Avanti, also translated by the Albanian side, (Uygur "Mr." means, Arabic: Juha or Nazar Ding), is a person active in Islamic nationalities from Morocco in the west to Xinjiang in China. He travels to the poor people in the east, prevents the powerful and noble from exploiting the poor people, and prevents Mongolia from going westward.
In the legends of Central Asia and West Asia and Xinjiang, he was called Avati; the West Asia region was Narcildin or Narcildin. Legends in different regions often refer to him as a wise man or a mentor, such as Hogar, Mullah, Avati and so on.
Paul Mauriat's History
Whether there is an Avanti or not, and the area where the person is active, can not be ascertained from birth to death. It is generally assumed that he was active in Persia or Anatolia sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries. Today, in the city of Akehir in Turkey, there is also a mausoleum that is said to be the tomb of Nasirdin. At the same time, in Bukhara, Uzbekistan, there is also a sculpture of him, the image of a middle-aged man riding a donkey upside down. In Baku and Tabriz, travels written in his name are also said to have been found.
The Turpan people in Xinjiang insist that this optimistic, humorous and resourceful man of national excellence was born in an ancient village called Dafu Sangai village in the south of Putaogou. According to the introduction on the stone tablet of Avanti's former residence, he was born on June 5, 1777, and died on June 5, 1876 at the age of 100.
Avan proposed to be born in a poor peasant family. He finished his private primary school at the age of 6, began to study the Koran at the age of 11, and could translate Arabic books at the age of 17. Because of all kinds of fraudulent oppression and cruel exploitation of the people by Turpan, Bayi, wealthy merchants and religions, the labouring masses lived in deep water. Afanti had deep sympathy for the people and strong dissatisfaction with the exploiters, so he bravely stood up and fought against the dark forces. With his own wisdom and his own sharp language, he mercilessly satirizes the landlords and the rich in humorous jokes, and upholds justice for the common people.
Avanti's image: wearing a national flower cap, riding a donkey with back facing forward and back, has already been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. Avanti's laughter is also distinctive: mild and penetrating.
Avati is one of the most outstanding folk creations. Avati has been listed in the "image of world folk art".
Source of characters
According to various written records, Avanti was a philosopher, Turkish ancestor, brilliant, quick-thinking, humorous, traveling across the vast Ottoman Empire across Asia, Europe and Africa. In Baku and Tabriz, travels around the world written under his name have been found. His story originated from Turkic peoples, such as Turks and Uzbeks. In the past few centuries, it has spread all over the world from Central Asia, such as West Asia, North Africa, Persian-speaking regions, Xinjiang of China and Balkan countries of Europe. The social conditions depicted in his stories are concentrated in the past 700 years. Many interesting stories and philosophical fables with educational significance are recorded in his name and widely circulated. Therefore, according to their own preferences, the people of all countries call him "Jiuha" or "Nasser", the Arabs call him "Darvish", the Turks call him "Nasreddin Hogar", the Greeks call him "Koja Nasreddin", the Azerbaijanis, Afghanistan and Iran call him "Maura Nasreddin", and the Mullah. It means "imam" or the head of the Islamic Church. UNESCO once commemorated him in 1996 and designated that year as "Nasreddin Hoga Year", which expressed the importance of Islamic cultural celebrities.
Because the stories, legends, jokes, fables and anecdotes about Nasrudin come from all sides, and the mysterious legends are more than the real deeds, there is no way to verify the true life of this historical figure. The earliest written record of Nasrudin's interesting stories appeared in the 15th century. For example, a collection of folktales written by Abel-Kali in 1480 began to describe a humorous visiting scholar. Later, another author, Rami Salabi, published a collection of stories Letaif before 1531. According to the author, Nasrudin was born in Axhill, northwest Turkey. He was an interesting scholar who traveled all over the country and was a student of the Said Hailani School.
In many historians'works, the life records of Nasreddin appear, but they are quite different. European scholars believe that Rami Salabi's records are reliable because he visited Nasrudin's mausoleum in Axhill and proved that he was a contemporary of the Turkish King Timur (1336-1405).
In the nineteenth century, there was an author, Mufti Hasain Ifendiimam of Sivrihisar, south of Ankara. In his records, the Nasreddins were born in that city in 1208 and died in 1284, buried in Axhill, more than a hundred years ahead of his life.
According to the Ifendi Ima, Nasrudin was educated in two cities, Sivrihisar and Konia, specializing in Islamic jurisprudence. After his successful studies, he came to Konia to study the theory of Islamic Sufism with the then university student Mauravi Lumi. He was a great disciple of Said Helani all his life, so he settled down in Axhill, married and married, became a local imam, and later served as a local judge. Therefore, his main stories, legends and anecdotes were all set in Axhill.
Another version of his biography says that he was born at the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in Hotu village, a suburb of Sivrihisar, in Anatolia, a highly developed Turkish culture, where many famous scholars have appeared in history. Nasrudin was born and educated there. He enjoyed a unique cultural environment. He leaned under the most knowledgeable teachers and became wealthy. He was respected for visiting, traveling and lecturing in the surrounding areas. He was buried in Axhill, near Konia, Turkey's famous academic base. In front of his mausoleum there was a large iron door, which was heavily locked and permanently closed, but no one who visited the tomb had to bear the burden because there were no walls around his mausoleum.
Storytelling was the cultural tradition of the Turkish era, so around the various stories and legends of Nasrudin, it spread rapidly from Turkey to all the territory of the Ottoman Empire, from the Arab region of West Asia to the countries of North Africa, and Nasrudin became a common literary role in the empire. The more stories he told, the more magical he became. Thousands of versions of his stories appeared in various languages in the imperial territory, such as Turkic, Arabic, Persian and Albanian. Various versions of stories may not be exactly the same, because those stories have become local customs and habits, expressing the literary form that the local people like. Around the Empire of that year, local people could be heard telling their "Avati stories" in local languages around storytellers, such as Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Morocco, Albania, Azerbaijani, Bosnia, Bangladesh, India, Pashto, Persia, Urdu and Uygur, all the way to the Great Northwest of China.
In terms of content, the theme is to persuade good and abstain from evil. Every story has profound connotations and educational significance. For example, satirizing and sarcastic people who are morally corrupt and selfish, have clear love and hatred, and express the common people's desire to reward good and punish evil. Although there are written stories in various countries, which can be read by literate people, Nasrudin's stories are basically oral literature, so all countries record the stories in colloquial language. With the development of the times, new stories have been added, and in the cultural exchanges of the Muslim world, stories of different countries have crossed national boundaries and been absorbed by other nationalities. Therefore, the "Avati" in any place has the integration of foreign content and has become the world literature of Islam. Whether it's Nasrudin or Avati or any other name, people commemorate this historical celebrity and attribute thousands of stories to his name, but in essence, hundreds of millions of Muslim folk creations around the world have concentrated the collective intelligence of Muslims all over the world. Here is just one example to illustrate the humorous, implicit and philosophical nature of Nasrudin's story.
There are different opinions as to whether Nasreddin Avanti is a real historical figure or a fictional figure spread among the people. However, after hundreds of years of research and textual research, historians should live in the twelfth to thirteenth centuries, which is consistent. However, his "nationality" is still unclear. Uygurs say that he was born in Kashgar, Xinjiang, China in the twelfth century. Uzbeks say that he was born in Bukhara, Uzbekistan. Arabs say that he was born in Baghdad, Iraq. Turks say that he was born in Akshehr, southwestern Turkey, where he visited his mausoleum. His tombstone reads: "Nasreddin Hoga, a Turkish, was born in 128 and died in 1318. He was an Islamic educator, a teacher, and a worshiper of the Mecca Mosque for public worship. He is a well-remembered, well-informed, well-judged, well-regulated exporter who makes it difficult for tens of thousands of people to deal with.
In addition, the famous Turkish writer and poet Lamii (born in an ominous year and died between 1531 and 1532) recorded Nasreddin Avati's jokes as early as the sixteenth century and edited them into a book entitled "Funny Stories". From this point of view, Nasreddin Avati is more likely to be Turkish.
The name of Nasreddin Avanti is known by Turks as "Nasreddin Hogar" (also known as "Hogar Nasreddin") out of respect for him. The Caucasus and Iran call him "Mullah Nasreddin". Xinjiang, China, Uzbekistan and other places called him "Nasreddin Avati". The word "Mawla" is an Arabic transliteration, which originally means "protector" and "master". It is a Muslim honorific title for Islamic teachers. "Hoja" and "Apandi" are both derived from Turkic. The former means "teacher" and "tutor", which are honorary terms for people with knowledge and profound knowledge. The latter means "sir" and "teacher", and generally refers to a learned person. It is a general term for a man. In our country, the majority of Han readers used to call him "Avati". In fact, this is not accurate and complete.
In the minds of the people, Avati is the embodiment of wisdom and joy, as long as his name is mentioned, people with sad faces will start to laugh. He laughed at the foolishness of the world, the speculative businessmen, the bribery judges, the hypocritical mullahs, and the heinous society, which made the greedy Baiyi lords and kings afraid... In a word, he laughed at the hypocrites who sucked the blood of the poor under the cover of religious laws they had created to cheat.
Chinese Uygur witty character story. A series of legends about Nasreddin Avati
Uygur folk humorous stories with characters as the main characters. The image of Avati is an idealized figure created by the Uygur working people in their struggle against the reactionary ruling class and feudal secular ideas of the past dynasties. He was industrious, brave, humorous, optimistic, wise and just, and dared to despise the reactionary ruling class and all decadent forces. On him, he embodies the quality of the working people and the clear feelings of love and hatred, reflects the interests and aspirations of the working people, and is an artistic image deeply loved by the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The story of Avati has been circulating among the ethnic minorities in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for hundreds of years, and it is well known among the Uygur people. These stories are wide-ranging in subject matter, ingenious in conception, concise in speech and full of wit. Most of them have distinct class standpoints and working people's right and wrong concepts. Since 1958, China has published 14 versions of Avati's Story in five languages: Han, Uygur, Mongolian, Kazakh and Tibetan. Among them, the edition edited by Ge Baoquan, with 393 income stories, is a relatively complete version so far. Afghanistan, Turkey and other countries also widely spread the story of Avati.
Avanti is not a fiction, but a real historical figure. His real name is Hogar Nasreddin; others call him Nasreddin Avati or Mullah Nasreddin. "Avanti" is not a person's name, just like "Hogar" and "Mullah", it is a person's honorable name. "Avati" means "sir", "teacher", "Hoga" and "Mullah" are the honorary names of Islamic religious figures.
Avanti's hometown is not Xinjiang, but Turkey in the 13th century. He was born in Holto village in southwestern Turkey in 605 Huili, 1028 or 1029 A.D. Like his father, he had been a worshiper of public worship in mosques, and was also a theologian proficient in Islam. A portrait of him is still in the museum in Istanbul, Turkey. He had a long beard, a big head wrap, and was riding on a small donkey. It is said that his way of riding a donkey is very special, with his back facing forward and his face facing backward. He explained to his students that if I ride on a donkey face-to-face, you will fall behind me; if you walk in front of me, I can only see your back, so I chose the best way to ride a donkey, that is, to ride back, face back, so that all the problems can be solved, and it is easier to look at the people who are talking, so it will appear. More polite.
Avanti lived to the age of 77, and finally died in Aksheir City in southern Turkey. His grave still exists today. It is said that his grave was built on the basis of his last joke, his last words. His grave was not buried in the soil, but built on four pillars. The pillars were empty and no walls were built, but on the front door of the cemetery, two large wooden locks were installed. Anyone who came here would not laugh.
Avanti told countless stories in his life. He laughed at people's ignorance and ignorance, satirized the absurdity and cruelty of the rulers, and praised the hard work and wisdom of the working people with clever, witty and humorous language. Therefore, for hundreds of years, Avati's jokes and stories have been circulating among the people of all nationalities.
Like all wise men, he was loved by the people. Avati, which was filmed in 1979 in China, has been talked about by people. He was also clever and just with Moses, the Pharaoh of the Bible.
Here we can also see the determination of everyone to yearn for the bright future and punish the evil forces. Like Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Avati symbolizes justice in the well-known stories of women and children in China and around the world. He is the crystallization of our nation's wisdom. What's more, it's our treasure, infinite cultural treasure!
The funny and humorous image of riding a donkey upside down and the jokes that make people laugh are well known not only to the Uygur people in China, but also to the people of all nationalities throughout the country, and widely circulated around the world. According to the experts concerned, it originated in Turkey in the 12th century. Because Avati's joke exposed the ruling man's ferocious greed, mocked some people's ignorance, embodied the working people's industrious, optimistic, open-minded, upward-looking, wisdom and sense of justice, and it was humorous, sarcastic, spicy, vivid, rich in content, popular, and therefore loved by many people, spread all over Asia Minor, Western Asia and the Balkans. Island, Caucasus, Central Asia and Xinjiang, China. Now it has been translated into English, Russian, German, French, Japanese and other literature. Some people call Avanti a "cosmic master of humour". I don't think that's too much. It is said that Avati jokes can be heard in more than 40 languages in the world. In the course of its spread, it is also mixed with the stories of witty people like Avanti in various countries, so that it can hardly be distinguished. The jokes, anecdotes and funny stories about Avati have become the common spiritual wealth of the people in the vast area.