind of vessel carved with round carving technique mostly takes bamboo roots as materials, conceives and designs according to the natural form of bamboo, and carves slightly, making it an artwork for people to see, which is ingenious, simple or exquisite. This innovation of applying art according to one's aptitude seems simple, but it is extremely difficult. Not only should we have rich imagination and outstanding originality, but also we should have superb sculpture technology. The two must be closely coordinated. The most representative is the Fengshi family. Fengshi is a family of bamboo carving, which has been handed down from generation to generation for more than five or six generations. Among them, the most famous three brothers, Fengxijue, Fengxilu and Fengxizhang, are known as tripartite. They inherited Zhu's round carving skills in bamboo carving. They used bamboo roots as raw materials and imitated realistic sketches. Most of the objects they made were novelty winners. Feng Xilu and Feng Xizhang brothers were recommended by local officials because of their excellent skills and reputation. They were called into the palace in the forty-second year of Kangxi (1703) to serve in the Yangxin Palace.

Relief

It refers to carving artistic images on the basis of plane, which are similar to paintings and compressed in volume before and after. Therefore, relief is an art form between painting and sculpture. The production process of relief also shows this point, that is, before carving, first paste the drawings on the carving board, and then carve according to the drawings. According to the difference of three-dimensional degree of relief, it can be divided into "high relief", "shallow relief", "thin carving" and "line carving". High relief, similar to round sculpture, the image of relief relief is more ups and downs than the general, some parts are round sculpture, with a strong sense of three-dimensional. Shallow relief, similar to painting, the imagination of sculpture fluctuates more gently than general relief. Thin-meaning sculpture, the shallowest relief, represents only a gentle ups and downs, meaning to stop.

Stay green

The so-called "stay green" also known as flat carving, that is, the surface of bamboo with a layer of green skin carving pattern, the pattern outside the green skin shovel, revealing the bamboo muscle. When bamboo is dry, it can play a knife. At this time, the epidermis has turned from green to white. The so-called "tracing like powder painting" coincides with the pattern of the remaining blue. After a moment or two, the epidermis is pale yellow, but it has not changed much since then. Bamboo muscles are yellowish and dark yellow, and red and purple, so the difference of skin and muscle color will be more and more obvious. This sculpture method is not only exquisite, but also the appearance of bamboo is lustrous and lustrous. It often touches the palm. The older the age is, the deeper the color of bamboo muscle is, the smoother it is like grease, the warmer it is like jade, and the color is similar to amber. At the same time, the more clear and prominent the design part is. This technique began in the Tang Dynasty. Although it was the initial stage of the bamboo carving in the Qing Dynasty, the carved decorations were simple and simple, but the emergence of this technique showed the improvement and progress of the bamboo carving art.

incised carving

It refers to the sculpture technique in which the carved object is below the level of the carved surface. Line engraving, in the plane of the sculpture surface with Yin engraved lines modelling, similar to white drawing in painting.

micro-carving

Micro-engraving is also a kind of bamboo carving. Because of the bamboo fiber structure, it is difficult to micro-engrave on bamboo. So modern sculptors seldom can micro-engrave on bamboo, and it is also a kind of difficult micro-engraving. Many pictures of micro-engraved works often contain micro-engraved poems or articles. At this time, people are more and more aware of the importance of the effect of micro-engraved calligraphy. Although some of the micro-engraved works are nothing more than a pile of ants, it is not advisable to observe them under a magnifying glass, when they are pointed out, they are not in shape, typeface or rigid, or skewed, or distorted. 。 Especially in the micro-engraving works, how the micro-engraving skills, has become the success or failure of the evaluation of micro-engraving works. Except for micro-engraving techniques, the reason why good works are respected by people lies in the layout of micro-engraving and the ability to show the skills of calligraphy. It is more difficult to carve works on bamboo.

Engraving

Penetration means penetration. Diao Diao is also known as Tong Diao. Tong means Tong Tong. On the basis of relief carving, hollow out its bottom plate to make the image vivid and prominent, divided into single-sided hollow carving and double-sided hollow carving. There are hollow carvings on the basis of round carvings, carving out the inner scenery. There are also planar multi-layered carvings, up to five or six layers.

Stick yellow

Also known as "bamboo yellow", "turning yellow", "anti-yellow", "asparagus" and so on. The process is to take the yellow surface of the inner wall of the bamboo tube and turn it over, then boil, press and paste it on the wooden fetal bone to make it into an implement. Since the mid-Qing Dynasty, Jiading in Jiangsu, Huangyan in Zhejiang, Shaoyang in Hunan, Jiangan in Sichuan and Shanghang in Fujian have all been famous for making stickers. According to the known documents, it is early to go to Hangzhou. The yellow sticker is made of wood. Wood tyres can be modeled at will, so they can break through the restriction that bamboo is cylindrical, and can be made into various shapes of utensils, thus increasing their practical value, so yellow appliances are worth and should be advocated. But the stickers are very thin and can only be carved shallowly. Ordinary folk yellow stickers, sculpture are relatively simple. But the Qing Palace is a place where exquisite workmanship is much more beautiful than that of the folk people.

Set

In order to increase the level sense of bamboo and wood carving, the material with different color and luster is used to form patterns by mosaic. Such as inlaid teeth, jade, stone, bamboo, wood, bone, snail, coral, tortoise, pearl, porcelain and other materials. Embedded in a work with a variety of materials, called "Baibao Embedding".

Inheritance Significance

A unique craft in ancient China was introduced to the market due to the love and use of literati. At first, literati did not aim at the market, but appreciated and played for themselves. However, literati are a benchmark of society. Because of the promotion of literati, they have the pursuit of society and entered the market. On the subject matter, no matter landscapes, flowers, birds, fish and insects, most of them place their feelings on literati. Scholars pay attention to artistic conception, so many artistic conceptions of bamboo carving are very similar to Chinese painting. Because of the success of bamboo carving art, it profoundly affects the carving of ivory, rhinoceros horn, red sandalwood and yellow poplar, which all have the tendency of imitating bamboo.

Because of its limitations, the number of bamboo carving works of art, especially the fine ones, is much less than that of calligraphy and painting, so its collection value is quite high. In Beijing Museum, Taipei Palace Museum and Shanghai Museum, there are collections of representative bamboo carvings of Ming and Qing Dynasties. Since the 1980s, bamboo carving in the Ming and Qing Dynasties has formed a collection boom in Hong Kong, Taiwan and overseas markets, and its market development has affected the collection market in the Mainland of China. After bamboo carving art entered the market, large-scale auctions at home and abroad have repeatedly set a high record of bamboo carving art auction transactions.

Although bamboo carving is a small category of miscellaneous items, the overall auction turnover is high. Data show that from 1994 to September 2004, about 700 pieces of bamboo carvings were taken with verifiable data. The total turnover exceeded 30 million yuan, with a turnover rate of 47%. In the autumn of 2003, Jiade of China sold 100% of the 14 bamboo carving machines at the auction of "Li Song's longest living creature, Wang Shixiang, Yuan Yunyu's collection of Chinese artworks". More than half of the 14 bamboo carving machines sold were the highest in the past decade. For example, the old monk of Zhu Sansong's bamboo root carving in Ming Dynasty traded at 260,000 yuan in Qing Dynasty. The old monk of bamboo root carving and medicine picking traded for 572,000 yuan, while the pencil holder of Mingzhu Xiaosong's return dictionary traded for 1.1 million yuan.

Although bamboo carving is a small tool, it is often carefully carved. The traditional methods of bamboo carving include through carving, relief, round carving, etc. The creators not only have the skills of painting and calligraphy, but also have the skills of knife skill, which requires a high level of comprehensive literacy. Especially in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, there were many famous families with unique style. Therefore, for later Tibetans, the bamboo carvings from the late Ming Dynasty to the Qianlong Period of the Qing Dynasty were the most precious.

Protection of Works

The number of bamboo carvings handed down from generation to generation is relatively small. The main reason is that bamboo is perishable and difficult to preserve. The deteriorating factors include physical damage, chemical corrosion and biological damage. Collection protection of works is to take active and effective preventive measures against these harmful factors.

Bamboo carving works cause physical damage, there are internal factors and external conditions. The intrinsic factor is caused by the structural characteristics of bamboo. The wall of bamboo is thin tubular, and the vascular bundles are mainly composed of fibrous cells and ductal cells. The structural characteristics of this arrangement determine that the longitudinal contraction is small and the tangential contraction is large. In addition, the dense tissue of bamboo green, the loose tissue of bamboo muscle and bamboo yellow, and the expansion and contraction rates of outer, middle and inner layers of bamboo vary greatly. Wall structure, its chord tension, pressure difference. Under the influence of external conditions such as high temperature, humidity, dryness, mechanical pressure, tension and impact, bamboo carving works are cracked, cracked, discolored, carbonized and decayed. The way to prevent physical damage is to scrape off the green skin during processing. After bamboo is dried, it is sealed inside and outside with varnish or impregnated with clear oil to prevent sunlight exposure, high temperature and mechanical damage.

The chemical corrosion of bamboo carvings has no effect on the works under normal temperature, but the bamboo is exposed to chemicals for a long time, and the materials inhale acids, alkalis and salts, which are easy to be damp and lead to physical damage. At high temperature, acid, alkali and salt react with bamboo to cause discoloration, carbonization and decay. When bamboo is treated as insect control, acid, alkali and salt should not be used at high temperature. Painting is a preventive measure to isolate acid and alkali.

The biological damage of bamboo carving works is the most serious. The ingredients of bamboo include soluble sugar, starch, protein, fat and so on, which are the nutrients of insect fungi. There are three main links to prevent mildew and insect in bamboo carving: the precautionary measures, the treatment of insect control and sterilization during processing, and the protection measures for storage. Early prevention is to select bamboo species, age and harvesting season. New bamboo should be treated with extracts in time to reduce the breeding nutrients of bacteria and insects. Insect control and sterilization methods are physical and chemical treatment, such as using far infrared and baking technology to kill insects; or using nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas to replace oxygen in the air to achieve the effect of insect control; some use ultra-low temperature freezing method, sterilization effect is good, and no harm to the work. Chemical anti-mildew and anti-insect method is to use impregnation, brushing or pressure osmosis, or air fumigation, so that insecticides into the bamboo interior, to achieve the effect of killing insects and bacteria. Anti-insect agents include varnish, shellac paint, Tung oil, etc. Anti-corrosive agents can be prepared by mixing 12 parts of sodium fluosilicate, 19 parts of ammonia water and 500 parts of water, or adding varnish with 4% concentration of pentachloroaldehyde turpentachlorophenol varnish, which contains 0.2-0.5% pentachlorophenol varnish. The impregnating solutions are: anti-mildew impregnating solution, using sodium benzoate O.5 kg, adding 4.4 kg of water, bamboo immersing for 1 minute, can achieve the anti-mildew effect, and the timber color is better; in addition, using insecticidal orbital 1 part, tobrazine 1 part, 25 parts of water mixed liquid immersion, the anti-mildew effect is better. The pest control and mildew control liquid prepared in Quanzhou County of Guangxi is 0.125-o in concentration. Sodium arsenite 166% was injected into the pond and bamboo was immersed for 4 - 8 hours, which could control the disease. Indian scholars invented the world antiseptic "CCA" (copper, chromium, arsenic preservative), or the single salt copper sulfate and zinc oxide soaking antiseptic treatment in the medicament. The indoor anti-mildew and anti-insect effect can reach 25-30 years.

Storage and protection of bamboo carvings is a long-term work. Bamboo carvings are stored in good cabinets and put into insect-proof tablets such as camphor essence, keeping a certain temperature and humidity, isolating dust and flying insects, cleaning works regularly, and sterilizing collecting rooms regularly. According to the Zhurenlu Tibetan Law, "Brush the Raw tung oil once every two or three years, that is, wipe it with cotton cloth, take its moisturizing not dry, if the wind is hot, do not play, crack prevention. Its color is red as amber for the top, goose oil for the precious, black for the bottom. Collection of land, Sansong production so far intact, who is not a centuries old thing.

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